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Test Code : 300-101
Test title : Implementing Cisco IP Routing (ROUTE v2.0)
Vendor title : Cisco
real questions : 750 actual Questions

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Implementing Cisco IP Routing (ROUTE v2.0) book

booklet Extract: imposing Cisco Unified Communications | 300-101 actual Questions and VCE rehearse Test

Chapter 1, picking concerns in a Multisite Deployment

Deploying Cisco Unified Communications manager between dissimilar sites requires an acceptable dial plan, acceptable bandwidth, a top trait of carrier (QoS) implementation and a design that may live on IP WAN failures.

This chapter will clarify the concerns that can arise in a multisite Cisco UC manager deployment, and imply specific options.

picking out concerns in a Multisite DeploymentTable of contents:1. Multisite deployment problem overview2. first-class challenges3. Bandwidth challenges4. Availability challenges5. Dial contrivance challenges6. Overlapping and nonconsecutive numbers7. fastened versus variable-length numbering plans8. Variable-size numbering, E.164 addressing and DID9. Optimized title routing and PSTN backup10. NAT and protection issues

Multisite deployment problem overview

previously known as Cisco call manager (CCM), Cisco Unified Communications supervisor (CUCM) multi-web site deployment challenges can encompass the following:

  • excellent considerations: true-time communications of voice and video must subsist prioritized over a packet-switching network. utter traffic is handled equally through default in routers and switches. Voice and video are lengthen-delicate packets that necessity to occupy delivery of priority to steer pellucid of lengthen and jitter (variable extend), which would result in diminished voice best.
  • Bandwidth concerns: Cisco Unified Communications (Cisco UC) can encompass voice and video streams, signaling site visitors, administration traffic, and utility traffic comparable to wealthy media conferencing. The additional bandwidth it's required when deploying a Cisco Unified Communications answer needs to subsist calculated and provisioned for to construct positive that statistics purposes and Cisco Unified Communications purposes don't overload the purchasable bandwidth. Bandwidth reservations can subsist made to functions through QoS deployment.
  • Availability concerns: When deploying Cisco Unified Communications manager (CUCM) with centralized call processing, IP telephones register with CUCM over the IP LAN and probably over the WAN. If gateways in far flung sites are using Media Gateway manage Protocol (MGCP) as a signaling protocol, they additionally depend on the provision of CUCM performing as an MGCP call agent. it is vital to implement fallback options for IP telephones and gateways in eventualities through which the connection to the CUCM servers is damaged as a result of IP WAN failure. Fallback solutions additionally apply to H.323 gateways however are already created with H.323 dial friends in a amend H.323 gateway configuration.
  • Dial contrivance issues: directory numbers (DN) can overlap throughout diverse websites. Overlapping dial plans and nonconsecutive numbers can subsist solved by pass of designing a robust multisite dial plan. avoid overlapping numbers throughout websites on every occasion feasible for a less complicated design.
  • NAT and security issues: using private IP addresses within an commercial enterprise IP community is awfully ordinary. internet Telephony carrier providers (ITSP) require wonderful public IP addresses to route IP mobile calls. The private IP addresses inside the enterprise should subsist translated into public IP addresses. Public IP addresses construct the IP telephones seen from the cyber web and hence discipline to assaults.
  • great challenges

    IP networks had been now not originally designed to raise precise-time site visitors; in its place, they had been designed for resiliency and frailty tolerance. each packet is processed one after the other in an IP community, every so often inflicting distinctive packets in a communications circulation to occupy several paths to the destination. The distinctive paths in the community may moreover beget a special amount of packet loss, delay, and lengthen version (jitter) as a result of bandwidth, distance, and congestion differences. The vacation spot must subsist capable of salvage hold of packets out of order and resequence these packets. This challenge is solved by the exhaust of precise-Time Transport Protocol (RTP) sequence numbers and site visitors resequencing. When possible, it's foremost to now not rely completely on these RTP mechanisms. suitable community design, the usage of Cisco router Cisco specific Forwarding (CEF) switch cache know-how, performs per-vacation spot load sharing by means of default. Per-destination load sharing isn't an example load-balancing paradigm, however ensures that each and every IP flux (voice call) takes the same course.

    Bandwidth is shared by varied clients and purposes, whereas the amount of bandwidth required for a person IP movement varies enormously utter through brief lapses of time. Most statistics purposes are very bursty, whereas Cisco true-time audio communications with RTP exhaust the same continual-bandwidth movement. The bandwidth purchasable for any application, together with CUCM and voice-bearer traffic, is unpredictable. perquisite through top intervals, packets necessity to subsist buffered in queues waiting to subsist processed on account of network congestion. Queuing is a time term that any person who has ever skilled air flight is widely wide-spread with. in case you arrive at the airport, you must salvage in a line (queue), since the variety of ticket agents (bandwidth) available to determine you in is below the flux of site visitors arriving at the ticket counters (incoming IP traffic). If congestion occurs for too long, the queue (packet buffers) gets crammed up, and passengers are irritated (packets are dropped). bigger queuing delays and packet drops are greater doubtless on enormously loaded, slow-speed links reminiscent of WAN hyperlinks used between sites in a multisite environment. first-rate challenges are benchmark on these sorts of hyperlinks, and you necessity to deal with them by imposing QoS. with out the exhaust of QoS, voice packets adventure extend, jitter, and packet loss, impacting voice high-quality. it is censorious to correctly configure Cisco QoS mechanisms conclusion to conclude perquisite through the community for germane audio and video performance.

    This chapter became excerpted with permissions from imposing Cisco Unified Communications manager, allotment 2, by means of Chris Olsen, Copyright 2008. For extra assistance about this publication and other titles, please dispute with Cisco Press.

    all the pass through peak intervals, packets can't subsist despatched automatically on account of interface congestion. as a substitute, the packets are quickly stored in a queue, waiting to subsist processed. The amount of time the packet waits within the queue, called the queuing delay, can disagree tremendously in response to community situations and traffic arrival rates. If the queue is full, newly received packets cannot subsist buffered anymore and salvage dropped (tail drop). device 1-1 illustrates tail drop. Packets are processed on a first in, first out (FIFO) mannequin in the hardware queue of utter router interfaces. Voice conversations are predictable and incessant (sampling is each 20 milliseconds via default), but records purposes are bursty and grasping. Voice for this reason is subject to degradation of best on account of lengthen, jitter, and packet loss.

    figure 1-1

    click for a bigger image

    Bandwidth challenges

    each and every web site in a multisite deployment continually is interconnected by using an IP WAN, or on occasion by pass of a metropolitan-enviornment network (MAN) comparable to Metro Ethernet. Bandwidth on WAN hyperlinks is restricted and comparatively expensive. The goal is to construct exhaust of the obtainable bandwidth as correctly as possible. useless traffic should silent subsist removed from the IP WAN hyperlinks via content material filtering, firewalls, and access manage lists (ACL). IP WAN acceleration methods for bandwidth optimization should silent subsist regarded as well. Any duration of congestion might outcome in carrier degradation until QoS is deployed utter the pass through the community.

    Voice streams are constant and predictable for Cisco audio packets. usually, the G.729 codec is used across the WAN to optimum exhaust bandwidth. As a assessment, the G.711 audio codec requires 64 kbps, whereas packetizing the G.711 voice pattern in an IP/UDP/RTP header every 20 ms requires 16 kbps plus the Layer 2 header overhead.

    Voice is sampled each 20 ms, leading to 50 packets per second (pps). The IP header is 20 bytes, whereas the UDP header is eight bytes, and the RTP header is 12 bytes. The 40 bytes of header assistance ought to subsist converted to bits to device out the packet fee of the overhead. because a byte has 8 bits, forty bytes * eight bits in a byte = 320 bits. The 320 bits are despatched 50 times per second based on the 20-ms expense (1 millisecond is 1/a thousand of a 2nd, and 20/1000 = .02). So:

    .02 * 50 = 1 second320 bits * 50 = sixteen,000 bits/sec, or 16 kbps

    Voice packets are benign compared to the bandwidth consumed by pass of records purposes. facts functions can fill the total highest transmission unit (MTU) of an Ethernet frame (1518 bytes or 9216 bytes if jumbo Ethernet frames beget been enabled). In evaluation to records software packets, voice packets are very wee (60 bytes for G.729 and 200 bytes for G.711 with the default 20-ms sampling price).

    In device 1-2, a conference bridge has been deployed at the leading web site. No conference bridge exists on the far off web page. If three IP telephones at a far flung site subsist a allotment of a convention, their RTP streams are sent across the WAN to the convention bridge. The conference bridge, whether the usage of application or hardware resources, mixes the got audio streams and then sends back three wonderful unicast audio streams to the IP telephones over the IP WAN. The conference bridge eliminates the receiver's voice from his or her attractive RTP circulation so that the consumer does not experience reverberate as a result of the extend of traversing the WAN hyperlink and mixing RTP audio streams within the convention bridge.

    figure 1-2

    click on for a larger image

    Centralized convention supplies trigger bandwidth, lengthen, and means challenges in the voice network. each and every G.711 RTP flux requires 80 kbps (plus the Layer 2 overhead), resulting in 240 kbps of IP WAN bandwidth consumption by means of this voice convention. If the conference bridge were not organize on the other facet of the IP WAN, this traffic would no longer deserve to traverse the WAN hyperlink, leading to much less prolong and bandwidth consumption. If the remote web site had a CUCM spot configuration that resulted in calls with the G.729 codec again to the main website, the software conferencing resources of CUCM would not subsist able to combine the audio conversations. Hardware conferencing or hardware transcoder media supplies in a voice gateway are required to accommodate G.729 audio conferencing. local hardware convention supplies would salvage rid of this need. utter centrally discovered media resources (tune On hang [MOH], annunciator, convention bridges, videoconferencing, and media termination aspects) endure identical bandwidth, delay, and useful resource exhaustion challenges.

    Availability challenges

    When deploying CUCM in multisite environments, centralized CUCM-based mostly functions are accessed over the IP WAN. Affected functions consist of here:

  • Signaling in CUCM multisite deployments with centralized call processing: far off Cisco IP phones register with a centralized CUCM server. far flung MGCP gateways are controlled by means of a centralized CUCM server that acts as an MGCP call agent.
  • Signaling in CUCM multisite deployments with dispensed title processing: In such environments, sites are related via H.323 (non-gatekeeper-managed, gatekeeper-controlled, or H.225) or Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) trunks.
  • Media trade: RTP streams between endpoints observed at distinctive sites.
  • other features: These encompass Cisco IP mobilephone Extensible Markup Language (XML) capabilities and access to purposes corresponding to attendant console, CUCM Assistant, and others.
  • determine 1-3 indicates a Unified Communications community in which the main web page is linked to a far off web page through a centralized call-processing atmosphere. The main web site is additionally connected to a remote cluster through an intercluster trunk (ICT) representing a disbursed call processing ambiance. The aggregate of both centralized and disbursed call processing represents a hybrid name-processing mannequin during which wee websites exhaust the CUCM supplies of the leading web page, but large far off workplaces beget their personal CUCM cluster. On the bottom left of determine 1-three is a SIP trunk, typically over a Metro Ethernet connection to an online Telephony carrier provider (ITSP). The odds of the SIP trunk is that the ITSP gives the gateways to the PSTN as an alternative of your presenting gateways at the leading site.

    figure 1-3

    click for a larger graphic

    An IP WAN outage in device 1-three will antecedent an outage of call-processing services for the far off web page related in a centralized trend. The remote cluster will not endure a name-processing outage, however the remote cluster aren't able to dial the main website over the IP WAN utter over the outage. Mission-critical voice applications (voice mail, interactive voice response [IVR], and the like) determined at the main web page could subsist unavailable to any of the other sites utter the pass through the WAN outage.

    If the ITSP is the exhaust of the same hyperlinks that enable IP WAN connectivity, utter calls to and from the public switched telephone community (PSTN) will moreover subsist unavailable.

    A deployment relish the one shown in determine 1-three is regarded badly designed as a result of the shortcoming of IP WAN and PSTN backup.

    Dial contrivance challenges

    In a multisite deployment, with a solitary or distinctive CUCM clusters, dial contrivance design requires the distinction of a number of concerns that attain not exist in single-website deployments:

  • Overlapping numbers: users organize at several sites can beget the identical listing numbers assigned. because directory numbers continually are pleasing best inside a site, a multisite deployment requires an answer for overlapping numbers.
  • Nonconsecutive numbers: Contiguous levels of numbers are essential to summarize call-routing assistance, analogous to contiguous IP address degrees for route summarization. Such blocks will moreover subsist represented via one or a couple of entries in a call-routing table, comparable to route patterns, dial peer destination patterns, and voice translation suggestions, which withhold the routing table brief and easy. If every endpoint requires its personal entry within the name-routing desk, the table gets too big, lots of reminiscence is required, and lookups occupy greater time. therefore, nonconsecutive numbers at any website don't seem to subsist most efficient for efficient title routing.
  • Variable-length numbering: Some international locations, such as the U.S. and Canada, beget mounted-length numbering plans for PSTN numbers. Others, similar to Mexico and England, beget variable-length numbering plans. an issue with variable-size numbers is that the comprehensive length of the quantity dialed may moreover subsist determined simplest through the CUCM route contrivance by looking ahead to the interdigit timeout. anticipating the interdigit timeout, common because the T.302 timer, adds to the submit-dial extend, which may irk users.
  • Direct inward dialing (DID) degrees and E.164 addressing: When when you consider that integration with the PSTN, internally used listing numbers ought to subsist concerning external PSTN numbers (E.164 addressing). counting on the numbering contrivance (fixed or variable) and features offered with the aid of the PSTN, perquisite here options are standard:
  • each and every interior directory number pertains to a set-size PSTN number: in this case, each interior listing number has its personal dedicated PSTN number. The listing number can, but doesn't should, suit the least-colossal digits of the PSTN number. In nations with a fixed numbering plan, such as the North American Numbering contrivance (NANP), this usually skill that the 4-digit office codes are used as interior listing numbers. If these are not enjoyable, digits of office codes or administratively assigned web site codes could subsist delivered, resulting in five or extra digits getting used for inside listing numbers.

    one other answer is to now not reuse any digits of the PSTN quantity however to effectively map each internally used listing quantity to any PSTN quantity assigned to the enterprise. in this case, the inside and external numbers attain not necessity anything else in typical. If the internally used listing number matches the least-significant digits of its corresponding PSTN quantity, huge digits may moreover subsist set at the gateway or trunk. additionally, commonplace exterior cell quantity masks, transformation masks, or prefixes can moreover subsist configured. here is proper as a result of utter inner directory numbers are changed to totally certified PSTN numbers within the equal means. a different instance is if the internal directory quantity consists of constituents of the PSTN number and administratively assigned digits similar to site codes plus PSTN station codes, or distinctive ranges, such as PSTN station codes 4100 to 4180 that map to listing numbers 1100 to 1180, or absolutely independent mappings of inside listing numbers to PSTN numbers. in that case, one or more translation guidelines beget to subsist used for incoming calls, and one or greater calling birthday party transformation rules, transformation masks, external mobile quantity masks, or prefixes ought to subsist configured.

  • No DID assist in fixed-size numbering plans: To abide away from the requirement of 1 PSTN number per interior directory quantity when the exhaust of a fixed-size numbering plan, it's common to disallow DID to an extension. in its place, the PSTN trunk has a solitary number, and utter PSTN calls routed to that number are despatched to an attendant, auto-attendant, receptionist, or secretary. From there, the calls are transferred to the applicable interior extension.
  • internal directory numbers are a allotment of a variable-size quantity: In countries with variable-size numbering plans, a customarily shorter "subscriber" number is assigned to the PSTN trunk, however the PSTN routes utter calls beginning with this number to the trunk. The caller can add digits to identify the extension. There is no fixed variety of additional digits or complete digits. youngsters, there is a highest, always 32 digits, which offers the license to opt for the size of listing numbers. This optimum length may moreover subsist much less. as an example, in E.164 the optimum number is 15 digits, not including the nation code. A caller conveniently provides the acceptable extension to the enterprise's (short) PSTN number when inserting a call to a specific user. If most efficient the short PSTN number devoid of an extension is dialed, the call is routed to an attendant within the enterprise. Residential PSTN numbers are constantly longer and attain not permit additional digits to subsist added; the function simply described is purchasable best on trunks.
  • type of quantity (TON) in ISDN: The calling quantity (the computerized number Identification [ANI]) of calls being bought from the PSTN will moreover subsist represented in alternative ways:

    - As a seven-digit subscriber number- As a ten-digit quantity, together with the area code- In overseas format with the country code in front of the area code

    To standardize the ANI for utter calls, the layout that's used beget to subsist favourite, and the quantity must subsist transformed hence.

  • Optimized call routing: Having an IP WAN between websites with PSTN access at utter websites permits PSTN toll bypass through sending calls between websites over the IP WAN instead of using the PSTN. In such scenarios, the PSTN should silent subsist used as a backup path simplest in case of WAN failure. a different solution, which extends the thought of toll pass and might potentially in the reduction of toll fees, is to additionally exhaust the IP WAN for PSTN calls. With tail-conclusion hop-off (TEHO), the IP WAN is used as an Awful lot as possible, and the gateway that is closest to the dialed PSTN vacation spot is used for the PSTN breakout.
  • Overlapping and nonconsecutive numbers

    In determine 1-four, Cisco IP phones at the leading website exhaust listing numbers 1001 to 1099, 2000 to 2157, and 2365 to 2999. at the faraway web page, 1001 to 1099 and 2158 to 2364 are used. These listing numbers beget two concerns. First, 1001 to 1099 overlap; these listing numbers exist at each websites, so that they aren't exciting throughout the complete deployment. This reasons an issue: If a person in the remote website dialed handiest the 4 digits 1001, which mobile would ring? This situation of overlapping dial plans must subsist addressed by digit manipulation. moreover, the nonconsecutive exhaust of the achieve 2000 to 2999 (with some duplicate numbers on the two websites) would require a major number of extra entries in name-routing tables since the stages can hardly subsist summarized by means of one (or a few) entries.

    determine 1-four

    click for a bigger photograph

    fixed versus variable-length numbering plans

    a fixed numbering contrivance elements fastened-size area codes and endemic numbers. An open numbering contrivance facets variance in length of area code or endemic quantity, or both, within the country.

    desk 1-1 contrasts the NANP and a variable-size numbering contrivance -- Germany's numbering contrivance during this illustration.

    desk 1-1

    component Description fixed Numbering contrivance (NANP) Variable-length Numbering contrivance (Germany) country code A code of 1 to three digits is used to attain the particular cell system for each nation or special carrier. obtain the E.164 commonplace from to peer utter overseas country codes. 1 forty nine area code Used inside many countries to route calls to a selected city, area, or particular service. reckoning on the nation or region, it may moreover subsist called a numbering contrivance area, subscriber trunk dialing code, country wide destination code, or routing code. Three digits Three to 5 digits Subscriber quantity Represents the selected mobile quantity to subsist dialed, nevertheless it doesn't consist of the nation code, enviornment code (if applicable), exotic prefix, or trunk prefix. Three-digit exchange code plus a four-digit station code Three or greater digits Trunk prefix The initial digits to subsist dialed in a home name, before the enviornment code and the subscriber number. 1 0 entry code a host it really is traditionally dialed first "to salvage out to the PSTN," utilized in PBXs and VoIP methods. 90 international prefix The code dialed before an international quantity (nation code, area code if any, after which subscriber number). 011 00 or + (+ is used via cell phones)


  • in the U.S.: 9-1-408-555-1234 or 1-555-1234 (inside the same area code)
  • U.S. to Germany: 9-011-forty nine-404-132670
  • inside Germany: 0-0-404-132670 or 0-132670 (within the same area code)
  • Germany to the U.S.: 0-00-1-408-555-1234 (note: the 1 in 00-1-408 is the U.S. country code, not the trunk prefix.)
  • The NANP PSTN number is 408-555-1234, DID is not used, and utter calls positioned to the main site are handled with the aid of an attendant. there's a faraway site in Germany with the E.164 PSTN number +49 404 13267. four-digit extensions are used on the German area, and DID is allowed because digits can subsist introduced to the PSTN quantity. When calling the German office attendant (not realizing a selected extension), U.S. clients would dial 9-011-forty nine-404-13267. notice how the + is changed by the overseas prefix 011 and the access code 9. If the cell with extension 1001 may silent subsist referred to as without delay, 9-011-49-404-13267-1001 must subsist dialed.

    Variable-size numbering, E.164 addressing and DID

    determine 1-5 illustrates an instance through which the main web page with CUCM resides within the U.S. and a far flung site with out CUCM resides in Germany. The NANP PSTN number in the U.S. is 408-555-1234. note that DID isn't used, as a result of utter calls positioned to the leading web page are handled with the aid of an attendant. A far flung site in Germany has PSTN number +49 404 13267. four-digit extensions are used at the German area, and DID is allowed as a result of digits will moreover subsist added to the PSTN number. When calling the German workplace attendant (now not knowing a particular extension), U.S. clients would dial 9-011-49-404-13267. If the cellphone with extension 1001 should subsist referred to as without delay, 9-011-49-404-13267-1001 has to subsist dialed.

    figure 1-5

    click for a larger graphic

    The noble judgment of routing calls by means of CUCM over the WAN or in the course of the PSTN is accurately pellucid to the mobilephone user.

    Optimized call routing and PSTN backup

    There are two how to store expenses for PSTN calls in a multisite deployment:

  • complete bypass: Calls between websites within a firm that exhaust the IP WAN as a substitute of the PSTN. The PSTN is used for intersite calls most efficient if calls over the IP WAN don't seem to subsist possible—both as a result of a WAN failure or since the call is not admitted by using title Admission manage (CAC).
  • Tail-conclusion hop-off (TEHO): Extends the thought of toll pass via additionally the exhaust of the IP WAN for calls to the far off destinations in the PSTN. With TEHO, the IP WAN is used as a lot as viable, and PSTN breakout happens on the gateway it is determined closest to the dialed PSTN vacation spot. endemic PSTN breakout is used as a backup in case of IP WAN or CAC.
  • within the instance proven in determine 1-6, a title from Chicago to San Jose would subsist routed as follows:

  • The Chicago CUCM specific person dials 9-1-408-555-6666, a PSTN phone located in San Jose.
  • The title is routed from Chicago CUCM express Router to the San Jose CUCM cluster over the IP WAN with either SIP or H.323.
  • The San Jose CUCM routes the title to the San Jose gateway, which breaks out to the PSTN with what now turns into a endemic budget friendly title to the San Jose PSTN.
  • The San Jose PSTN valuable office routes the call, and the mobile rings.
  • figure 1-6

    click on for a larger image

    If the WAN were unavailable for any intent before the name, the Chicago Gateway would necessity to subsist effectively configured to route the call with the appropriate digit manipulation during the PSTN at a doubtlessly bigger toll imbue to the San Jose PSTN telephone.

    NAT and security issues

    In single-site deployments, CUCM servers and IP phones constantly exhaust inner most IP addresses as a result of there isn't any should talk with the outside IP world. NAT isn't configured for the phone subnets, and attacks from the outside are not possible. In multisite deployments, although, IP protection (IPsec) digital deepest network (VPN) tunnels will moreover subsist used between sites. The VPN tunnels permit only intersite verbal exchange; access to the included inside networks is not feasible from the outside—best from the different web page during the tunnel. therefore, attacks from the backyard are blocked at the gateway. To configure IPsec VPNs, the VPN tunnel ought to subsist configured to terminate on both gateways within the diverse websites. on occasion this is now not viable; for example, both websites may subsist under distinctive administration, or perhaps security guidelines don't allow the configuration of IPsec VPNs.

    In one of these case, or when connecting to a public carrier similar to an ITSP, NAT must subsist configured for CUCM servers and IP phones. Cisco calls this Hosted NAT Traversal for Session border Controllers.

    In device 1-7, enterprise A and company B each exhaust IP community internally. To speak over the information superhighway, the deepest addresses are translated into public IP addresses. company A uses public IP network A, and company B uses public IP community B. utter CUCM servers and IP telephones may moreover subsist reached from the information superhighway and talk with each and every different.

    As soon as CUCM servers and IP phones may moreover subsist reached with public IP addresses, they are discipline to attacks from the outdoor world, introducing competencies protection concerns.

    figure 1-7

    click for a bigger photo

    This down load first appeared at

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