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Bluetooth: The way forward for wireless scientific technology? | 3M0-250 exam Cram and PDF Download

firstly published MDDI February 2002

scientific ELECTRONICS

a brand new technology that borrows from telemetry, IrDA, and 802.11 is set to continue the instant vogue.

William E. Saltzstein

clinical equipment designers now have a number of instant alternate options for his or her products. No single wireless technology meets all design goals and addresses the entire issues presented to designers. For each design undertaking that comprises instant expertise, selections must be made to establish most the appropriate technologies for that software and equipment-use mannequin. for a lot of purposes, Bluetooth instant technology may be the most acceptable choice.

Bluetooth, while it's in no way the accepted answer to all wireless needs, addresses many of the efficiency requirements selected to clinical applications, and it is a very respectable slot in use fashions traumatic excessive mobility, long battery lifestyles, and no infrastructure guide. Bluetooth does greater than comfortably eliminate cables; it provides entry to a wide range of average contraptions and communications alternate options, together with the formation of small networks. Bluetooth permits extra communications hyperlinks by using offering access to vast-area networking via cellular telephone facts communications in addition to typical Ethernet native-area networks.

the commercial, Scientific, and clinical (ISM) radio-frequency (RF) band inside which Bluetooth operates is shared by using several instant applied sciences. clinical gadgets have to undergo immunity testing for compatibility with different ISM gadgets. because Bluetooth uses the bottom transmit vigor of the instant applied sciences, it has the bottom probability of interference. Many organizations have examined coexistence issues among ISM applied sciences and concluded that there is little trigger for difficulty in specific use.

BLUETOOTH: A RELATIVE NEWCOMER

Bluetooth is the most accurate in a string of attainable wireless technologies. IrDA (overseen by way of the Infrared machine affiliation), telemetry, 802.eleven, and home RF all preceded it. every know-how has its personal certain benefits and drawbacks, and Bluetooth borrows from every of them.

Bluetooth originated as a cable replacement technology primarily targeted at personal, transportable computing and communications machine, akin to own digital assistants, cell phones, and laptop computer systems. The expertise makes feasible now not best substitute of standard factor-to-factor cabling (with minimal affect in can charge and power), however additionally the short and simple introduction of small advert hoc networks of instruments, or piconets.

The Bluetooth specification become created jointly with the aid of Ericsson, IBM, Intel, Nokia, and Toshiba and was named after the tenth- century Danish Viking king Harald "Bluetooth" Blatand, who united the warring factions of Denmark and Norway. a main purpose of the Bluetooth specification is to create a really foreign regular to be applied identically worldwide. to this point, this intention is being met.

nowadays, Bluetooth know-how has a following of greater than 2500 groups. The initial founders were joined by such companies as 3COM, Lucent, Microsoft, and Motorola. items incorporating Bluetooth wireless technology are actually transport from many groups. closing 12 months, the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) adopted Bluetooth because the groundwork for its very own-enviornment community (PAN) ordinary 802.15.

THE RADIO expertise

As detailed by using Bluetooth, the basic radio to be used transmits 10 m in open air (despite the fact present implementations function smartly at enormously more suitable latitude), with an non-compulsory energy level to permit 100-m operation. With a complete bandwidth of 1 Mb/sec, the radio is designed for reasonable velocity and a theoretical 720 Kb/sec payload, dividing up the bandwidth among the many instruments the usage of records and voice channels. The know-how helps eight instruments on a piconet.

The Bluetooth radio became designed for immunity to noise and for ease of implementation on silicon, with foremost baseband parts carried out in both hardware or firmware to optimize charge, vigor, and size. Implementations that incorporate the complete radio-frequency and baseband processing area on a single chip—and have few exterior accessories—are already transport.

To obtain effective connections, Bluetooth employs three key concepts: frequency hopping, adaptive power control, and the transmission of short data packets. The Bluetooth protocol (for data) instantly retransmits corrupt statistics packets which have—since the pseudorandom hopping sequence is designed to maximize frequency spacing between sequential channel hops—surely hopped faraway from the interfering source.

Like different ISM radio applied sciences, Bluetooth operates in the 2.four–2.485-GHz radio band. Its radio meets the vigour and spectral emissions standards described via ETSI ETS 300–328 in Europe and FCC below CFR forty seven part 15 within the u.s. using the following set of parameters:

  • Frequency hopping, unfold spectrum seventy nine channels, 1600 hops per 2d.
  • Gaussian frequency shift keying modulation with a 1-m image-per-second fee or 1 Mb/sec facts cost.
  • eighty three.5 MHz of spectrum divided into 1-MHz channels.
  • image timing accuracy ±20 ppm timing (when synchronized).
  • vigour manage in line with received signal strength depth remarks from the receiving machine (class 1 requirement).
  • 0 dBm (1 mW) devoid of energy manage (type three, 10-m latitude).
  • 20 dBm (one hundred-mW) with vigour control (classification 1, 100-m range).
  • Bit error price of 0.1%, receiver sensitivity of –70 dBm.
  • THE BLUETOOTH INTERFACES

    Interfaces occur in Bluetooth at a few different degrees (see figure 1). Blue RF is an interface designed to permit reuse and interoperability of the Bluetooth radios. besides the fact that children not formally part of the Bluetooth standard, it has been adopted with the aid of most of the silicon suppliers as the digital interface to the radio subsystem.

    Baseband processing is accountable for channel coding, decoding, and low-stage timing control and management of the hyperlink for single data-packet transfers. It decodes and encodes packets of data and provides the "care and feeding" of the RF transceiver sections.

    The hyperlink supervisor is answerable for managing the hyperlink control states used to set up and retain the connection between the master equipment and its slaves, and it comprises:

  • Inquiry/inquiry scan (used to discover different contraptions; the baseband a part of carrier discovery).
  • web page/web page scan (used to establish connections to a chosen gadget).
  • Connections: the active states and the vigour-saving states of dangle, sniff, and park.
  • The host handle interface (HCI) is a hardware and utility interface special to allow modular implementations of the reduce-stage hardware and baseband. Architecturally, HCI makes it possible for the burden of the protocol stack to be borne by using the host machine or computer to reduce total implementation charge. Its hardware interface is distinctive as either USB or UART. (the usage of USB constantly achieves the highest facts fees.)

    The low-stage protocol is responsible for packetization, multiplexing, and demultiplexing packets for the bigger-degree protocols, and it maintains order within the piconet; this interface is very nearly Bluetooth's "site visitors cop."

    upper-level Protocols. higher-degree protocols comparable to RFCOMM and service discovery protocol (SDP) provide excessive-level functionality upon which profiles are constructed. RFCOMM emulates full "hand-shaking" serial ports and is utilized in profiles that aid simple connections between pairs of devices. SDP is described later in this article.

    Transmission Channels. Two forms of transmission channels are defined in Bluetooth: asynchronous communications link (ACL) and synchronous connection oriented (SCO). ACL channels are used for information communications and are set up between each two Bluetooth instruments for use in connection management. ACL is a packet-switched transmission formula that gives error detection, forward error correction, packet tracking (numbering), and packet retransmission. It offers thoroughly error-free hyperlinks to the utility; they're going to both provide first rate information or maintain attempting until signaling that the hyperlink is damaged. (The retransmission of facts within the presence of interference raises latency and slows down net information quotes.)

    Used for the transmission of voice information, SCO is a circuit-switched transmission system that offers accepted latency and guaranteed transmission fees, and it facets error detection and ahead error correction. every SCO channel is given time slots that are predetermined within the transmission sequence, with a optimum of three SCO channels accredited in each and every piconet. Little bandwidth is left for ACL statistics when all three SCO channels are being used.

    SCO and ACL channels allow preference of each packet length and the quantity of ahead error correction. These parameters are sometimes instantly managed and rely upon the volume of interference immunity and records throughput needs.

    Piconets and Scatternets. A Bluetooth piconet consists of at least a grasp and a slave; this pairing is defined as a point-to-point connection. A full piconet includes one grasp and up to seven slaves. The master controls all timing including the clock and hopping sequence (to which all slaves synchronize). each and every master will have a little distinctive clock (skew) and hopping sequences, which might be based on the grasp's equipment handle (a forty eight-bit IEEE tackle). These adjustments permit for distinct piconets to be centered and used within the same physical area. A Bluetooth grasp is responsible for controlling all data site visitors in a piconet. All information transmission goes during the grasp in a star community topology.

    The Bluetooth specification defines the capacity to exchange the grasp and slave relationship between two gadgets: a captivating function for implementation of LAN entry elements. It additionally allows a tool to be each a master on one piconet and a slave on one more, or to be a slave on multiple piconet if the hardware and baseband implementations aid it.

    A scatternet is fashioned from two or greater piconets that share a common member. This shared member might also both be a slave on both piconets, or a grasp on one and a slave on an additional. each and every of those configurations has architectural exchange-offs, and the current Bluetooth specification (1.1) doesn't outline the favourite one, nor does it absolutely outline the operation of scatternets.

    Profiles. Collections of points and capabilities required to function a specific operation are called profiles. The primary, required profile gives all instruments some level of interoperability—the capability to characteristic instantly with other contraptions with little consumer intervention. This collection of features is called the customary entry Profile.

    extra, non-compulsory profiles rely upon the utility necessities and implementation details. below is a listing of the profiles currently specified. beneath building or within the release technique are profiles for printing, fingers-free, and audiovisual applications; human interfaces; and others. The version 1.1 profiles are

  • typical access—applied in all gadgets.
  • carrier Discovery—makes it possible for contraptions to examine capabilities of different gadgets.
  • Cordless Telephony—covers services for cordless telephone handsets, both audio and dialing.
  • Intercom—permits voice connections and calling between two devices.
  • Serial Port—includes the functions and methods required for setting up a virtual serial connection between two devices; it is used in lots of of the larger-level profiles.
  • Headset—units forth the services necessary to implement a fingers-free headset for cell phones and computers.
  • Dial-Up Networking—covers the functions and strategies required to set up a far flung information superhighway connection.
  • FAX—specifies instant send and get hold of indicators for faxing.
  • LAN access—allows for Bluetooth for use as the transport to a standard local-enviornment network (LAN).
  • conventional Object exchange (OBEX)—specifies the way to transmit excessive-degree objects, such as information. The foundation for the following three profiles, OBEX turned into developed for IrDA and makes it possible for Bluetooth to be used via utility applications developed for IrDA.
  • Object Push (OBEX based mostly)—transmits named objects containing statistics.
  • File switch (OBEX based)—transfers data between instruments.
  • Synchronization (OBEX primarily based)—synchronizes purposes on computer systems, own digital assistants, and cell phones.
  • KEY BLUETOOTH features

    Bluetooth has been designed to facilitate setup of small corporations of instruments. Two key points, carrier discovery and advert hoc community guide, additionally play major roles in the design, and safety points protect the privacy of communications.

    carrier Discovery Protocol. carrier discovery protocol (SDP) elements allow for automatic cognizance and configuration between two devices of differing types and from distinct manufacturers.

    There are two styles of discovery inside the Bluetooth specification. gadget discovery enables one device to query instruments inside latitude and purchase, in turn, key counsel about their frequent capabilities. This key counsel includes full address, human-readable name, and generic device classification (cell phone, desktop own desktop, headset).

    provider discovery enables a device to be trained the details of supported profiles and to in reality browse these profiles to learn the way to entry definite aspects. The provider discovery thought makes it possible for for much more assistance and entry how one can be exchanged.

    ad Hoc Networks. ad hoc networking is the means to straight away set up and dissolve small corporations of instruments with little or no consumer involvement and no permanent handle task. a number of instruments set up one community and continue the connection most effective for the preferred time of interaction. If protection is desired, users can class in passwords or own identification numbers (PINs) for bonding and encryption.

    safety. Bluetooth supports a few security points, counting on the software and user necessities. These facets latitude from the coverage towards eavesdropping inherent to the frequency-hopping spread-spectrum technology, to using keys or PIN and password combos. With using PINs (alphanumeric strings of up to 16 characters), the 128-bit SAFER+ encryption algorithm is used to create very potent protection and encryption between devices. greater security can be added on the software level if preferred. This implementation should still meet the requirements of systems that need to conform to the health insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 privateness standards.

    BLUETOOTH'S clinical applications

    Bluetooth expertise opens up many probabilities for scientific devices to speak and facilitate healthcare providers' entry to basic information. several stories are being performed, a lot of them in Europe, to consider the expertise as a method for synchronizing own contraptions and transferring records in hospitals. at the least one scientific machine has been listed on the Bluetooth net website as a Bluetooth-authorised product. different instruments developed via two groups have been established, and are serving as feasibility prototypes for Bluetooth implementation. These consist of a patient-worn pulse oximeter and a transportable patient video display.

    medical tips. Use of handheld and mobile computing technology in the medical field has advanced frequently. medical doctors routinely entry medical databases for drug dosages and interactions. domestic-health nurses maintain suggestions on their patients for container use. Many other functions are enabling practitioners to make improved-informed choices.

    Bluetooth wireless technology will permit scientific devices to connect extra conveniently with each and every different and to counsel entry points provided by means of LANs. Bluetooth's low vigor, competitively priced, and few configuration necessities could be traded off in opposition t 802.11b's better velocity and simple enterprise integration. The use model and atmosphere for every individual utility will investigate the most suitable option for instant statistics know-how.

    clinical instruments. other exciting chances exist in the container of medical equipment communications and networking. Bluetooth evidently offers an knowledge for extremely cell battery-powered instruments, and it opens up the possibility for these devices to hook up with a LAN or large-enviornment community. enter, output, and storage can be faraway from individual gadgets and centralized to increase flexibility and reduce the instruments' can charge, measurement, and vigor. gadgets also can check with each other within a patient-enviornment network, in order to make them much less liable to medical error.

    The challenges to integrating Bluetooth in medical gadgets are discussed in more suitable aspect under, however they are the equal as for any RF technology used in medication. Bluetooth has the advantage of being an adopted and managed trade normal with an in depth qualification, verification, and approval process to make sure compliance with that specification.

    Implementation. When a tool brand decides to contain Bluetooth into its scientific product, it have to proceed thoughtfully. perhaps the easiest way to get all started is through the use of an external adapter to prototype the gadget design, benefit a greater understanding of issues linked to the implementation, and compile helpful consumer and advertising remarks. This strategy may also shorten time to market.

    When the prototype is up and working and a manufacturer is capable of navigate the make-versus-buy choices, it'll deserve to agree with several considerations as it formulates its product and assignment plans.

    The $5 answer. there was lots discussion within the media about the so-referred to as $5 Bluetooth answer, and a few agencies declare to have completed this dollar amount per unit for prime-volume shipments in 2002.

    The trade goal of $5 includes only the RF and baseband signal processing features. To enforce the comprehensive Bluetooth performance from the baseboard layers to profiles and utility requires external components (as a minimum an antenna or board house for an onboard implementation, and infrequently different discrete add-ons), as well as RAM, ROM, and processor bandwidth. furthermore, the entire current Bluetooth utility stacks that put into effect greater than the headset profile require an working gadget.

    The $5 intention assumes that a device, comparable to a cell, already has sufficient of the above supplies and an operating gadget. It assumes a royalty-free implementation of the Bluetooth software stack, which isn't the case except a tool brand implements the reasonably complex specification. The goal also assumes construction volumes in the millions of devices per yr.

    lamentably, only a few of the above circumstances are met for clinical gadgets, so implementations in more-practical decrease volumes are unlikely to meet that cost purpose. functional estimates for medical device functions for the subsequent yr range from $25 to $70 and would require large development materials. alternate options requiring little or no construction cost greater but yield short time to market and might be the best alternative for low-quantity creation runs, or until customer acceptance justifies highly integrated options.

    RF components AND issues

    Most medical device manufacturers have huge journey, continually terrible, with RF. historically, an outstanding quantity of each time and funds are spent attempting to reduce RF emissions and susceptibility. Bluetooth technology transmits and receives RF alerts, which require fairly a special ability set.

    ANTENNAS

    happily, many surprising designs are available for Bluetooth that consist of all of the RF accessories, hence disposing of this a part of the design project. The finest Bluetooth RF transceiver will characteristic poorly, youngsters, if the design and site of the antenna are unnoticed. The antenna has to be found in or on the device to restrict RF shadowing backyard shielded situations and accessories. It also needs to be designed with the appropriate gain and radiation trial for a specific software and its placement in the device. standard 2.4-GHz antennas are available from a few suppliers and offer many options for placement, sample, benefit, and real mounting. Board-mount versions can be found if the enclosure is radio-transparent and the radiation pattern is acceptable for the utility. it is vital to observe that plastic cloth preference could make a change for embedded antennas seeing that these materials vary of their transparency at 2.four GHz.

    utility guide for Host Stack. Many scientific gadget producers will not need or be able to find the money for a tremendously built-in solution that eliminates the HCI and merges the baseband and host processing for their devices. In most situations, designers will use a module that accommodates the baseband and RF, in addition to a Bluetooth application stack of their host application. depending on the type and number of profiles supported (i.e., the amount of performance required), a clinical gadget's Bluetooth application stack will require:

  • 32–sixty four KB of code house.
  • sixteen–32 KB of RAM.
  • approximately 5 thousands and thousands of instructions per 2nd of processor bandwidth.
  • (These approximations symbolize a normal of a few suppliers'standards.)

    RF considerations. The three RF questions most commonly asked about Bluetooth and scientific devices are: How will it affect the human physique? How smartly will it work with different clinical gadgets and products used within the domestic and hospital? How well will it work with other applied sciences on the ISM band?

    Human body exposure. a few groups alter RF publicity degrees, and papers had been written concerning RF's outcomes on the human physique. most of the stories that have been done for 802.11b are also relevant to Bluetooth.

    testing performed so far suggests no hurt from RF ranges utilized in 802.11b and Bluetooth. Most physique-worn or transportable devices is generally designed as class 3 Bluetooth devices (1 mW), which would have greatly much less power than most of the transmitters established (at a hundred mW) and are even much less likely to have any deleterious outcomes.

    scientific machine interference and sensitivity. The ISM band is vastly backyard the frequency latitude of naturally happening biological alerts; hence, the potential possibility of interference to that sign is low and would occur from outcomes on the add-ons in a particular device design. as a result of Bluetooth is a very low vigor transmitter, it is not going to intervene. Most medical instruments, together with implantable devices, ought to be established for susceptibility within the ISM band.

    Microwave ovens and a few other instruments that could be found in scientific settings use the ISM frequency band. Microwave ovens were discovered to pose no interference complications, and other instruments the usage of ISM-frequency radiation are smartly shielded to avoid interference with different contraptions.

    Coexistence within the ISM band. clinical device agencies and regulatory corporations, because of their experiences with hospital telemetry techniques, have a heightened sensitivity to the issues of interference and coexistence. Their issues are legitimate because the hospitals they deliver could have already got put in wireless LANs, and distinct ISM radios might exist in other environments as well.

    testing performed with the aid of a couple of corporations has shown that however performance degradation happens on account of interference, the precise-world effects of interference are manageable by using current functions. more work is necessary by using the wireless business to get rid of this situation, however thus far interference does not seem to be a big difficulty in most models.

    For the future, the technologies specification corporations (the Bluetooth SIG and the IEEE 802.15) are working toward interoperability options that could eliminate the RF concerns fully.

    THE REGULATORY aspect

    Three important regulatory approvals for instant medical contraptions within the united states are these of Bluetooth, FDA, and FCC. Bluetooth approval is new for medical gadget producers, and devices without wireless components have historically been exempt from FCC approvals in most circumstances. The FDA approval system is difficult, principally when new technologies are being introduced.

    Bluetooth Qualification. The Bluetooth qualification manner is smartly-described in SIG documentation. Bluetooth know-how maintains a strict enforcement policy. For organizations to benefit free license to the intellectual property that the SIG individuals have contributed, the items should circulate the applicable qualification process earlier than they're bought (see sidebar). once qualified, the product might also then display the Bluetooth manufacturer, trademarks, and labeling.

    The qualification process is supposed to assure consumers and clients a high stage of interoperability between gadgets. it is taken fairly seriously and appears to be beneficial, to decide from a sampling of items that meet the latest version 1.1 specification. (previous models had interoperability complications, which have been addressed in 1.1; producers should still be cautious of products certified to past specification revisions.)

    The Bluetooth qualification program enables accessories to be qualified to various stages. Hardware and utility add-ons can also be qualified so that a tool brand can combine them into a tool without having to repeat the element of the trying out the element has passed. This potential that if a tool brand integrates a complete qualified OEM module into a device, that brand needn't do any additional trying out to be certified for Bluetooth. different combos of certified components have different sets of implications, so it is critical to take into account what qualification work may be required when evaluating whether to make or purchase.

    As of this writing, there are five identified Bluetooth qualification bodies within the united states and 26 worldwide chargeable for reviewing the entire examine consequences and documentation. in addition, there is one recognized Bluetooth qualification check facility in the united states and 4 global that can do comprehensive testing and submission. Many compliance trying out houses have or may have the potential to perform testing and create applications for submission to these bodies sooner or later.

    FDA. reckoning on the implementation and use of Bluetooth, there are a number of methods to gaining approval from FDA and foreign corporations. Readers may still observe that these are potential paths handiest and have to be reviewed and approved by individual producers' regulatory affairs group of workers.

    If Bluetooth instant expertise is delivered to a tool as an external adapter with out a adjustments, reminiscent of substitute of an present RS-232 cable, and the machine is accepted for information communications capabilities via that port to exterior machine, it can be possible to use the regulatory approval approach taken by using many machine agencies with external modems. If there is not any change in labeling or supposed use it can be low-priced with no trouble to make use of what is known as a "letter to file." The Bluetooth adapter may well be considered a instant modem in this case, assuming that every one different appropriate industry approvals and qualifications had been accomplished.

    The regulatory company should still be suggested that Bluetooth wireless technology is a part of a detailed business common with tightly enforced qualification and compliance trying out it really is required for list of a product. Documentation from the Bluetooth qualification test facility and Bluetooth qualification physique deliver proof of this compliance verification. The published specification and verify methods files are tightly controlled by way of Bluetooth SIG Inc., a U.S. organisation dependent for that intention.

    If Bluetooth is integrated internally within a tool, submission of a 510(k) application to FDA is required, primarily as a result of utility and hardware adjustments are prone to be involved. it is reasonably-priced to count on that such 510(ok) submissions were made or will be made within the close future. the important thing, as with every 510(k) submissions, is to determine predicate gadgets and technologies to make use of in the submission.

    instant and telemetry gadgets had been shipping for a long time in the u.s. and international. instruments the use of wireless applied sciences are at the moment being marketed on the instant medical telemetry device band in the united states that makes use of frequency-hopping unfold-spectrum applied sciences as well as normal frequency modulation technology. knowledge predicate gadgets the use of 802.eleven frequency hopping technology within the ISM band had been cleared through FDA and are presently being marketed and dispensed.

    authorised and well-established components which have a very good song listing as exterior adaptors might be less demanding to analyze one by one, and convincing regulatory agencies that they're secure and professional may be much less of a struggle. The external method will also permit testing and gathering of medical and client usage records to be blanketed with a submission.

    FCC. FCC testing and approval are fairly common prac- tice in the telecommunications business, but FCC has no longer regulated clinical contraptions to this point. once Bluetooth is delivered to a device, besides the fact that children, FCC trying out turns into obligatory because the equipment turns into an intentional radiator. Bluetooth RF modules were designed for FCC compliance, which should enable them to pass the acceptable testing if the modules are competently integrated into items.

    a possible chance to FCC compliance for designs the use of pretested accessories comes from inside programs' emissions which are coupled into the Bluetooth RF and are reradiated with the aid of the Bluetooth transmitter and antenna. FCC trying out will also be performed by means of the same look at various houses currently used for IEC emissions and susceptibility testing for scientific contraptions.

    CONCLUSION

    Bluetooth instant know-how poses new questions on which constituents of the expertise should be bought and which elements may still be designed in-condominium. organizations should still cautiously weigh the Bluetooth requirements in opposition t the system accessories in terms of resources, including each hardware and application. Bluetooth qualification and FCC law ought to be considered in the challenge plan. The stage of in-house competencies may still be considered as neatly.

    it's convenient so as to add up particular person add-ons on a components-cost basis and arrive at a low-fee solution, but employing such a technique can produce a disastrous outcomes when the real costs of engineering and qualification are utterly realized. paying for a more robust-priced, incredibly built-in answer might store gigantic nonrecurring-price fees and cut back time to market, which offsets the higher rate for an entire product technology. manufacturers should still be careful to have in mind the real development expenses and schedule, and how the two can affect profits calculations.

    It is apparent that medical devices and scientific counsel management products will benefit from the benefits provided via Bluetooth wireless technology. And however Bluetooth certainly gifts new challenges to the clinical gadget business, the merits stand to be fairly large in each current and future use fashions for clinical products.

    BIBLIOGRAPHY

    Bray, Jennifer, and Sturman, Charles F. Bluetooth connect without Cables, 2nd ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-corridor PTR, 2002.

    William E. Saltzstein is president and founder of Code Blue Communications, an organization primarily based in Redmond, WA, that has been developing Bluetooth expertise.

    Copyright ©2002 clinical machine & Diagnostic business




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