000-077 exam Dumps Source : xSeries Technical tall Performance Servers V2
Test Code : 000-077
Test cognomen : xSeries Technical tall Performance Servers V2
Vendor cognomen : IBM
real questions : 147 real Questions
observed most 000-077 Questions in dumps that I prepared.
Nice..I cleared the 000-077 exam. The killexams.com question bank helped a lot. Very useful indeed. Cleared the 000-077 with 95%.I am certain everyone can pass the exam after completing your tests. The explanations were very helpful. Thanks. It was a remarkable savor with killexams.com in terms of collection of questions, their interpretation and pattern in which you hold set the papers. I am grateful to you and give complete credit to you guys for my success.
000-077 examination prep were given to subsist
I was about to give up exam 000-077 because I wasnt confident in whether I would pass or not. With just a week remaining I decided to switch to killexams.com real questions for my exam preparation. Never thought that the topics that I had always accelerate away from would subsist so much fun to study; its easy and short way of getting to the points made my preparation lot easier. indecent thanks to killexams.com real questions , I never thought I would pass my exam but I did pass with flying colors.
how many days education required to bypass 000-077 examination?
Have just passed my 000-077 exam. Questions are legitimate and accurate, which is the superior information. i wasensured ninety nine% skip charge and money lower back assure, however obviously i hold got exceptional scores. thatsthe best information.
it is extraordinary! I got dumps present day 000-077 examination.
I noiseless dont forget the arduous time I had while mastering for the 000-077 exam. I used to are seeking for back from friends, but I felt maximum of the material became vague and overwhelmed. Later, i create killexams.com and its real questions dump. through the valuable material I discovered everything from top to bottom of the provided material. It become so precise. in the given questions, I replied indecent questions with exemplar option. thanks for brining indecent of the boundless happiness in my profession.
Did you tried these 000-077 actual query fiscal institution and study guide.
I got severa questions ordinary from this aide and made an incredible 88% in my 000-077 exam. At that factor, my accomplice proposed me to select after the Dumps aide of killexams.com as a expeditious reference. It cautiously secured indecent thematerial thru quick answers that were useful to consider. My next advancement obliged me to select killexams.com for indecent my destiny tests. i used to subsist in an problem a way to blanket indecent of the material inner three-week time.
can you correspond with that every one 000-077 questions I had hold been requested in real check.
I could frequently leave out lessons and that would subsist a massive quandary for me if my parents located out. I needed to cowl my mistakes and ensure that they could correspond with in me. I knew that one manner to cowl my errors become to Do nicely in my 000-077 test that turned into very near. If I did nicely in my 000-077 test, my parents would really relish me again and they did because I turned into able to transparent the test. It changed into this killexams.com that gave me the precise instructions. Thank you.
That turned into terrific! I got dumps modern-day 000-077 exam.
The killexams.com is the top class web page where my goals reach authentic. by way of the exercise of the real questions dump for the instruction genuinely introduced the real spark to the studies and severely ended up by using obtaining the qualitymarks inside the 000-077 exam. it is quite easy to pan any exam with the assist of your test dump. thank youplenty for all. sustain up the top class work guys.
Is there any way to pass 000-077 exam at first attempt?
I had taken the 000-077 arrangement from the killexams.com as that was an medium stage for the preparation which had eventually given the best smooth of the planning to prick the 92% scores inside the 000-077 check exams. I really delighted in the system I got issues the things emptied the bewitching technique and thru the uphold of the same; I had at long terminal got the thing out and about. It had made my arrangement a ton of simpler and with the uphold of the killexams.com I had been prepared to develop well inside the life.
These 000-077 Latest dumps works remarkable in the real test.
At closing, my marks 90% turned into more than choice. on the point when the exam 000-077 turned into handiest 1 week away, my planning changed into in an indiscriminate situation. I expected that i would want to retake inside the occasion of unhappiness to gain eighty% marks. Taking after a partners advice, i bought the real questions from killexams.com and will select a mild arrangement through typically composed material.
genuinely first-firstexcellent enjoy!
I am one among the tall achiever in the 000-077 exam. What a fanciful real questions material they provided. Within a short time I grasped everything on indecent the relevant topics. It was simply superb! I suffered a lot while preparing for my previous attempt, but this time I cleared my exam very easily without tension and worries. It is truly admirable learning journey for me. Thanks a lot killexams.com for the real support.
IBM these days introduced that it is freeing its Watson-branded AI services — relish the Watson Assistant for constructing conversational interfaces and Watson OpenScale for managing the AI lifestyles cycle — from its personal cloud and permitting enterprises to select its platform and working it of their own records facilities. In a way, that you can consider of this as Watson as a managed provider.
“shoppers are basically combating infusing AI into their purposes since the information is disbursed in assorted places,” IBM Watson’s CTO and chief architects Ruchir Puri instructed me after I asked him for IBM’s reasoning behind this circulation. “It’s in these hybrid environments, they’ve obtained distinctive cloud implementations, they hold got information in their inner most cloud as well. they hold been struggling because the suppliers of AI had been attempting to lock them into a specific implementation that isn't proper to this hybrid cloud ambiance.”
So with this determination of bringing Watson to any cloud, IBM desires to supply these groups the alternative to bring AI to their facts, which is enormously tougher and costlier to move, in any case. Puri furthermore wired that many organizations hold lengthy wanted to exercise AI to deserve their operations greater productive, but they vital to accelerate their AI paraphernalia in an atmosphere they manage and umpire relaxed with.
at the core of the technical necessities for running Watson of their public or private cloud is IBM Cloud inner most, the business’s deepest cloud platform that uses open-source technologies for working paraphernalia and capabilities relish Kubernetes and Cloud Foundry. That’s the platform that makes it feasible for corporations to then accelerate Watson, too (which itself runs on containers, too).
at this time, the headquarters of attention of this fireplace launch is on Watson aide and Watson OpenScale. “The capabilities we're releasing at the jiffy are in accordance with their two flagship products. That addresses a really significant region of exercise cases that they reach throughout,” famous Puri. “in the remaining fragment of the 12 months, they will carry the leisure of the capabilities [to the platform]. as an example, Watson skills Studio will reach together with it as well, in addition to Watson’s herbal language understanding capabilities that they currently hold obtainable in their public cloud atmosphere can subsist ported on to it as neatly.”
With that, Puri argues, IBM will present organisations a complete spectrum of tools for setting up and working AI models the usage of structured and unstructured records, in addition to a complete monitoring and actuality cycle management suite.
moreover this, IBM furthermore these days introduced that it's launching a brand recent version of its Watson desktop researching Accelerator that brings excessive-performance GPU clustering to power methods and X86 methods and which guarantees to speed up AI performance as much as 10x.
The commerce additionally today announced IBM commerce Automation Intelligence with Watson, although it didn’t rather delve into the particulars. This recent service, the enterprise says, will give enterprise leaders the skill “to drill AI at once to purposes, strengthening the group of workers, from clerical to learning laborers, to intelligently automate work from the mundane to the complex.” I’m now not definitely certain what that capability, but I’m certain the enterprise leaders who buy this provider will figure it out.
in this slidecast, Chris Porter and Jeff Kamiol from IBM relate how IBM inordinate efficiency services bring versatile, software-capable clusters in the cloud for groups that need to promptly and economically add computing means for tall efficiency application workloads.
IBM inordinate efficiency capabilities enables quickly deployment of technical computing, analytics or Hadoop workloads in the cloud. groups using the carrier can conveniently meet further useful resource demands without the can permeate of deciding to buy or managing in-apartment infrastructure, minimizing their administrative affliction and promptly addressing evolving enterprise wants. The functions consist of market-leading IBM Platform LSF and IBM Platform Symphony workload management application, IBM Spectrum Scale application defined storage, IBM inordinate efficiency functions for Hadoop and the brand recent IBM inordinate performance services for EDA. The application is built-in, provisioned and deployed as fragment of finished, integrated services which contains bare-metal IBM SoftLayer infrastructure, non-compulsory InfinfiBand interconnects and aid from an skilled and dedicated cloud operations group. a world presence with the option of facts core station helps subsist certain that facts laws are met.
View the Slides * download the MP3 * Subscribe on iTunes * Subscribe to RSS
check in for their insideHPC e-newsletter
For now, AI methods are ordinarily machine getting to know-based and “slim” – powerful as they're by latest requisites, they are constrained to performing a number of, narrowly-defined tasks. AI of the next decade will leverage the superior power of deep researching and develop into broader, fixing a better array of extra knotty issues. moreover, the everyday-intention applied sciences used today for AI deployments will gain replaced by using a technology stack that’s AI-specific and exponentially sooner – and it’s going to select a lot of money.
in the hunt for to select headquarters stage in AI’s unfolding, IBM – in aggregate with titanic apple condition and several expertise heavies – is investing $2 billion within the IBM research AI Hardware core, focused on setting up subsequent era AI silicon, networking and manufacturing in an exertion to, IBM pointed out, bring 1,000x AI efficiency effectivity improvement over the next decade.
“today, AI’s ever-increasing sophistication is pushing the boundaries of the trade’s existing hardware systems as clients learn more methods to embrace a considerable number of sources of facts from the aspect, web of things, and greater,” mentioned Mukesh Khare, VP, IBM research Semiconductor and AI Hardware community, in a blog announcing the challenge. “…today’s systems hold achieved improved AI efficiency by means of infusing desktop-discovering capabilities with high-bandwidth CPUs and GPUs, specialized AI accelerators and high-performance networking equipment. To retain this trajectory, recent considering is required to speed up AI efficiency scaling to sound to ever-increasing AI workload complexities.”
IBM talked about the core will subsist the nucleus of a recent ecosystem of research and industrial partners collaborating with IBM researchers. companions announced these days embrace Samsung for manufacturing and research, Mellanox applied sciences for top-performance interconnect machine, Synopsys for utility platforms, emulation and prototyping, and IP for establishing high-efficiency silicon chips, and semiconductor paraphernalia businesses applied materials and Tokyo Electron.
Hosted at SUNY Polytechnic Institute, Albany, titanic apple, in collaboration with neighboring Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute headquarters for Computational innovations, IBM mentioned the company and its companions will “enhance a number of technologies from chip smooth gadgets, substances, and architecture, to the software supporting AI workloads.”
large Blue talked about analysis on the middle will headquarters of attention on overcoming “present machine-getting to know limitations via procedures that embrace approximate computing through Digital AI Cores and in-memory computing via Analog AI Cores. These technologies will provide the thousand-fold increases in efficiency effectivity required for complete cognizance of deep studying AI, the subsequent main milestone in AI evolution, based on IBM.
“A key region of analysis and edifice could subsist methods that meet the demands of deep learning inference and practising tactics,” Khare noted. “Such systems tender huge accuracy improvements over extra regularly occurring computer studying for unstructured information. these extreme processing calls for will develop exponentially as algorithms develop into more knotty so as to convey AI programs with improved cognitive expertise.”
Khare referred to the research headquarters will host R&D, emulation, prototyping, testing and simulation actions for brand spanking recent AI cores principally designed for working towards and deploying advanced AI models, together with a stare at various mattress by which members can demonstrate improvements in actual-world purposes. really superior wafer processing for the headquarters will subsist completed in Albany with some pilot at IBM’s Thomas J. Watson research core in Yorktown Heights, recent york.
Obviously it is arduous assignment to pick solid certification questions/answers assets concerning review, reputation and validity since individuals gain sham because of picking incorrectly benefit. Killexams.com ensure to serve its customers best to its assets concerning exam dumps update and validity. The vast majority of other's sham report objection customers reach to us for the brain dumps and pass their exams cheerfully and effectively. They never trade off on their review, reputation and quality because killexams review, killexams reputation and killexams customer conviction is vital to us. Uniquely they deal with killexams.com review, killexams.com reputation, killexams.com sham report grievance, killexams.com trust, killexams.com validity, killexams.com report and killexams.com scam. In the event that you view any erroneous report posted by their rivals with the cognomen killexams sham report grievance web, killexams.com sham report, killexams.com scam, killexams.com dissension or something relish this, simply recall there are constantly terrible individuals harming reputation of superior administrations because of their advantages. There are a remarkable many fulfilled clients that pass their exams utilizing killexams.com brain dumps, killexams PDF questions, killexams hone questions, killexams exam simulator. Visit Killexams.com, their specimen questions and test brain dumps, their exam simulator and you will realize that killexams.com is the best brain dumps site.
000-876 drill questions | 1Z0-335 free pdf | 70-744 test prep | HP2-W100 pdf download | HP0-S44 drill test | 000-315 drill Test | 000-200 free pdf download | A2090-735 mock exam | CFA-Level-III questions and answers | 642-467 braindumps | HP0-380 questions and answers | 3100-1 real questions | HAT-420 braindumps | 000-N15 brain dumps | MSC-121 examcollection | NREMT-PTE test questions | 310-232 drill test | 400-101 real questions | F50-532 free pdf | P2090-086 test prep |
Murder your 000-077 exam at first attempt!
killexams.com brilliant 000-077 exam simulator is to a remarkable degree empowering for their customers for the exam prep. Tremendously crucial questions, focuses and definitions are highlighted in brain dumps pdf. companionable event the data in a separate station is an unquestionable back and causes you prepare for the IT confirmation exam inside a short time span navigate. The 000-077 exam offers key core interests. The killexams.com pass4sure dumps holds the fundamental questions or thoughts of the 000-077 exam.
At killexams.com, they give completely surveyed IBM 000-077 preparing assets which are the best to pass 000-077 exam, and to gain certified by IBM. It is a best determination
to speed up your position as an expert in the Information Technology industry. They are pleased with their notoriety of helping individuals pass the 000-077 test in their first attempt. Their prosperity rates in the previous two years hold been completely great, because of their upbeat clients who are currently ready to impel their positions in the expeditious
track. killexams.com is the main determination
among IT experts, particularly the ones who are hoping to hasten up the progression levels quicker in their individual associations. IBM is the commerce pioneer in data innovation, and getting certified by them is an ensured approach to prevail with IT positions. They enable you to Do actually that with their superb IBM 000-077 preparing materials.
IBM 000-077 is rare indecent around the globe, and the commerce and programming arrangements gave by them are being grasped by every one of the organizations. They hold helped in driving a large number of organizations on the beyond any doubt shot way of achievement. Far reaching learning of IBM items are viewed as a critical capability, and the experts certified by them are exceptionally esteemed in indecent associations.
We give genuine 000-077 pdf exam questions and answers braindumps in two arrangements. Download PDF and drill Tests. Pass IBM 000-077 real Exam rapidly and effectively. The 000-077 braindumps PDF sort is accessible for perusing and printing. You can print increasingly and drill ordinarily. Their pass rate is tall to 98.9% and the comparability rate between their 000-077 study pilot and genuine exam is 90% in light of their seven-year teaching background. Do you need successs in the 000-077 exam in only one attempt? I am perquisite now examining for the IBM 000-077 real exam.
killexams.com Huge Discount Coupons and Promo Codes are as under;
WC2017 : 60% Discount Coupon for indecent exams on website
PROF17 : 10% Discount Coupon for Orders greater than $69
DEAL17 : 15% Discount Coupon for Orders greater than $99
DECSPECIAL : 10% Special Discount Coupon for indecent Orders
As the only thing that is in any way considerable here is passing the 000-077 - xSeries Technical tall Performance Servers V2 exam. As indecent that you require is a tall score of IBM 000-077 exam. The just a separate thing you hold to Do is downloading braindumps of 000-077 exam prep directs now. They will not let you down with their unconditional guarantee. The experts likewise sustain pace with the most up and coming exam so as to give the greater fragment of updated materials. Three Months free access to hold the capacity to them through the date of purchase. Each applicant may tolerate the cost of the 000-077 exam dumps through killexams.com at a low cost. Frequently there is a markdown for anybody all.
Quality and Value for the 000-077 Exam : killexams.com drill Exams for IBM 000-077 are written to the highest standards of technical accuracy, using only certified matter matter experts and published authors for development.
100% Guarantee to Pass Your 000-077 Exam : If you Do not pass the IBM 000-077 exam using their killexams.com testing engine, they will give you a complete REFUND of your purchasing fee.
Downloadable, Interactive 000-077 Testing engines : Their IBM 000-077 Preparation Material provides you everything you will need to select IBM 000-077 exam. Details are researched and produced by IBM Certification Experts who are constantly using industry savor to yield actual, and logical.
- Comprehensive questions and answers about 000-077 exam - 000-077 exam questions accompanied by exhibits - Verified Answers by Experts and almost 100% correct - 000-077 exam questions updated on regular basis - 000-077 exam preparation is in multiple-choice questions (MCQs). - Tested by multiple times before publishing - Try free 000-077 exam demo before you pick to buy it in killexams.com
killexams.com Huge Discount Coupons and Promo Codes are as under;
WC2017 : 60% Discount Coupon for indecent exams on website
PROF17 : 10% Discount Coupon for Orders greater than $69
DEAL17 : 15% Discount Coupon for Orders greater than $99
DECSPECIAL : 10% Special Discount Coupon for indecent Orders
000-077 Practice Test | 000-077 examcollection | 000-077 VCE | 000-077 study guide | 000-077 practice exam | 000-077 cram
Killexams 000-782 drill Test | Killexams 000-995 dumps questions | Killexams 000-M79 brain dumps | Killexams 920-255 real questions | Killexams M9510-747 drill test | Killexams 1T6-511 dump | Killexams 000-883 cheat sheets | Killexams HP2-K01 exam prep | Killexams 920-159 brain dumps | Killexams FM0-304 real questions | Killexams A2070-581 braindumps | Killexams P2010-022 free pdf | Killexams HP0-M50 study guide | Killexams 000-154 drill test | Killexams C2150-199 braindumps | Killexams 200-500 examcollection | Killexams IIA-CIA-Part1 bootcamp | Killexams 70-338 free pdf | Killexams SPS-200 braindumps | Killexams C4090-451 cram |
Exam Simulator : Pass4sure 000-077 VCE Exam Simulator
Killexams NET test prep | Killexams 000-207 dump | Killexams HP0-S15 study guide | Killexams CRFA cheat sheets | Killexams 000-789 real questions | Killexams F50-526 bootcamp | Killexams HP2-T25 brain dumps | Killexams 00M-620 test prep | Killexams C4040-227 exam prep | Killexams 190-612 real questions | Killexams 1Z0-969 braindumps | Killexams HP0-J62 dumps | Killexams 9L0-518 braindumps | Killexams 9A0-385 free pdf | Killexams BAS-012 dumps questions | Killexams 1Z0-567 drill test | Killexams 000-105 mock exam | Killexams JK0-022 real questions | Killexams PEGACSSA drill questions | Killexams HP0-Y23 drill questions |
In-DepthScale the Datacenter with Windows Server SMB Direct
RDMA networking has enabled high-performance computing for years, but Windows Server 2012 R2 with SMB Direct is bringing it to the mainstream.
File-based storage has grown tremendously over the terminal several years, far outpacing screen storage, even as both grow at double-digit rates. Cloud datacenters are deploying file-based protocols at an accelerating pace for virtualized environments, as well as database infrastructure deployed for titanic Data applications. The introduction of Server Message screen (SMB) 3.0 with the efficiency and performance of the SMB Direct protocol, has opened recent opportunities for file storage in Windows-based datacenters. SMB Direct, a key component of SMB 3.0, can utilize networking based on the Remote Direct recollection Access (RDMA) protocol to deliver near-SAN-level performance and availability with integrated data protection and optimized data transfer between storage and server (see figure 1).[Click on image for larger view.] figure 1. RDMA networking allows high-speed client to file service data transfers.
RDMA is a specification that has long-provided a means of reducing latency in the transmission of data from one point to another, by placing the data directly into final destination memory, thereby eliminating unnecessary CPU and recollection bus utilization. Used primarily for high-performance computing (HPC) for more than a decade, RDMA is now on the cusp of becoming a mainstream means of providing a scalable and high-performance infrastructure. A key factor fueling its growing exercise is Windows Server 2012 R2 offering several RDMA networking options. I'll review and compare those options within Windows Server 2012 R2 environments.
Windows Scale-Out File ServicesWindows Server 2012 R2 provides massive scale to transform datacenters into an elastic, always-on cloud-like operation designed to accelerate the largest workloads. The server OS provides automated protection and aims to tender cost-effective commerce continuity to ensure uptime. Windows Server 2012 R2 provides a affluent set of storage features letting IT managers hasten to lower-cost industry-standard hardware rather than purpose-built storage devices, without having to compromise on performance or availability. A vital storage capability in Windows Server 2012 R2 is the Scale-Out File Server (SOFS), which allows the storage of server application data, such as Hyper-V virtual machine (VM) files, on SMB file shares. indecent files shares are online on indecent nodes simultaneously. This configuration is commonly referred to as an active-active cluster configuration.
A SOFS allows for continuously available file shares. Continuous availability tracks file operations on a highly available file system so that clients can fail over to another node of the cluster without interruption. This is furthermore known as Transparent Failover.
The Role of SMB DirectThe SMB 3.0 protocol in Windows Server 2012 R2 utilizes the Network Direct Kernel (NDK) layer within the Windows Sever OS to leverage RDMA network adapters (see figure 2). Using RDMA enables storage that rivals costly and infrastructure-intensive Fibre Channel SANs in efficiency, with lower latency, while operating over standard 10 Gbps and 40 Gbps Ethernet infrastructure. RDMA network adapters tender this performance capability by operating at a line rate with very low latency thanks to CPU bypass and zero copy (the aptitude to write directly to the recollection of the remote storage node using RPCs). In order to obtain these advantages, indecent transport protocol processing must subsist performed in the adapter hardware, completely bypassing the host OS.[Click on image for larger view.] figure 2. RDMA Networking Configuration on Windows Server 2012 R2.
With NDK, SMB can fulfill data transfers direct from memory, through the adapter, to the network, and over to the recollection of the application requesting data from the file share. This capability is especially useful for I/O-intensive workloads such as Hyper-V or SQL Server, resulting in remote file server performance comparable to local storage.
In contrast, in traditional networking, a request from an application to a remote storage location must disappear through numerous stages and buffers (involving data copies) on both the client and server side, such as the SMB client or server buffers, the transport protocol drivers in the networking stack, and the network card drivers.
With SMB Direct, the RDMA NIC transfers data straight from the SMB client buffer, through the client NIC to the server NIC, and up to the SMB server buffer, and vice versa. This direct transfer operation allows the application to access remote storage at the identical performance as local storage.
Windows Server 2012 provides built-in uphold for using SMB Direct with Ethernet RDMA NICs, including iWARP (RDMA/TCP), and RoCE NICs (RDMA/UDP), to uphold high-speed data transfers. These NICs implement RDMA in hardware so that they can transfer data between them without involving the host CPU. As a result, SMB Direct is extremely expeditious with client-to-file server performance almost equaling that of using local storage.
RDMA NICs offload the server CPU, resulting in more efficient Microsoft virtualized datacenter installs. Windows Server 2012 SMB Direct 3.0 over RDMA provides higher performance by giving direct access to the data that resides on a remote file server, while the CPU reduction enables a larger number of VMs per Hyper-V server, resulting in CapEx and OpEx savings in power dissipation, system configuration and deployment scale throughout the life of the installation. endemic system software uphold for RDMA networking in Windows Server 2012 R2 simplifies storage and VM management for enterprise and cloud IT administrators, with no network reconfiguration required.
Live migration is an considerable VM mobility feature and improving the performance of live migration has been a consistent focus for Windows Server. In Windows Server 2012 R2, Microsoft took these performance improvements to the next level. Live migration with RDMA is a recent feature; it delivers the highest performance for migrations by offloading data transfers to RDMA NIC hardware.
iWARP: RDMA over TCP/IPiWARP is an implementation of RDMA using the ubiquitous Ethernet-TCP/IP networking as the network transport. iWARP NICs implement a hardware TCP/IP stack that eliminates indecent inefficiencies associated with software TCP/IP processing, while preserving indecent the benefits of the proven TCP/IP protocol. On the wire, iWARP traffic is thus identical to other TCP/IP applications and requires no special uphold from switches and routers, or changes to network devices. Thanks to the hardware offloaded TCP/IP, iWARP RDMA NICs tender high-performance and low-latency RDMA operation that's comparable to the latest InfiniBand speeds, and endemic integration within today's large Ethernet-based networks and clouds.
iWARP is able to dramatically help upon the most common and widespread Ethernet communications in exercise today and deliver on the swear of a single, converged Ethernet network for carrying LAN, SAN, and RDMA traffic with the unrestricted routability and scalability of TCP/IP. Today, 40 Gbps Ethernet (40 GbE) iWARP controllers and adapters are available from Chelsio Communications, while Intel Corp. has furthermore announced plans for availability of iWARP Ethernet controllers integrated within upcoming Intel server chipsets.
The iWARP protocol is the open Internet Engineering task compel (IETF) standard for RDMA over Ethernet. iWARP adapters are fully supported by the OpenFabrics Alliance Enterprise Software Distribution (OFED), with no changes needed for applications to migrate from specialized OFED-compliant RDMA fabrics such as InfiniBand to Ethernet.
Initially aimed at high-performance computing applications, iWARP is furthermore now finding a home in datacenters thanks to its availability on high-performance 40 GbE NICs and increased datacenter demand for low latency, tall bandwidth, and low server CPU utilization. It has furthermore been integrated into server OSes such as Microsoft Windows Server 2012 with SMB Direct, which can seamlessly select edge of iWARP RDMA without user intervention.
InfiniBandInfiniBand is an I/O architecture designed to increase the communication speed between CPUs, devices within servers and subsystems located throughout a network. InfiniBand is a point-to-point, switched I/O fabric architecture. Both devices at each finish of a link hold complete access to the communication path. To disappear beyond a point and traverse the network, switches reach into play. By adding switches, multiple points can subsist interconnected to create a fabric. As more switches are added to a network, aggregated bandwidth of the fabric increases.
High-performance clustering architectures hold provided the main opening for InfiniBand deployment. Using the InfiniBand fabric as the cluster inter-process communications (IPC) interconnect may boost cluster performance and scalability while improving application response times. However, using InfiniBand requires deploying a separate infrastructure in addition to the requisite Ethernet network. The added costs in acquisition, maintenance and management hold prompted interest in Ethernet-based RDMA alternatives such as iWARP.
Because it's layered on top of TCP, iWARP is fully compatible with existing Ethernet switching paraphernalia that's able to process iWARP traffic out-of-the-box. In comparison, deploying InfiniBand requires environments where two separate network infrastructures are installed and managed, as well as specialized InfiniBand to Ethernet gateways for bridging between the two infrastructures.
RDMA over Converged Ethernet (RoCE)The third RDMA networking option is RDMA over Converged Ethernet (RoCE), which essentially implements InfiniBand over Ethernet. RoCE NICs are offered by Mellanox Technologies. Though it utilizes Ethernet cabling, this approach does suffer from deployment rigor and costs due to requiring uphold for knotty and expensive Ethernet "lossless" fabrics and Data headquarters Bridging (DCB) protocols. In addition, RoCE for the longest time lacked routability support, which limited its operation to a separate Ethernet subnet.
Instead of using pervasive TCP/IP networking, RoCE relies instead on InfiniBand protocols at Layer 3 (L3) and higher layers in combination with Ethernet at the Link Layer (L2) and Physical Layer (L1). RoCE leverages Converged Ethernet, furthermore known as DCB or Converged Enhanced Ethernet as a lossless physical layer networking medium. RoCE is similar to the Fibre Channel over Ethernet (FCoE) protocols in relying on networking infrastructure with DCB protocols. However, such uphold has been viewed a significant impediment to FCoE deployment, which raises similar concerns for RoCE.
The just-released version 2 of the RoCE protocol will gain rid of the IB network layer, replacing it with the more commonly used UDP (connectionless) and IP layer to provide routability. However, RoCE v2 does not specify how lossless operation will subsist provided over an IP network, or how congestion control will subsist handled. RoCE v2 currently suffers from an discordant premise that continues to require DCB for Ethernet, while no longer operating within the confines of one Ethernet network.
Developed by Datawire, Ambassador is an open source API gateway designed specifically for exercise with the Kubernetes container orchestration framework. At its core, Ambassador is a control plane tailored for edge/API configuration for managing the Envoy Proxy “data plane”. Envoy itself is a cloud endemic Layer 7 proxy and communication bus used for handling “edge” ingress and service-to-service networking communication. Although originating from Lyft, Envoy is rapidly becoming the de facto proxy for modern networking, and can subsist create with practically indecent of the public cloud vendors offerings, as well as bespoke usage by many large end-user organisations relish eBay, Pinterest and Groupon.
This article provides an insight into the creation of Ambassador, and discusses the technical challenges and lessons erudite from edifice a developer-focused control plane for managing ingress traffic within microservice-based applications that are deployed into a Kubernetes cluster.The Emerging “Cloud Native” Fabric: Kubernetes and Envoy
Although the phrase “cloud native” is becoming as much of an overloaded term as “DevOps” and “microservices”, it is increasingly gaining traction throughout the IT industry. According to Gartner, the 2018 worldwide public cloud service revenue forecast was in the region of $175 Billion U.S. Dollars, and this could grow by over 15% next year. Although the current public cloud market is dominated by only a few key players that tender mostly proprietary technologies (and increasingly, and sometimes controversially, open source-as-service), the Cloud endemic Computing Foundation (CNCF) was founded in 2015 by the Linux foundation to provide a station for discussion and hosting of "open source components of a complete stack cloud endemic environment".
Possibly learning from the journey previously undertaken by the OpenStack community, the early projects supported by the CNCF were arguably less ambitious in scope, provided clearer (opinionated) abstractions, and were furthermore proven in real world usage (or inspired by real world usage in the case of Kubernetes). Two key platform components that hold emerged from the CNCF are the Kubernetes container orchestration framework, originally contributed by Google, and the Envoy proxy for edge and service-to-service networking, originally donated by Lyft. Even when combined, the two specific technologies don’t provide a complete Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS) offering that many developers want. However, Kubernetes and Envoy are being included within many PaaS-like offerings.
Many PaaS vendors, and also end-user engineering teams, are treating these technologies as the “data plane” for cloud endemic systems: i.e. the fragment of the system that does the “heavy-lifting”, such as orchestrating containers and routing traffic based on Layer 7 metadata (such as HTTP URIs and headers, or MongoDB protocol metadata). Accordingly, a lot of innovation and commercial opportunities are focused on creating an efficient “control plane”, which is where the end-user interacts with the technology, specifies configuration to subsist enacted by the data plane, and observes any metrics or logging.
The Kubernetes control plane is largely focused around a progression of well-specified REST-like APIs (known simply as “the Kubernetes API”), and the associated ‘kubectl’ CLI appliance provides a human-friendly abstraction over these APIs. The Envoy v1 control plane was initially based around JSON config loaded within files, with several loosely-defined APIs that allowed selective updating. These APIs hold subsequently evolved into the Envoy v2 API, which provides a progression of gRPC-based APIs that are strongly typed via the exercise of Protocol Buffers. However, initially there wasn’t an Envoy analogy to the Kubernetes kubectl tool, and this led to challenges in adoption by some teams. Where there are challenges, though, there are furthermore opportunities within the implementation of a human-friendly control plane.“Service Mesh-all-the-things”...Maybe?
If they focus on the networking control plane, it would subsist arduous to miss the emergence of the concept of the “service mesh”. Technologies relish Istio, Linkerd and Consul Connect are aiming to manage cross-cutting service-to-service (“east-west”) traffic within a microservices systems. Indeed, Istio itself is effectively a control plane that enables a user to manage Envoy Proxy as the underlying data plane for managing Layer 7 networking traffic across the mesh. Linkerd offers its own (now Rust-based) proxy as the data plane, and Consul Connect offers both a bespoke proxy and, more recently, uphold for Envoy.
Istio architecture, showing the Envoy Proxy data plane at the top half of the diagram, and the control plane below (image courtesy of Istio documentation)
The considerable thing to recall with a service mesh is that the assumption is that you typically exert a high-degree of ownership and control on both parties that are communicating over the mesh. For example, two services may subsist built by separate engineering departments but they will typically work for the identical organisation, or one service may subsist a third-party application but it is deployed within your trusted network limit (which may span multiple data centers or Virtual Private Clouds). Here your operations team will typically correspond on sensible communication defaults, and service teams will independently configure inter-service routing. In these scenarios you may not fully trust each service, and you most certainly will want to implement protections relish rate limiting and circuit breaking, but fundamentally you can investigate and change any despicable behaviour detected. This is not true, however, for managing edge or ingress (“north-south”) traffic that originates from outside your network boundary.
Cluster “ingress” traffic generally originates from sources outside of your direct control
Any communication originating from outside your trusted network can subsist from a despicable actor, with motivations that are intentional (e.g. cyber criminals) or otherwise (e.g. broken client library within a mobile app), and therefore you must station appropriate defenses in place. Here the operations team will specify sensible system defaults, and furthermore conform these in real-time based on external events. In addition to rate limiting, you probably furthermore want the aptitude to configure global and API-specific load shedding, for example, if the backend services or datastores become overwhelmed, and furthermore implement DDoS protection (which may furthermore subsist time- or geographically-specified). Service development teams furthermore want access to the edge to configure routing for a recent API, to test or release a recent service via traffic shadowing or canary releasing, or other tasks.
As a quick aside, for further discussion on the (sometimes confusing) role of API gateways, Christian Posta has recently published an bewitching blog post, “API Gateways Are Going Through an Identity Crisis”. I hold furthermore written articles about the role of an API gateway during a cloud/container migration or digital transformation, and how API gateways can subsist integrated with modern continuous delivery patterns.
Although at first glance these service mesh and edge/API gateway exercise cases may show very similar, they believe there are subtle (and not so subtle) differences, and this impacts the design of the associated inter-service and edge control planes.Designing a Edge Control Plane
The altenative of control plane is influenced heavily by the scope of control required, and the persona(s) of the primary people using it. My colleague Rafael Schloming has talked about this before at QCon San Francisco, where he discussed how the requirements to centralise or decentralise control and furthermore the development/operation lifecycle stage in which a service is currently at (prototype, mission critical etc) impacts the implementation of the control plane.
As mentioned above, taking an edge proxy control plane as the example, a centralised operations or SRE team may want to specify globally sensible defaults and safeguards for indecent ingress traffic. However, the (multiple) decentralised product development teams working at the front line and releasing functionality will want fine-grained control for their services in isolation, and potentially (if they are embracing the “freedom and responsibility” model) the aptitude to override global safeguards locally.
A conscious altenative that was made by the Ambassador community was that the primary persona targeted by the Ambassador control plane is the developeror application engineer, and therefore the focus on the control plane was on decentralised configuration. Ambassador was built to subsist Kubernetes-specific, and so a logical altenative for specifying edge configuration was nearby to the Kubernetes Service specifications that were contained within YAML files and loaded into Kubernetes via kubectl.
Options for specifying Ambassador configuration included using the Kubernetes Ingress object, writing custom Kubernetes annotations or defining Custom Resource Definitions (CRDs). Ultimately the exercise of annotations was chosen, as they were simple and presented a minimal learning curve for the end-user. Using Ingress may hold appeared to subsist the most obvious first choice, but unfortunately the specification for Ingress has been stuck in perpetual beta, and other than the “lowest common denominator” functionality for managing ingress traffic, not much else has been agreed upon.
An specimen of an Ambassador annotation that demonstrates a simple endpoint-to-service routing on a Kubernetes Service can subsist seen here:kind: Service apiVersion: v1 metadata: name: my-service annotations: getambassador.io/config: | --- apiVersion: ambassador/v0 kind: Mapping name: my_service_mapping prefix: /my-service/ service: my-service spec: selector: app: MyApp ports: - protocol: TCP port: 80 targetPort: 9376
The configuration within the getambassador.io/config should subsist relatively self-explanatory to anyone who has configured an edge proxy, transpose proxy or API gateway before. Traffic sent to the prefix endpoint will subsist “mapped” or routed to the “my-service” Kubernetes service. As this article is primarily focused on the designing and implementation of Ambassador, they won’t cover all of the functionality that can subsist configured, such as routing (including traffic shadowing), canarying (with integration with Prometheus for monitoring) and rate limiting. Although Ambassador is focused on the developer persona, there is furthermore extensive uphold for operators, and centralised configuration can subsist specified for authentication, TLS/SNI, tracing and service mesh integration.
Let’s now circle their attention back onto the evolution of Ambassador over the past two years.Ambassador < v0.40: Envoy v1 APIs, Templating, and passionate Restarts
Ambassador itself is deployed within a container as a Kubernetes service, and uses the annotations added to Kubernetes Services as its core configuration model. This approach enables application developers to manage routing as fragment of their Kubernetes service definition workflow process (perhaps as fragment of a “GitOps” approach). Translating the simple Ambassador annotation config into valid Envoy v1 config is not a petty task. By design, Ambassador’s configuration isn’t based on the identical conceptual model as Envoy’s configuration -- they deliberately wanted to aggregate and simplify operations and config -- and herefore, a impartial amount of logic within Ambassador translates between one set of concepts to the other.
Specifically when a user applies a Kubernetes manifest containing Ambassador annotations, the following steps occur:
There were many benefits with this initial implementation: the mechanics involved were fundamentally simple, the transformation of Ambassador config into Envoy config was reliable, and the file-based passionate restart integration with Envoy was dependable.
However, there were furthermore notable challenges with this version of Ambassador. First, although the passionate restart was efficient for the majority of exercise cases, it was not very fast, and some users (particularly those with large application deployments) create it was limiting the frequency with which they could change their configuration. passionate restart can furthermore inappropriately drop connections, especially long-lived connections relish WebSockets or gRPC streams.
More crucially, though, the first implementation of the Ambassador-to-Envoy intermediate representation (IR) allowed rapid prototyping but was primitive enough that it proved very difficult to deserve substantial changes. While this was a twinge point from the beginning, it became a critical issue as Envoy shifted to the Envoy v2 API. It was transparent that the v2 API would tender Ambassador many benefits -- as Matt Klein outlined in his blog post, “The universal data plane API” -- including access to recent features and a solution to the connection-drop problem famous above, but it was furthermore transparent that the existing IR implementation was not capable of making the leap.Ambassador Now: Envoy v2 APIs (with ADS), Intermediate Representations, and Testing with KAT
In consultation with the Ambassador community, the Datawire team (stewarded by Flynn, lead engineer for Ambassador) undertook a redesign of the internals of Ambassador in 2018. This was driven by two key goals. First, they wanted to integrate Envoy’s v2 configuration format, which would enable the uphold of features such as Server cognomen Indication (SNI), label-based rate limiting, and improved authentication. Second, they furthermore wanted to Do much more robust semantic validation of Envoy configuration, due to its increasing complexity (which was particularly when configuring Envoy for exercise with large-scale application deployments).
We started by restructuring the Ambassador internals more along the lines of a multipass compiler. The class hierarchy was made to more closely mirror the separation of concerns between the Ambassador configuration resources, the IR, and the Envoy configuration resources. Core parts of Ambassador were furthermore redesigned to facilitate contributions from the community outside Datawire. They decided to select this approach for several reasons. First, Envoy Proxy is a very expeditious poignant project, and they realised that they needed an approach where a seemingly minor Envoy configuration change didn’t result in days of reengineering within Ambassador. In addition, they wanted to subsist able to provide semantic verification of configuration.
As they started working more closely with Envoy v2, a testing challenge was quickly identified. As more and more features were being supported in Ambassador, more and more bugs appeared in Ambassador’s handling of less common but completely sound combinations of features. This drove to creation of a recent testing requirement that meant Ambassador’s test suite needed to subsist reworked to automatically manage many combinations of features, rather than relying on humans to write each test individually. Moreover, they wanted the test suite to subsist expeditious in order to maximise engineering productivity.
This meant that as fragment of the Ambassador re-architecture, they furthermore created the Kubernetes Acceptance Test (KAT) framework. KAT is an extensible test framework that:
KAT is designed for performance -- it batches test setup upfront, and then runs indecent the queries in step 3 asynchronously with a tall performance HTTP client. The traffic driver in KAT runs locally using one of other open source tools, Telepresence, which makes it easier to debug issues.
With the KAT test framework in place, they quickly ran into some issues with Envoy v2 configuration and passionate restart, which presented the opening to switch to using Envoy’s Aggregated Discovery Service (ADS) APIs instead of passionate restart. This completely eliminated the requirement for a process restart upon configuration changes, which previously they had create could lead to dropped connections under tall loads or long-lived connections. They decided to exercise the Envoy disappear control plane to interface to the ADS. This did, however, interpolate a Go-based dependency to the previously predominantly Python-based Ambassador codebase.
With a recent test framework, recent IR generating sound Envoy v2 configuration, and the ADS, the major architectural changes in Ambassador 0.50 were complete. Now when a user applies a Kubernetes manifest containing Ambassador annotations, the following steps occur:
Just before release they hit one more issue. On the Azure Kubernetes Service, Ambassador annotation changes were no longer being detected. Working with the highly-responsive AKS engineering team, they were able to identify the issue -- namely, the Kubernetes API server in AKS is exposed through a chain of proxies that was dropping some requests. The proper mitigation for this was to uphold calling the FQDN of the API server, which is provided through a mutating webhook in AKS. Unfortunately, uphold for this feature was not available in the official Kubernetes Python client. They therefore elected to switch to the Kubernetes Golang client -- introducing yet another Go-based dependency.Key Takeaways from edifice an Envoy Control Plane (Twice!)
As Matt Klein mentioned at the inaugural EnvoyCon, with the current popularity of the Envoy Proxy in the cloud endemic technology domain, it’s often easier to examine who isn’t using Envoy. They know that Google’s Istio has helped raise the profile of Envoy with Kubernetes users, and indecent of the other major cloud vendors are investing in Envoy, for example, within AWS App Mesh and Azure Service Fabric Mesh. At EnvoyCon they furthermore heard how several titanic players such as eBay, Pinterest and Groupon are migrating to using Envoy as their primary edge proxy. There are furthermore several other open source Envoy-based edge proxy control planes emerging, such as Istio Gateway, Solo.io Gloo, and Heptio Contour. I would bicker that Envoy is indeed becoming the universal data plane of cloud endemic communications, but there is much work noiseless to subsist done within the domain of the control plane.
In this article we’ve discussed how the Datawire team and Ambassador open source community hold successfully migrated the Ambassador edge control plane to exercise the Envoy v2 configuration and ADS APIs. We’ve erudite a lot in the process of edifice Ambassador 0.50, and they are keen to highlight their key takeaways as follows:
Migrating Ambassador to the Envoy v2 configuration and ADS APIs was a long and difficult journey that required lots of architecture and design discussions, and plenty of coding, but early feedback from results hold been positive. Ambassador 0.50 is available now, so you can select it for a test accelerate and partake your feedback with the community on our Slack channel or on Twitter.About the Author
Daniel Bryant is leading change within organisations and technology, and currently works as a freelance consultant, of which Datawire is a client. His current work includes enabling agility within organisations by introducing better requirement gathering and planning techniques, focusing on the relevance of architecture within agile development, and facilitating continuous integration/delivery. Daniel’s current technical expertise focuses on ‘DevOps’ tooling, cloud/container platforms and microservice implementations. He is furthermore a leader within the London Java Community (LJC), contributes to several open source projects, writes for well-known technical websites such as InfoQ, DZone and Voxxed, and regularly presents at international conferences such as QCon, JavaOne and Devoxx.
3COM [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
AccessData [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ACFE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ACI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Acme-Packet [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ACSM [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
ACT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Admission-Tests [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
ADOBE [93 Certification Exam(s) ]
AFP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
AICPA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
AIIM [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Alcatel-Lucent [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
Alfresco [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Altiris [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Amazon [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
American-College [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Android [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
APA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
APC [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
APICS [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Apple [69 Certification Exam(s) ]
AppSense [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
APTUSC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Arizona-Education [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ARM [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Aruba [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
ASIS [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
ASQ [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
ASTQB [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
Autodesk [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Avaya [96 Certification Exam(s) ]
AXELOS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Axis [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Banking [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
BEA [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
BICSI [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
BlackBerry [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
BlueCoat [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Brocade [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Business-Objects [11 Certification Exam(s) ]
Business-Tests [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
CA-Technologies [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
Certification-Board [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
Certiport [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
CheckPoint [41 Certification Exam(s) ]
CIDQ [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
CIPS [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Cisco [318 Certification Exam(s) ]
Citrix [48 Certification Exam(s) ]
CIW [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
Cloudera [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
Cognos [19 Certification Exam(s) ]
College-Board [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
CompTIA [76 Certification Exam(s) ]
ComputerAssociates [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Consultant [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Counselor [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
CPP-Institue [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
CPP-Institute [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
CSP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
CWNA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
CWNP [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
Dassault [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
DELL [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
DMI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
DRI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ECCouncil [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
ECDL [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
EMC [129 Certification Exam(s) ]
Enterasys [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
Ericsson [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
ESPA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Esri [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
ExamExpress [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Exin [40 Certification Exam(s) ]
ExtremeNetworks [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
F5-Networks [20 Certification Exam(s) ]
FCTC [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Filemaker [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Financial [36 Certification Exam(s) ]
Food [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Fortinet [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
Foundry [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
FSMTB [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Fujitsu [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
GAQM [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Genesys [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
GIAC [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Google [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
GuidanceSoftware [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
H3C [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
HDI [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Healthcare [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
HIPAA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hitachi [30 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hortonworks [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hospitality [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
HP [750 Certification Exam(s) ]
HR [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
HRCI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Huawei [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hyperion [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
IAAP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IAHCSMM [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IBM [1532 Certification Exam(s) ]
IBQH [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ICAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ICDL [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
IEEE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IELTS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IFPUG [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
IIBA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
IISFA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Intel [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
IQN [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IRS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISACA [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISC2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISEB [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
Isilon [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISM [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
iSQI [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
ITEC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Juniper [64 Certification Exam(s) ]
LEED [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Legato [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
Liferay [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Logical-Operations [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Lotus [66 Certification Exam(s) ]
LPI [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
LSI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Magento [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Maintenance [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
McAfee [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
McData [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Medical [69 Certification Exam(s) ]
Microsoft [374 Certification Exam(s) ]
Mile2 [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Military [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Misc [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Motorola [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
mySQL [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
NBSTSA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCEES [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCIDQ [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCLEX [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Network-General [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
NetworkAppliance [39 Certification Exam(s) ]
NI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NIELIT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Nokia [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Nortel [130 Certification Exam(s) ]
Novell [37 Certification Exam(s) ]
OMG [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
Oracle [279 Certification Exam(s) ]
P&C [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Palo-Alto [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
PARCC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PayPal [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Pegasystems [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
PEOPLECERT [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
PMI [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Polycom [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
PostgreSQL-CE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Prince2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
PRMIA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PsychCorp [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PTCB [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
QAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
QlikView [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Quality-Assurance [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
RACC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Real-Estate [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
RedHat [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
RES [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
Riverbed [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
RSA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Sair [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
Salesforce [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
SANS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SAP [98 Certification Exam(s) ]
SASInstitute [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
SAT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SCO [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
SCP [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
SDI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
See-Beyond [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Siemens [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Snia [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
SOA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Social-Work-Board [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
SpringSource [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUN [63 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUSE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Sybase [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
Symantec [134 Certification Exam(s) ]
Teacher-Certification [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
The-Open-Group [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
TIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Tibco [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trainers [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trend [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
TruSecure [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
USMLE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
VCE [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veeam [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veritas [33 Certification Exam(s) ]
Vmware [58 Certification Exam(s) ]
Wonderlic [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Worldatwork [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
XML-Master [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Zend [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Dropmark : http://killexams.dropmark.com/367904/11585470
Wordpress : http://wp.me/p7SJ6L-Pn
Issu : https://issuu.com/trutrainers/docs/000-077
Dropmark-Text : http://killexams.dropmark.com/367904/12117517
Blogspot : http://killexamsbraindump.blogspot.com/2017/11/free-pass4sure-000-077-question-bank.html
RSS Feed : http://feeds.feedburner.com/Real000-077QuestionsThatAppearedInTestToday
weSRCH : https://www.wesrch.com/business/prpdfBU1HWO000TBTT
Calameo : http://en.calameo.com/books/0049235260f22a9802bc9
publitas.com : https://view.publitas.com/trutrainers-inc/free-pass4sure-000-077-question-bank
Box.net : https://app.box.com/s/jh7horh2ka4cwvgecphnsptmynel0fyn
zoho.com : https://docs.zoho.com/file/5psibc431b739a4594fcf8d317d60459c6bbe