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000-516 DB/2 Administration for OS/390

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000-516 exam Dumps Source : DB/2 Administration for OS/390

Test Code : 000-516
Test denomination : DB/2 Administration for OS/390
Vendor denomination : IBM
real questions : 118 real Questions

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IBM DB/2 Administration for OS/390

IBM Db2 query Optimization the employ of AI | real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

In September 2018, IBM announced a brand fresh product, IBM Db2 AI for z/OS. This artificial intelligence engine screens statistics entry patterns from executing SQL statements, makes employ of laptop discovering algorithms to select top-quality patterns and passes this advice to the Db2 query optimizer for employ by subsequent statements.

laptop discovering on the IBM z Platform

In may additionally of 2018, IBM introduced edition 1.2 of its computing device getting to know for z/OS (MLz) product. this is a hybrid zServer and cloud utility suite that ingests performance records, analyzes and builds models that symbolize the health fame of a lot of indicators, screens them over time and gives true-time scoring capabilities.

a number of features of this product offering are aimed at assisting a community of model developers and executives. for example:

  • It helps varied programming languages similar to Python, Scala and R. This allows records modelers and scientists to accomplish employ of a language with which they're standard;
  • A graphical person interface known as the visible mannequin Builder courses model builders with out requiring particularly-technical programming knowledge;
  • It comprises distinctive dashboards for monitoring model outcomes and scoring capabilities, in addition to controlling the paraphernalia configuration.
  • This desktop getting to know suite turned into at the start aimed toward zServer-based mostly analytics applications. probably the most first obvious choices become zSystem efficiency monitoring and tuning. device administration Facility (SMF) information that are automatically generated by means of the operating system give the raw facts for device useful resource consumption similar to central processor usage, I/O processing, reminiscence paging and the like. IBM MLz can bring together and store these facts over time, and construct and instruct fashions of system conduct, score those behaviors, establish patterns not conveniently foreseen with the aid of people, augment key performance indications (KPIs) and then feed the mannequin results returned into the system to feel system configuration alterations that can better performance.

    The next step turned into to implement this suite to investigate Db2 efficiency information. One solution, referred to as the IBM Db2 IT Operational Analytics (Db2 ITOA) solution template, applies the computing device researching know-how to Db2 operational statistics to gain an knowing of Db2 subsystem health. it may well dynamically construct baselines for key efficiency indicators, provide a dashboard of those KPIs and give operational personnel precise-time insight into Db2 operations.

    whereas regular Db2 subsystem efficiency is an famous aspect in gauge application fitness and efficiency, IBM estimates that the DBA aid workforce spends 25% or more of its time, " ... combating access direction issues which cause efficiency degradation and service gain an consequence on.". (See Reference 1).

    AI comes to Db2

    accept as precise with the plight of modern DBAs in a Db2 atmosphere. In concomitant IT world they must befriend one or extra large statistics applications, cloud utility and database functions, utility installation and configuration, Db2 subsystem and utility performance tuning, database definition and administration, cataclysm healing planning, and more. query tuning has been in existence because the origins of the database, and DBAs are usually tasked with this as well.

    The coronary heart of query direction analysis in Db2 is the Optimizer. It accepts SQL statements from purposes, verifies authority to access the records, reviews the areas of the objects to exist accessed and develops an inventory of candidate information access paths. These entry paths can consist of indexes, table scans, quite a lot of table link strategies and others. within the facts warehouse and large statistics environments there are usually additional decisions purchasable. One of these is the existence of abstract tables (every now and then known as materialized query tables) that involve pre-summarized or aggregated information, therefore allowing Db2 to wait away from re-aggregation processing. one other alternative is the starjoin access route, regular in the statistics warehouse, where the order of table joins is modified for efficiency factors.

    The Optimizer then studies the candidate entry paths and chooses the access direction, "with the lowest can charge." cost during this context potential a weighted summation of useful resource usage including CPU, I/O, recollection and other materials. finally, the Optimizer takes the lowest can saturate entry route, outlets it in reminiscence (and, optionally, within the Db2 directory) and starts off entry path execution.

    huge records and statistics warehouse operations now involve software suites that permit the company analyst to accomplish employ of a graphical interface to construct and manipulate a miniature statistics mannequin of the facts they necessity to analyze. The programs then generate SQL statements in response to the clients’ requests.

    The issue for the DBA

    to exist able to execute first rate analytics to your discrete facts retailers you want a Good realizing of the statistics requirements, an realizing of the analytical functions and algorithms accessible and a high-performance facts infrastructure. sadly, the number and placement of facts sources is increasing (each in size and in geography), records sizes are starting to be, and purposes proceed to proliferate in number and complexity. How should IT managers befriend this environment, chiefly with probably the most experienced and mature corpse of workers nearing retirement?

    be mindful additionally that a ample fraction of cutting back the whole saturate of ownership of those systems is to find Db2 applications to hasten faster and greater effectively. This always interprets into the employ of fewer CPU cycles, doing fewer I/Os and transporting much less data throughout the community. considering the fact that it is regularly involved to even establish which functions might profit from performance tuning, one approach is to automate the detection and correction of tuning issues. here is the set desktop getting to know and synthetic intelligence can exist used to incredible effect.

    Db2 12 for z/OS and artificial Intelligence

    Db2 edition 12 on z/OS makes employ of the desktop studying facilities outlined above to accumulate and sustain SQL query text and access path particulars, as well as specific performance-related archaic suggestions reminiscent of CPU time used, elapsed instances and result set sizes. This providing, described as Db2 AI for z/OS, analyzes and stores the facts in laptop discovering fashions, with the mannequin analysis outcomes then being scored and made obtainable to the Db2 Optimizer. The subsequent time a scored SQL commentary is encountered, the Optimizer can then employ the model scoring statistics as input to its access route alternative algorithm.

    The consequence should noiseless exist a reduction in CPU consumption because the Optimizer uses model scoring enter to opt for superior access paths. This then lowers CPU charges and speeds software response times. a major competencies is that the employ of AI software doesn't require the DBA to gain statistics science abilities or profound insights into query tuning methodologies. The Optimizer now chooses the top-quality entry paths primarily based not most efficient on SQL question syntax and facts distribution statistics however on modelled and scored archaic performance.

    This will moreover exist exceptionally crucial if you shop information in dissimilar locations. for instance, many analytical queries towards large information require concurrent access to determined records warehouse tables. These tables are commonly referred to as dimension tables, and that they comprise the records facets usually used to wield subsetting and aggregation. for example, in a retail environment accept as precise with a table known as StoreLocation that enumerates each store and its set code. Queries towards sustain revenue statistics may wish to aggregate or summarize revenue with the aid of vicinity; hence, the StoreLocation desk could exist used by way of some massive facts queries. during this environment it is typical to select the dimension tables and copy them continuously to the ample records application. within the IBM world this location is the IBM Db2 Analytics Accelerator (IDAA).

    Now feel about SQL queries from each operational purposes, data warehouse clients and massive statistics company analysts. From Db2's perspective, perfect these queries are equal, and are forwarded to the Optimizer. however, in the case of operational queries and warehouse queries they may noiseless most likely exist directed to entry the StoreLocation desk within the warehouse. nonetheless, the question from the enterprise analyst towards massive statistics tables may noiseless likely access the reproduction of the desk there. This outcomes in a proliferations of abilities access paths, and extra work for the Optimizer. luckily, Db2 AI for z/OS can supply the Optimizer the suggestions it must accomplish smart entry direction selections.

    how it Works

    The sequence of pursuits in Db2 AI for z/OS (See Reference 2) is frequently perquisite here:

  • all over a bind, rebind, prepare or accountfor operation, an SQL remark is passed to the Optimizer;
  • The Optimizer chooses the statistics entry path; as the option is made, Db2 AI captures the SQL syntax, entry direction option and question performance statistics (CPU used, and so forth.) and passes it to a "discovering task";
  • The learning assignment, which can moreover exist completed on a zIIP processor (a non-widely wide-spread-purpose CPU core that doesn't factor into application licensing charges), interfaces with the laptop learning application (MLz mannequin functions) to store this suggestions in a model;
  • because the quantity of records in each and every mannequin grows, the MLz Scoring service (which can moreover exist done on a zIIP processor) analyzes the mannequin data and rankings the behavior;
  • throughout the next bind, rebind, prepare or explain, the Optimizer now has access to the scoring for SQL fashions, and makes applicable adjustments to access direction selections.
  • There are additionally numerous consumer interfaces that supply the administrator visibility to the repute of the amassed SQL remark performance records and mannequin scoring.


    IBM's laptop gaining learning of for zOS (MLz) providing is getting used to brilliant impact in Db2 version 12 to enrich the performance of analytical queries in addition to operational queries and their linked applications. This requires administration attention, as you ought to check that your company is ready to devour these ML and AI conclusions. How will you measure the expenses and merits of the usage of desktop gaining learning of? Which IT assist group of workers necessity to exist tasked to reviewing the influence of model scoring, and perhaps approving (or overriding) the outcomes? How will you review and justify the assumptions that the software makes about access path selections?

    In different words, how smartly did you know your records, its distribution, its integrity and your present and proposed access paths? this could assess the set the DBAs disburse their time in assisting analytics and operational utility performance.

    # # #

    Reference 1

    John Campbell, IBM Db2 distinguished EngineerFrom "IBM Db2 AI for z/OS: boost IBM Db2 utility efficiency with machine discovering"

    Reference 2

    Db2 AI for z/OS

    See perfect articles through Lockwood Lyon

    DB2 safety with the entire Trimmings | real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

    DB2 protection with perfect of the Trimmings

    At an famous fresh England-enviornment insurance provider, a database engineer who asked now not to exist recognized listed here, describes the management of security for her mainframe databases as "a virtually-impossible, labor-intensive stint - if perfect they had to employ gain been IBM's own protection administration utilities."

    She reports that her enterprise has over 600 IBM DB2 databases operating in 13 LPARs across eight mainframes distributed across two, geographically separate facts facilities.

    "About eight,000 conclude clients on the company gain managed access to the actually hundreds of volumes of DB2 records on systems which we're migrating to DB2 edition 5.1. we're additionally in the process of migrating from [IBM] MVS to the OS/390 operating gadget to achieve yr 2000 compliance," says the engineer.

    "whereas IBM did an excellent job with DB2, its protection administration paraphernalia are inadequate to sustain with the adjustments that revolve up in their ambiance on an almost daily groundwork: alterations in person access, the protection of protest safety and the securing of access to fresh transactions. Their database directors (DBAs) could exist spending perfect of their time just doing security work if perfect they had had been DB2's personal protection utilities. It will not exist an option now not to gain a 2nd [security] administration paraphernalia for DB2."

    To raise the protection administration capabilities delivered with IBM DB2, the engineer reviews that her enterprise uses RC/secure from Platinum expertise Inc. (Oakbrook Terrace, IL). With RC/cozy, she says, "we will let their safety administration personnel execute the busywork of [granting and revoking access to DB2 database objects], while letting the DBAs focal point on the intelligence work of database design. Platinum's product gives for cleaner safety operations and productivity improvements over endemic DB2 safety applications."

    In DB2's protection, the engineer concedes that her enterprise has not appeared intently at any adjustments in DB2 safety delivered with the fresh edition of the IBM database. Platinum's RC/relaxed has develop into a fixture at the industry over a length of years and he or she has minute incentive to trade whatever thing that works.

    DB2 safety: an opportunity to boost

    IBM, which has delivered DB2 considering its branding in 1994 to greater than eleven,000 corporations and more than 40 million conclusion clients global, has been actively evolving the product from an MVS-only mainframe database to a widespread information base, based on Hershel Harris, Director of Database know-how with IBM's utility solutions Division.

    Harris in short recounts some watershed accomplishments within the evolution of DB2. "In 1994, they released an AIX and OS/2 edition of the product. In 1995, they offered a parallel version for facts warehousing and a UNIX version for sun Microsystems and Hewlett-Packard. In 1997, they launched the well-liked Database (UDB) edition, including protest extensions, befriend for OLAP and OLTP functions and additional aid for parallel databases that enabled statistics to exist cleave up across multiple nodes in a clustered environment. This yr, they announced OS/390 DB2 UDB. edition 6, which may noiseless exist purchasable in 1999, extends the capability of UDB to sustain in sarcasm objects. The household of products now runs throughout diverse operating environments, including NT, UNIX, OS/390, AIX and other flavors of UNIX. They are not any longer a best mainframe product, however we're proud of their mainframe heritage."

    built across the relational database model, says Hershel, DB2 promises "developed-in security according to privileges." He explains that, for each person with a sound identification or group membership, DB2 DBAs can employ the product's endemic protection features to control what the person can execute with the database objects.

    "This goes past access. For each protest and every person, selected privileges can moreover exist set up, together with read, write, delete, update and run. The objects will moreover exist tables, views or procedures, and the privileges may moreover exist defined at a really granular stage."

    Hershel says that commonplace SQL facts wield language statements comparable to accord and REVOKE may well exist used easily to control protest access. He adds that IBM will accomplish available in version 6 of the OS/390 DB2 UDB product a collection of Administrative tools similar to people who already ship with disbursed platform models of the product, "we now gain in edition 5.2 [of their distributed systems product], a simple-to-use, NT-based Administration utensil that allows both graphical and web-primarily based administration of perfect allotted DB2 servers. This utensil set is being added to [our OS/390 DB2 product] with its unencumber in 1999."

    Hershel is conscious about the provision and employ of third celebration products at the side of the IBM database, which he describes as "complimentary to the product."

    "IBM encourages complimentary product structure through different agencies. in the locality of DB2 protection administration, there are probably a brace of companies that deliver items to boost the capabilities delivered with DB2. These tools may additionally supply a graphical person interface to protection administration the employ of IBM's application programming interface. Some items emphasize greater question capabilities or greater reporting. Some are attempting to combine paraphernalia stage security with DB2. One company showed me an illustration these days of an utility that enabled speech recognition know-how and its employ with DB2 database security administration. In accepted, we're very supportive of those efforts."

    alternatives to enhance DB2 in a complimentary way gain been exploited by means of a large number of businesses, together with Platinum expertise, in accordance with Pete Peterson, vp for Database Administration items at Platinum.

    Peterson says that RC/comfortable answers a necessity inside groups to simplify the model for managing authority, "With DB2 edition 5, IBM makes it workable for RACF or external protection items for employ in administering safety within DB2. It is not a very simple process and it's problematic to create utility and user domains the usage of IBM utilities. organizations can gain loads of [security administration efficiency] if they had a simple solution to circulate a hierarchy of privileges from one user to a different while not having to redo everything."

    RC/comfortable, based on Peterson, is designed as a "management layer on properly of DB2 - however not a run-time layer." He explains that changes made to protection privileges could exist utilized on an ad hoc basis or in batch mode and suggests that the latter formula is noiseless favored by using protection administrators. He adds that Platinum's RC/query product additionally enhances DB2's query amenities and might exist employed in connection with RC/comfy to determine up-to-date objects within user and application domains.

    Peterson anticipates a continuing demand for DB2 enhancement items despite IBM's pretension that version 6 will dispose of the want for determined types of enhancement products. Says Peterson, while IBM is trying to circulation toward a intent of a common Database to permit administration across systems, "there are adjustments within the mainframe DB2 product that gain been reclaim there to cater to the MVS individuals and to capitalize on the qualities of that platform so that you can proceed to bog down this goal."

    computing device associates: Enhancement Equals alternative

    Mark Combs concurs that IBM opened doorways to 3rd parties with version 5 of its DB2 implementation on MVS. Combs, who's Senior vp for analysis and structure with computing device acquaintances (CA) in Islandia, ny, sees the opportunity created much less when it comes to enhancing DB2 than as an opportunity to substitute RACF with both ACF2 or excellent clandestine - each CA mainframe safety management items.

    "agencies deserve to stream to actual, rules-primarily based security - it's, a condition in which industry suggestions check access. these days, in many mainframe environments, about 75 percent of the rules are controlled with the aid of gadget management products akin to CA-ACF2, CA-good clandestine or RACF from IBM. an additional 25 percent are basically conditional or enforced the usage of an poor lot much less wonderful SQL database safety capabilities in items relish DB2. What is needed is an built-in management infrastructure that permit centralized, suggestions-based security across the entire ambiance and that supply administrative paraphernalia on the mainframe, as well as graphical person interface-based tools on the computer," says Combs.

    the way to find DB2 admin licensed | real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

    i am attracted to doing certification in DB2 administration for OS/390. i would relish to master the discipline, not simply find the certification.

    smartly, the surest strategy to grasp any discipline is via doing it. So, with that in mind, accomplish sure you cozy a set the set you've got access to DB2 and wish to work with it to accomplish your job. but, i am guessing that your goal is to find a job and that you wish to find licensed to achieve one. if this is so, then there are some steps you could take. firstly, accept as precise with obtaining perquisite here books for behold at and reference: DB2 Developer's ebook, fifth edition with the aid of Craig S. Mullins Db2 For The Z/os edition eight Certification through Susan Lawson DB2 typical Database for OS/390 v7.1 software Certification e-book via Susan Lawson accomplish sure you additionally down load, and evaluation, the entire DB2 for z/OS manuals from the IBM net web site. moreover, regularly assessment the in-depth technical articles published via IBM at its developerWorks web site. other first rate web sites to bookmark and evaluate involve,,, DB2 for OS390, and DB2 times. regarding your terminal question, i might relate that the most desirable solution to gain my DBA e-book is by way of

    Editor's observe: execute you disagree with this professional's response? when you've got extra to share, publish it in one of their .VO7aaqqaAFk.0@/search390>discussion forums.

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    DB/2 Administration for OS/390

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    DB2 Security with perfect the Trimmings | real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    DB2 Security with perfect the Trimmings

    At a major fresh England-area insurance provider, a database engineer who asked not to exist identified in this article, describes the management of security for her mainframe databases as "a nearly-impossible, labor-intensive stint - if perfect they had to employ were IBM's own security administration utilities."

    She reports that her company has over 600 IBM DB2 databases running in 13 LPARs across eight mainframes distributed across two, geographically separate data centers.

    "About 8,000 conclude users at the company gain controlled access to the literally hundreds of volumes of DB2 data on systems which they are migrating to DB2 version 5.1. They are moreover in the process of migrating from [IBM] MVS to the OS/390 operating system to achieve Year 2000 compliance," says the engineer.

    "While IBM did a much job with DB2, its security administration tools are inadequate to sustain up with the changes that occur in their environment on an almost daily basis: changes in user access, the maintenance of protest security and the securing of access to fresh transactions. Their database administrators (DBAs) would exist spending perfect of their time just doing security work if perfect they had were DB2's own security utilities. It is just not an option not to gain a second [security] administration package for DB2."

    To enhance the security administration capabilities delivered with IBM DB2, the engineer reports that her company uses RC/Secure from Platinum Technology Inc. (Oakbrook Terrace, IL). With RC/Secure, she says, "We can let their security administration personnel execute the busywork of [granting and revoking access to DB2 database objects], while letting the DBAs focus on the intelligence work of database design. Platinum's product provides for cleaner security operations and productivity improvements over endemic DB2 security applications."

    In DB2's defense, the engineer concedes that her company has not looked closely at any changes in DB2 security delivered with the fresh version of the IBM database. Platinum's RC/Secure has become a fixture at the company over a term of years and she has minute incentive to change something that works.

    DB2 Security: An opportunity to Enhance

    IBM, which has delivered DB2 since its branding in 1994 to more than 11,000 organizations and more than 40 million conclude users worldwide, has been actively evolving the product from an MVS-only mainframe database to a universal data base, according to Hershel Harris, Director of Database Technology with IBM's Software Solutions Division.

    Harris briefly recounts some watershed accomplishments in the evolution of DB2. "In 1994, they released an AIX and OS/2 version of the product. In 1995, they provided a parallel edition for data warehousing and a UNIX edition for Sun Microsystems and Hewlett-Packard. In 1997, they released the Universal Database (UDB) edition, adding protest extensions, advocate for OLAP and OLTP applications and additional advocate for parallel databases that enabled data to exist split across multiple nodes in a clustered environment. This year, they announced OS/390 DB2 UDB. Version 6, which should exist available in 1999, extends the capability of UDB to understand objects. The family of products now runs across multiple operating environments, including NT, UNIX, OS/390, AIX and other flavors of UNIX. They are no longer a only mainframe product, but they are proud of their mainframe heritage."

    Built around the relational database model, says Hershel, DB2 delivers "built-in security based on privileges." He explains that, for every user with a sound ID or group membership, DB2 DBAs can employ the product's endemic security features to control what the user can execute with the database objects.

    "This goes beyond access. For every protest and every user, specific privileges can exist set up, including read, write, delete, update and run. The objects can exist tables, views or procedures, and the privileges can exist defined at a very granular level."

    Hershel says that generic SQL data control language statements such as accord and REVOKE may exist used readily to control protest access. He adds that IBM will accomplish available in Version 6 of the OS/390 DB2 UDB product a suite of Administrative Tools similar to those that already ship with distributed platform versions of the product, "We gain in Version 5.2 [of their distributed systems product], an easy-to-use, NT-based Administration utensil that allows both graphical and Web-based administration of perfect distributed DB2 servers. This utensil set is being added to [our OS/390 DB2 product] with its release in 1999."

    Hershel is conscious of the availability and employ of third party products in conjunction with the IBM database, which he describes as "complimentary to the product."

    "IBM encourages complimentary product evolution by other companies. In the locality of DB2 security administration, there are probably a number of companies that deliver products to enhance the capabilities delivered with DB2. These tools may provide a graphical user interface to security administration using IBM's application programming interface. Some products emphasize enhanced query capabilities or enhanced reporting. Some try to integrate system level security with DB2. One company showed me a demonstration recently of an application that enabled speech recognition technology and its employ with DB2 database security administration. In general, they are very supportive of these efforts."

    Opportunities to enhance DB2 in a complimentary manner gain been exploited by numerous companies, including Platinum Technology, according to Pete Peterson, Vice President for Database Administration Products at Platinum.

    Peterson says that RC/Secure answers a necessity within companies to simplify the model for managing authority, "With DB2 version 5, IBM allows RACF or external security products to exist used in administering security within DB2. It is not a very straightforward procedure and it is difficult to create application and user domains using IBM utilities. Companies can gain a lot of [security administration efficiency] if they had a simple way to pass a hierarchy of privileges from one user to another without having to redo everything."

    RC/Secure, according to Peterson, is designed as a "management layer on top of DB2 - but not a run-time layer." He explains that changes made to security privileges may exist applied on an ad hoc basis or in batch mode and suggests that the latter way continues to exist preferred by security administrators. He adds that Platinum's RC/Query product moreover enhances DB2's query facilities and may exist employed in connection with RC/Secure to verify updated objects within user and application domains.

    Peterson anticipates a continuing demand for DB2 enhancement products despite IBM's pretension that Version 6 will purge the necessity for inescapable types of enhancement products. Says Peterson, while IBM is trying to roam toward a goal of a Universal Database to enable administration across platforms, "there are differences in the mainframe DB2 product that were reclaim there to cater to the MVS folks and to capitalize on the characteristics of that platform that will continue to impede this goal."

    Computer Associates: Enhancement Equals Replacement

    Mark Combs agrees that IBM opened doors to third parties with version 5 of its DB2 implementation on MVS. Combs, who is Senior Vice President for Research and evolution with Computer Associates (CA) in Islandia, NY, sees the opportunity created less in terms of enhancing DB2 than as an opportunity to supersede RACF with either ACF2 or Top clandestine - both CA mainframe security management products.

    "Companies necessity to roam to real, rules-based security - that is, a situation in which industry rules determine access. Today, in many mainframe environments, about 75 percent of the rules are controlled by system management products such as CA-ACF2, CA-Top clandestine or RACF from IBM. Another 25 percent are actually established or enforced using much less robust SQL database security capabilities in products relish DB2. What is needed is an integrated management infrastructure that enable centralized, rules-based security across the entire environment and that provide administrative tools on the mainframe, as well as graphical user interface-based tools on the desktop," says Combs.

    How to find DB2 admin certified | real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    I'm interested in doing certification in DB2 administration for OS/390. I would relish to master the subject, not just find the certification.

    Well, the best way to master any matter is by doing it. So, with that in mind, you should secure a position where you gain access to DB2 and necessity to work with it to accomplish your job. But, I'm guessing that your objective is to find a job and that you are looking to find certified to obtain one. If that is the case, then there are some steps you can take. First of all, esteem obtaining the following books for study and reference: DB2 Developer's Guide, 5th edition by Craig S. Mullins Db2 For The Z/os Version 8 Certification by Susan Lawson DB2 Universal Database for OS/390 v7.1 Application Certification usher by Susan Lawson You should moreover download, and review, perfect of the DB2 for z/OS manuals from the IBM Web site. Additionally, regularly review the in-depth technical articles published by IBM at its developerWorks site. Other Good Web sites to bookmark and review involve,,, DB2 for OS390, and DB2 Times. Regarding your final question, I would relate that the best way to obtain my DBA reserve is via

    Editor's note: execute you disagree with this expert's response? If you gain more to share, post it in one of their .VO7aaqqaAFk.0@/search390>discussion forums.

    Basic SQL Coding for DB2 Universal Database for OS/390 | real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Take a behold at the four primary statements of DML: Select, Update, Insert, and Delete. You will learn the role each of these can play in your efforts to master DB2. You will moreover behold at various aspects of SQL, a necessary language to understand though the comprehension level will vary depending on the user's activity.

    This chapter is from the reserve 

    In the previous chapter, they discussed the definitions of various database objects using the Data Definition Language (DDL). In this chapter, they start manipulating the database objects using the portion of SQL known as Data Manipulation Language (DML). They will exist populating (inserting) data into the database and retrieving the data using many powerful methods. Depending on the sophistication of the database users, they can employ SQL to query the database. The majority of the SQL statements within a DB2 application involve DML statements. Therefore, application developers must understand the various methods of inserting, updating, and retrieving data from the database. They will start with simple retrieval statements and gradually interlard more involved methods of data manipulation. The DB2 Certification database will exist used for most of the examples. There are four main DML SQL statements they consider: SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE.

    SQL is based on mathematical principles, specifically on set theory and relational algebra. The data is stored in the database as unordered sets of data records. SQL is a set-oriented language, and many of its language elements are directly related to relational algebraic terms, such as permutation, projection, restriction, and join.

    A set of data is represented in a DB2 database as a table or a view and is stored in a DB2 table without esteem to order. To retrieve data in a particular order, an ORDER BY phrase must exist added to a SELECT statement. Similarly, if the data is to exist grouped, then a GROUP BY phrase must exist added to the statement.

    Now, let's review the DB2CERT database design defined in the previous chapter and manipulate data using various SQL statements. There are three main tables: CANDIDATE, TEST, and TEST_CENTER. Each table represents a set of records that correspond to a test candidate (person), a test, and a test hub (location).

    There is an associative table, known as the TEST_TAKEN table, that is used to reflect the relationships among the three main tables. The TEST_TAKEN table is used to schedule the test candidates and moreover to maintain their test scores.


    The longest SQL statement is 32,765 bytes.

    Remember that to execute any operation, the user must gain the necessary privileges.

    Retrieving the Entire Table

    The most basic of perfect retrieval command involves the SELECT statement with no operators other than the denomination of the table. This SQL statement retrieves perfect of the candidates who gain taken a DB2 Certification exam. The information requested is contained in the table TEST_TAKEN.

    SELECT * FROM db2cert.test_taken

    SQL is a data access language that consists of language statements and clauses. There are many optional clauses that can exist used to modify the output. The output of a SELECT statement is known as a result set or result table. The results from the SELECT statement are shown next. In this example, using an asterisk or star character (*) for column selection, the columns will exist returned to the user in the order in which they are defined in the table.

    CID TCID NUMBER DATE_TAKEN START_TIME FINISH_TIME SCORE PASS_FAIL SEAT_NO --- ---- ------ ---------- ---------- ----------- ----- --------- ------- 111 TX01 500 01/01/2000 11:30:00 12:30:00 65 Y 1 111 TX01 501 02/02/2000 10:30:00 11:45:00 73 Y 1 111 TX01 502 03/03/2000 12:30:00 13:30:00 67 Y 1 222 TR01 500 01/01/2000 14:00:00 15:30:00 55 N 2 222 TR01 502 01/02/2000 09:00:00 10:15:00 53 N 2 222 TR01 502 02/18/2000 10:00:00 11:30:00 75 Y 2 333 TX01 500 03/01/2000 11:30:00 13:00:00 82 Y 2 333 TX01 501 12/29/2000 14:00:00 - - - 1 333 TX01 502 03/02/2000 14:00:00 14:30:00 92 Y 1 9 record(s) selected.

    In SQL, the * is used to testify that perfect columns of a table are being referenced. In this example, the SQL statement refers to perfect of the columns defined for the DB2CERT.TEST_TAKEN table. If the table is altered and a fresh column is added to the table definition, the result set would contain the fresh column.


    Adding a fresh column to an existing table will result in default values being populated for the existing rows.

    Since the output of the SQL statement using * character varies according to the table definition, it is recommended that you specify perfect of the column names you want to espy in the SELECT statement. They could gain obtained the very result as the statement using SELECT * with the following SQL statement.

    SELECT cid, tcid, number,date_taken,start_time, finish_time,score,seat_no FROM db2cert.test_taken;


    The * character is used to advert to perfect of the columns defined for a table. The order of the columns in the result table is the very order as specified in the CREATE TABLE or CREATE VIEW statement.

    What is returned to the user is known as the result set. If the result set is large it is advisable to exist sure to filter the data using a WHERE predicate.

    The FROM clause is required for the DML SQL statement, since it describes the location (table or view) of the data. Their case references a sole table called DB2CERT.TEST_TAKEN. The SELECT and FROM clauses are required in perfect data retrieval statements. The list of columns following the SELECT keyword is referred to as the select list.

    Projecting Columns from a Table

    Projection is a relational operation that allows you to retrieve a subset of the defined columns from a table. The next case restricts the output from the SELECT command so that only the candidate ID, test center, and test number attributes from the TEST_TAKEN table are shown.

    SELECT cid,tcid,number FROM db2cert.test_taken

    The output of this SELECT statement is shown below.

    CID TCID NUMBER --- ---- ------ 111 TX01 500 111 TX01 501 111 TX01 502 222 TR01 500 222 TR01 502 222 TR01 502 333 TX01 500 333 TX01 501 333 TX01 502 9 record(s) selected.

    The order of the columns in the result table will always match the order in the select list. The order of the columns as they were defined in the CREATE TABLE or CREATE VIEW statement is ignored when a select list is provided in the SQL statement. In this example, the order of the columns is similar to the order in the CREATE TABLE statement, since the CID column was defined prior to TCID and NUMBER columns.

    Changing the Order of the Columns

    Permutation is the relational operation that allows you to change the order of the columns in your result table. Permutation is used every time you select columns in an order different than the order defined in the CREATE TABLE statement. For example, to pomp the test hub ID prior to the candidate IDs and the test number, you could execute the following:

    SELECT tcid,cid,number FROM db2cert.test_taken

    The result of this SELECT statement specifies a select list in a different order than was defined in the table definition.

    TCID CID NUMBER ---- --- ------ TX01 111 500 TX01 111 501 TX01 111 502 TR01 222 500 TR01 222 502 TR01 222 502 TX01 333 500 TX01 333 501 TX01 333 502 9 record(s) selected.


    We advert to the output of a SELECT statement as the result table because the output of perfect SELECT statements can exist considered a relational table.

    Restricting Rows from a Table

    Restriction is a relational operation that will filter the resulting rows of a table. Restriction can exist accomplished through the employ of predicates defined in a SQL WHERE clause. To restrict the result set, they necessity to add a WHERE clause to the SQL statement.


    A predicate is a condition placed on the data. The result of the condition is TRUE, FALSE, or UNKNOWN.

    The WHERE clause specifies conditions or predicates that must exist evaluated by DB2 before the result table is returned to the conclude user. There are many sound types of predicates that can exist used. In the following example, the equality (=) predicate is used to restrict the records to only those candidates who gain taken a DB2 Certification test at the test hub TR01.

    SELECT tcid,cid FROM db2cert.test_taken WHERE tcid ='TR01'

    The WHERE clause moreover accepts other comparison operators, such as greater than (>), less than (<), greater than or equal to (>=), less than or equal to (<=), and not equal to (<>).This statement is an case of a basic predicate. A basic predicate compares two values. In addition, more involved predicates, such as LIKE, BETWEEN, and IN, are moreover sound and will exist discussed later.


    Trying to execute this case SQL statement will result in a data character compatibility error, because the column TCID is defined with a user-defined data character (UDT).

    Predicate Evaluation for UDTs

    The column TCID was defined as a user-defined data type. To accomplish the comparison in the WHERE clause valid, a casting role needs to exist used. This is not mandatory if the comparison is to a literal or host variable. This technique is however demonstrated below:

    SELECT tcid, cid FROM db2cert.test_taken WHERE tcid=CAST('TR01' AS db2cert.center_id)

    Predicate evaluation requires that the data types exist compatible (same data character or a compatible data type). They can accomplish the data character conversion (cast) using one of two methods:

  • Use the CAST expression.
  • Use a casting function.
  • Refer to Chapter 15, "Object Relational Programming," for more information on casting for UDTs.


    Although not always mandatory, casting is recommended to ensure compatible data types are compared, including length and scale. This allows DB2 to resolve these as indexable rather than stage 2 predicates.

    Restricting Rows Using Multiple Conditions

    It is workable to combine multiple conditions (predicates) in a sole SQL statement. The predicates can exist combined using Boolean operators, such as the AND or OR operators. These operators allow you to combine multiple conditions in a sole SQL statement. The order of the predicate evaluation will not feel the result set (known as set closure).

    The next case retrieves the records for the test candidates who took a test at test hub TR01 and achieved a score greater than 65. The rows that fill the predicates are known as the qualifying rows. The following case is an SQL statement using multiple predicates:

    SELECT tcid,cid,score FROM db2cert.test_taken WHERE tcid= CAST('TR01' AS db2cert.center_id) AND score > 65 Selecting Columns from Multiple Tables

    There are basically two operations that combine columns from multiple tables in a sole SQL statement. These operations are

    Cartesian Product

    A Cartesian product is a relational operation that will merge perfect the values from one table with perfect the values from another table. This operation is not used frequently because the result table can exist very large. The number of rows in the result table is always equal to the product of the number of rows in the qualifying rows for each of the tables being accessed.


    The DB2 optimizer may elect to utilize a Cartesian product of unrelated tables if this is deemed to exist an efficient way of accessing multiple tables. An case would exist two single-row tables that are joined with a large table. The cross-product of 1 ∴ 1 = 1; thus the large table access is deferred as late as possible, with a potential augment in the restrictive predicates that can exist applied without incurring the overhead of a large Cartesian result. This way of table access is typical in processing queries against a star schema data model.

    The following case is a Cartesian product of perfect test numbers and test names from the TEST table, with perfect candidates from the TEST_TAKEN table. First, select from the TEST table.

    SELECT number, denomination FROM db2cert.test NUMBER NAME ------ -------------------------------------------------- 500 DB2 Fundamentals 501 DB2 Administration 502 DB2 Application Development 3 record(s) selected. Next select of perfect candidates from the test_taken table. SELECT cid,tcid FROM db2cert.test_taken CID TCID --- ---- 222 TR01 222 TR01 222 TR01 111 TX01 111 TX01 111 TX01 333 TX01 333 TX01 333 TX01 9 record(s) selected.

    Then combine the two tables to form a Cartesian product result table.

    SELECT db2cert.test_taken.number,cid,tcid FROM db2cert.test_taken,db2cert.test NUMBER CID TCID ------ --- ---- 500 111 TX01 501 111 TX01 502 111 TX01 500 222 TR01 502 222 TR01 502 222 TR01 500 333 TX01 501 333 TX01 502 333 TX01 500 111 TX01 501 111 TX01 502 111 TX01 500 222 TR01 502 222 TR01 502 222 TR01 500 333 TX01 501 333 TX01 502 333 TX01 500 111 TX01 501 111 TX01 502 111 TX01 500 222 TR01 502 222 TR01 502 222 TR01 500 333 TX01 501 333 TX01 502 333 TX01 27 record(s) selected.

    There are two tables referenced in the FROM clause of this query. The tables are separated by commas. There is no relationship expression in the WHERE clause. This character of query results in a Cartesian product.

    The result table is a representation of perfect workable combinations of the input tables. The TEST table has three rows, and the TEST_TAKEN table has nine rows. Therefore, the SELECT statement shown above returns 27 rows. Note the first column denomination in this query. It is necessary to fully qualify the column denomination by providing the schema denomination and table denomination with the column denomination because this column exists in both the TEST table and TEST_TAKEN table. In this case, they needed to specify that the NUMBER column is to exist retrieved from the DB2CERT.TEST_TAKEN table and not from the DB2CERT.TEST table.

    By adding a predicate to a Cartesian product SQL query, the result table can picture a more useful representation of the data. In the case below, the query represents perfect of the tests that were taken by the candidate whose ID is 111.

    SELECT db2cert.test_taken.number,cid,tcid FROM db2cert.test_taken,db2cert.test WHERE cid='111' NUMBER CID TCID ------ --- ---- 500 111 TX01 500 111 TX01 500 111 TX01 501 111 TX01 501 111 TX01 501 111 TX01 502 111 TX01 502 111 TX01 502 111 TX01 9 record(s) selected.

    Adding a WHERE clause to your query does not always provide the desired result. In the case shown above, you want to know perfect of the tests that were taken by the candidate whose ID is 111, and the query returns nine rows. But they know from previous queries that the candidate took only three tests. The query in the case above has a WHERE clause to filter out the candidate whose ID is 111 from the TEST_TAKEN table, but there was no filter on the TEST_CENTER table. Therefore, the result of the query would always exist a multiple of the number of testing centers. Usually, when multiple tables are referenced, you should involve a cross-table relationship using a table merge or link method, as shown in the following example. They will examine table link methods further in the next section.

    SELECT db2cert.test_taken.number,cid,tcid FROM db2cert.test_taken,db2cert.test WHERE cid= '111' AND db2cert.test_taken.number=db2cert.test.number NUMBER CID TCID ------ --- ---- 500 111 TX01 501 111 TX01 502 111 TX01 3 record(s) selected.

    To avoid data redundancy, it is recommended that the database tables exist normalized. Following a normalization process, a number of related tables will exist. To fill some of the required queries, the tables must exist reconstructed. The tables are reconstructed temporarily, using a table link strategy to bear a single-result table.

    The result tables in the previous examples usually provided candidate ID numbers and not the complete denomination of the test candidates. The candidate IDs are stored in the TEST_TAKEN table, and the replete names are stored in the CANDIDATE table. To obtain the denomination of a candidate, the data must exist retrieved from the CANDIDATE table, using a relationship or link strategy.

    Consider an case that will list the names and phone numbers of candidates who were registered to select a DB2 Certification test in 2000. To accomplish this, they necessity to select data from two different tables:

  • db2cert.candidate
  • db2cert.test_taken
  • Let's retrieve a list of candidate names, phone numbers, and IDs from the CANDIDATE table. The candidate names were stored in multiple columns to allow for simple retrieval by terminal name.

    SELECT fname,initial,lname,hphone,cid FROM db2cert.candidate

    The output of this case follows. Pay special attention to the values in the CID column. It will exist used as the link column in the next example.

    FNAME INITIAL LNAME HPHONE CID -------- ------- ---------- ---------- --- Bill B Wong 1115551234 111 George Baklarz 2226543455 222 Susan M Visser 4442314244 333 Glen R Sheffield 5552143244 444 Jim G Stittle 6662341234 555 Kevin W Street 7773142134 666 Bert F Nicol 8886534534 777 Paul C Zikopoulos 9992112212 888 8 record(s) selected.

    Now, let's retrieve the ID numbers of those candidates who were registered to select the test in 2000.

    SELECT discrete cid FROM db2cert.test_taken WHERE YEAR(date_taken) = 2000 CID --- 222 111 333 3 record(s) selected.

    The candidate IDs in the TEST_TAKEN table must correspond to a candidate ID in the CANDIDATE table because of the declarative referential integrity constraints. The parent table in the relationship is the CANDIDATE table and the child table (dependent table) is the TEST_TAKEN table.

    The result table from the above query does not involve the test candidate 444, since that candidate did not gain a test scheduled for 2000. They necessity to link the two result tables based on the candidate ID values. This column is known as the link column.


    Query performance can significantly better if the link columns are appropriately indexed.

    The following sole query will fill the end-user requirement.

    SELECT discrete fname,initial,lname,hphone FROM db2cert.test_taken,db2cert.candidate WHERE YEAR(date_taken) = 2000 AND db2cert.test_taken.cid=db2cert.candidate.cid

    A table link requires a predicate that includes an expression based on columns from the tables referenced in the FROM clause. This is known as a link predicate. The FROM clause has not changed from the Cartesian product examples. The only inequity is in the link predicate (test_taken.cid = candidate.cid).


    An alternative form of the FROM clause for joins involves explicitly coding the link keyword between the tables (rather than using a comma) and coding the link predicates in the ON clause rather than in the WHERE clause. This way of coding will exist covered in more detail in Chapter 4, "Advanced SQL Coding."

    The table names needed to exist explicitly stated because there is a column named CID in both of the referenced tables. When multiple tables are being accessed in a sole query, any selected columns that occur in more than one table must exist qualified with the table name.


    An oversight will occur if the columns being referenced are cryptic (not properly qualified).

    The maximum number of foundation tables that can exist in a sole SQL statement is 225; however, you are limited to 15 tables in a link (the FROM clause).


    The 15-table restrict can exist increased by updating the macro SPRMMXT to a value greater than 15.

    This kind of link operation shown in the above case is moreover known as an inner join. An inner link displays only the rows that are present in both of the joined tables.

    Using Correlation Names

    If each of the columns needed to exist fully qualified with the table name, such as tableschema.tablename.columnname, the queries would become very large and cumbersome to work with. Fortunately, there is an easier way to qualify the cryptic columns resulting from a multitable SELECT statement.

    The columns can exist qualified using a correlation name. A correlation denomination is a temporary alias for the tables referenced in an SQL statement. They rewrite the previous query using correlated names as follows:

    SELECT discrete fname,initial,lname,hphone FROM db2cert.test_taken tt, db2cert.candidate c WHERE YEAR(date_taken) = 2000 AND tt.cid = c.cid

    The correlation denomination immediately follows the denomination of the table as stated in the FROM clause. In this example, the correlated denomination for the TEST_TAKEN table is tt, and the correlated denomination for the CANDIDATE table is c.


    Correlation names can exist optionally prefixed with the AS keyword, such as DB2CERT.CANDITATE AS C. This is purely for readability.

    The correlated names are accessible within the SQL statement only. Following the execution of the SQL statement, the correlation denomination is no longer defined. Once a correlation denomination has been defined, it can exist referenced in the leisure of the query instead of the table name. However, the table denomination can noiseless exist referenced.


    Use simple, easy-to-remember correlation names. Table initials are Good candidates for correlation names.

    Sorting Your Output

    We gain been retrieving data from one or more tables. The order of the result table has not been specified in any of the SQL statements. Therefore, the data is retrieved in an undetermined order if there is no ORDER BY clause in the SQL statement.


    The only guaranteed way to revert data in the required sequence is with the ORDER BY clause. Any data retrieval that is currently returned in sequence without this clause is purely based upon the data retrieval way at the time. A future access path change may not revert the data in the very sequence.

    The following case produces a list of the test candidates in alphabetical order by terminal denomination for the candidates who gain taken a DB2 Certification test at the TR01 test center.

    SELECT lname,initial,fname FROM db2cert.candidate c,db2cert.test_taken tt WHERE c.cid=tt.cid AND tcid='TR01' ORDER BY lname

    This case contains a fresh clause, ORDER BY. After the ORDER BY clause, you can list the columns that will specify the sort order and the character of sort.


    Appropriate indexing may allow DB2 to avoid sorting the data to match the ORDER BY clause. If the data is already sequenced via the index, DB2 may elect to utilize the index and avoid sorting the data. DB2 cannot avoid a sort for an ORDER BY involving columns from more than one table. Where possible, involve columns from only one table in the ORDER BY to give DB2 greater opportunity for sort avoidance.

    The SQL can exist modified so that the output is changed to descending order by terminal denomination and a secondary order column on the first denomination in ascending order.

    SELECT lname,fname,hphone FROM db2cert.candidate c,db2cert.test_taken tt WHERE c.cid=tt.cid AND tcid= 'TR01' ORDER BY lname DESC, fname

    In this example, the DESC keyword that follows the lname column indicates that the result table should exist in descending order based on the terminal name. More than one record can gain the very terminal name. This situation is quite common. There is a second column specified in the ORDER BY clause, fname. There is no keyword specifying the sort sequence based on the fname column. Therefore, the default ordering sequence (ascending) is used.

    The next case contains three columns lname, fname, and hphone. You can reference the column that should exist used to sort the data using the column denomination or by specifying its position in the select list. Using the column position is useful when the column in the select list is made up of derived columns (calculated columns) that gain no categorical name.

    SELECT lname,fname,hphone FROM db2cert.candidate c,db2cert.test_taken tt WHERE c.cid=tt.cid AND tcid='TR01' ORDER BY 1 DESC, 2

    In this example, the sort order is specified using the column position. Therefore, the query result is exactly the very as the in previous example.

    You can moreover allocate an alternative column denomination using column renaming. The assigned denomination can then exist referenced in the ORDER BY clause, and it appears as the column heading where appropriate.


    Although useful, coding a column position rather than a column (or renamed column) in the ORDER BY clause may lead to a different sequence if another column is inadvertently added to the query that alters the column positioning.

    The ORDER BY clause must succeed perfect subselects in the FULLSELECT statement. The only clauses that can succeed the ORDER BY clause are the for FOR FETCH ONLY, FOR READ ONLY, OPTIMIZE, WITH QUERYNO, FETCH FIRST n ROWS clauses.

    Derived Columns

    There are some cases when you will necessity to accomplish calculations on the data. The SQL language has some basic mathematical and string functions built in. Mathematical operations involve gauge addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division.

    The calculation can exist defined in the WHERE clause of the SQL statement or the select list. Suppose that you necessity to reckon a passing rate for a DB2 test. The passing rate is defined as the percentage of candidates that pass the test (totalpassed*100/totaltaken). The following SQL statement will accomplish this for us for test number 500:

    SELECT number, totalpassed*100/totaltaken FROM test WHERE number='500'

    In this example, the second column of the output list is a calculated column. bethink that you must employ the column position if you want to employ this calculated column for the ORDER BY clause unless you denomination it (as they now discuss).


    Occasionally, the results of a derived column may not pomp as expected. The case using totalpassed*100/totaltaken will result in a value of 66 being retrieved. Since both the totalpassed and totaltaken columns are integers, the final result is moreover an integer, and the fractional fraction is discarded. If this is not your desired result, you should employ other functions (like decimal) to change the way the calculation is performed or displayed.

    Naming Derived/Calculated Columns

    You can specify a column denomination for any expression. When you provide the derived (calculated) column with a name, the ORDER BY clause can reference the derived denomination to allow for a more readable SQL statement.

    The following SQL calculates the percentage of people that gain passed the DB2 Certification exams and orders the output in descending order of the passing rate.

    SELECT number,totalpassed*100/totaltaken AS PassedRate FROM test ORDER BY PassedRate DESC

    The AS clause is used to rename the default denomination of an factor in the select list. In this example, they are giving the denomination of PassedRate to the result of the division of columns totalpassed by totaltaken. The named column is used in the query to specify the column that should exist used for sorting the output.


    The AS keyword is optional, although it should exist added for readability. Without the AS clause, it may exist unclear whether the intent was to rename a column or a comma was missed between two retrieved columns.


    In DB2, there are different types of functions provided. For example, two types of functions provided by DB2 are scalar and column functions (a third character of role called a table role is discussed in Chapter 15, "Object Relational Programming."

  • Scalar functions (also known as row functions) provide a result for each row of the result table. A scalar role can exist used any set an expression is allowed.

  • Column functions (also known as vector functions) work with a group of rows to provide a result. The group is specified using a FULLSELECT and optionally grouped using the GROUP BY clause.

  • In this section, they interlard you to some of the SQL functions provided with DB2. SQL functions are categorized by their implementation type. Either the functions are built in or they are extensions of DB2 and are known as user-defined functions (UDFs).

  • Built-in functions are defined within the SQL standards, and they are provided by DB2. These can exist either scalar or column functions.

  • UDFs are not defined within the SQL standards because they are extensions of the current SQL language. These functions can exist developed by a DB2 administrator or application developer. UDFs can exist either scalar or table functions, but not column functions. Once the UDFs gain been created, they can exist invoked by any conclude user with the proper privileges. For more information about UDFs, advert to Chapter 15.

  • Scalar Functions

    Scalar functions are applied to each row of data, and there is a per-row result provided. If they want to retrieve only the first three digits of telephone numbers for each candidate, they could employ a scalar function. The role that is used is called SUBSTR. The arguments for this role involve a string data character column, a birth offset, and length. The output data character and impute of the role depend on the input data character and attribute. The following case retrieves the telephone locality code for the column wphone.

    SELECT lname, SUBSTR(CHAR(wphone),1,3) FROM db2cert.candidate

    The SUBSTR role is a scalar function. In this example, SUBSTR returns a character string of three characters. The result string corresponds to the first three characters of the wphone column. This role is known as a string role because it works with any string data type. If they wanted to provide the output column with a meaningful name, they could provide an alias, as was done for calculated columns.

    In the case above, the substring starts from the birth of the string, because they testify one (1) as the second parameter of the function. The length of the resulting string is indicated in the third argument. In their example, the length is three. Note that the data character of the wphone column is phone, so a casting role is used to transmogrify the phone data character to the char data type.

    The following query will provide the month when the exam was taken. The input for this role is a DATE string, and the output is an integer.

    SELECT fname, MONTH (date_taken) FROM candidate c, test_taken tt WHERE c.cid=tt.cid Column Functions

    Column functions provide a sole result for a group of qualifying rows for a specified table or view. Many common queries can exist satisfied using column functions where they involve common tasks, such as finding the smallest value, the largest value, or the middling value for a group of data records. In the following case you can obtain the maximum length of time of any of the DB2 Certification exams:

    SELECT MAX("length") FROM test

    Because the length column shares its denomination with the length scalar function, the column denomination is encased within double-quotes to distinguish this as a column and not a function.

    If they added a WHERE clause to this example, the maximum would picture the maximum length for the qualifying rows, since the predicate is used to filter the data prior to the application of the MAX function.

    This next case calculates the middling of the number of seats for perfect of the test centers. Notice the column role AVG is used in this example:

    SELECT AVG(noseats) FROM test_center

    DB2 provides many more built-in functions. If you are interested in calculating statistical information, you can employ statistical functions, such as VARIANCE, STDDEV, or a sampling of these functions.


    MAX and MIN functions can exist either column or scalar functions depending on the input arguments.

    Grouping Values

    Many queries require some level of aggregated data. This is accomplished in SQL through the employ of the GROUP BY clause. The following SQL obtains the middling number of seats for each country:

    SELECT country, AVG(noseats) FROM test_center GROUP BY country

    This SQL statement obtains the middling number of seats per country, and the GROUP BY clause tells DB2 to group together the rows that gain the very values in the columns indicated in the GROUP BY list. In their example, they are grouping countries into subsets. As the subsets are created, DB2 calculates the middling of each of those groups or subsets, in this case, by each country.

    When you combine column functions and other elements, such as column names, scalar functions, or calculated columns, you must employ the GROUP BY clause. In this case, you must involve every factor that is not a column role in the GROUP BY list. The only elements that can exist omitted in the GROUP BY list are constant values.

    The next SQL statement obtains a list that includes the middling cleave score and minimum test length for the DB2 Certification exams. They group this list by the character of exam, as follows:

    SELECT type, AVG(cut_score), MIN("length") FROM test GROUP BY type


    Appropriate indexing can allow DB2 to avoid a sort to group the data rows to match the GROUP BY clause.

    It is workable to sort the output of the previous case using an ORDER BY clause.


    GROUP BY may revert data in the very order as an ORDER BY, but this is not guaranteed and is based upon the access path. The only way to guarantee data sequence is with an ORDER BY.

    Restricting the employ of Sets of Data

    Up to now, they gain discussed how to restrict output based on row conditions. With SQL, it is moreover workable to restrict that output using column functions and the GROUP BY clause. Suppose you want a list of perfect the test centers that gain administered more than five DB2 Certification exams. To accomplish it easier to understand, let's first find the number of tests that gain been taken in each test center.

    SELECT tcid, count(*) FROM test_taken GROUP BY tcid

    We employ the count column role to find the total number of tests that gain been taken in each test center. When you employ an asterisk (*) with the count function, you are indicating that you want the number of rows in a table that meet the criteria established in the SQL statement. In this example, they are grouping by TCID because they gain a number of occurrences for perfect the test centers in the TEST_TAKEN table. The TEST_TAKEN table has an entry for every DB2 Certification exam that has been taken. Finally, the output is restricted to only those test centers that gain administered more than four exams.

    SELECT tcid FROM test_taken GROUP BY tcid HAVING COUNT(*) > 4

    This case introduces the HAVING clause. The HAVING clause is equivalent to the WHERE clause for groups and column functions. The HAVING clause will restrict the result set to only the groups that meet the condition specified in it. In their example, only the test centers that gain administered more than four DB2 Certification exams will exist displayed.

    Eliminating Duplicates

    When you execute a query, you might find duplicate rows in the acknowledge set. The SQL language provides a special clause to remove the duplicate rows from your output. The following SQL generates a list of names and phone numbers for perfect the candidates who gain taken a test. In the following example, they purge the duplicate rows from their output list using the discrete clause.

    SELECT discrete fname,wphone,hphone FROM candidate c,test_taken tt WHERE c.cid=tt.cid

    The discrete clause can moreover exist used with the count function. When you employ discrete inside a count function, it will not count the duplicate entries for a particular column. The following case allows you to count how many different test centers gain candidates registered.

    SELECT COUNT(DISTINCT tcid) FROM test_taken

    This case provides the number of test centers that are registered in the TEST_TAKEN table. bethink that perfect the candidates who gain registered for DB2 Certification exams are stored in this table. accomplish sure that you understand the inequity between COUNT(*), COUNT(colname), and COUNT(DISTINCT colname). They are very similar in syntax but differ in function.


    COUNT(*) returns a count of perfect rows that qualify against the WHERE clause. COUNT(colname) returns a count of perfect rows that qualify against the WHERE clause, with null occurrences of colname removed. COUNT(DISTINCT colname) counts discrete occurrences of colname, with nulls removed.

    Searching for String Patterns

    SQL has a powerful predicate that allows you to search for patterns in character string columns. This is the relish predicate. Suppose you want to generate a list of the candidates whose first denomination starts with the letter G.

    SELECT fname,lname,wphone,hphone FROM candidate WHERE fname relish 'G%' ORDER BY lname,fname

    In this query, they employ a wildcard character with the relish predicate. In SQL, the percent character (%) is a substitute for zero or more characters. The search string G% can exist substituted with names relish George, Gary, Ginger, and so on (since the percent character can substitute zero or more characters, the search string can moreover exist a sole letter G).

    The percent character can exist used any set in the search string. It moreover can exist used as many times as you necessity it. The percent token is not case-sensitive, so it can select the set of uppercase or lowercase letters. However, the constant characters included in your search string are case-sensitive.

    Another wildcard character used with the relish predicate is the underline character (_). This character substitutes one and only one character. The underline character can select the set of any character. However, the underline character cannot exist substituted for an vacuous character.


    If the pattern needs to search for occurrences of the wildcard characters % and _ as their actual values, then the evade clause is used to specify a character that precedes the percent or underscore in the pattern.

    The previous SQL can exist modified to involve perfect candidates' names and the telephone numbers for those candidates whose denomination has a lowercase letter "a" as its second letter.

    SELECT fname,lname,wphone,hphone FROM candidate WHERE fname relish '_a%' ORDER BY lname,fname

    This case uses two wildcard characters that work with the relish predicate. The search string in this case can involve names, such as Paul, Gabriel, or Natalie. (The first character may exist any character, the lowercase letter "a" is the second character in the string, and the string ends with any number of characters.)


    When the pattern in a relish predicate is a fixed-length host variable, the amend length must exist specified for the string to exist returned. 'G%' assigned to an 8-byte variable (LIKE :variable) will search for perfect occurrences of 'G% ' (G, followed by any character, followed by 6 blank characters). To find rows that inaugurate with a G, then 'G%%%%%%%' should exist assigned to the fixed-length variable.

    Searching for Data in Ranges

    SQL moreover offers us a scope operator. This operator is used to restrict rows that are in a particular scope of values. esteem the requirement to list those candidates whose scores in the DB2 Certification exam are between 60 and 75.

    SELECT discrete fname,lname,wphone,hphone FROM candidate c, test_taken tt WHERE c.cid=tt.cid AND score BETWEEN 60 AND 75

    The BETWEEN predicate includes the values that you specify for searching your data. An famous fact about the BETWEEN predicate is that it can work with character ranges as well.

    In addition to the score requirement, this case modifies the SQL to involve only those candidates whose terminal denomination begins with a letter between B and G.

    SELECT discrete fname,lname,wphone,hphone FROM candidate c, test_taken tt WHERE c.cid=tt.cid AND score BETWEEN 60 AND 75 AND lname BETWEEN 'B' AND 'GZ'

    In this example, the second BETWEEN predicate contains character values. They necessity to specify the GZ value to involve perfect the workable names that start with the letter G. This was done assuming that the letter Z is the terminal workable value in the alphabet.


    The arguments of the BETWEEN clause are not interchangeable; the first must specify the low value, and the second, the towering value. BETWEEN 1 AND 2 will revert perfect values within the scope (inclusive of 1 and 2). BETWEEN 2 AND 1 will revert zero rows.

    Searching for Null Values

    Null values picture an unknown value for a particular episode of an entity. They can employ a null value in the cases where they don't know a particular value of a column. Let's relate that they want a list of perfect those candidates whose score is not yet input. This condition is represented with a null value.

    SELECT fname,lname,wphone,hphone FROM candidate c, test_taken tt WHERE c.cid=tt.cid AND score IS NULL

    The IS predicate is used to search for the null value in this example. bethink that the null value means "unknown." Because it has no particular value, it can't exist compared with other values. You can't employ conditional operands, such as equal (=) or greater than (>), with null values.

    Searching for Negative Conditions

    The BETWEEN, IS, and relish predicates always behold for the values that meet a particular condition. These predicates can moreover exist used to behold for values that don't meet a particular criterion.

    The NOT predicate can exist used to behold for the opposite condition, combined with the LIKE, BETWEEN, and IS predicate, to accomplish negative searches, as shown in the following example. This case has a relish predicate combined with the NOT predicate. They want a list of those candidates whose terminal names execute not start with the letter S.

    SELECT discrete fname,lname,wphone,hphone FROM candidate WHERE lname NOT relish 'S%' ORDER BY lname,fname

    The next case has a BETWEEN predicate combined with the NOT predicate. They want the list of those candidates whose score, in any test, is not in the scope 60 to 75.

    SELECT discrete fname,lname,wphone,hphone FROM candidate c, test_taken tt WHERE c.cid=tt.cid AND integer(score) NOT BETWEEN 60 and 75

    In this example, the NOT predicate will exclude perfect the values that are in the scope 60 to 75.

    Negation can moreover exist applied to the null value. This SQL produces a report that searches for those candidates that gain a seat number assigned. This is expressed with a NOT NULL value.

    SELECT discrete fname,lname,wphone,hphone FROM candidate c, test_taken tt WHERE c.cid=tt.cid AND seat_no IS NOT NULL


    The NOT operator can moreover exist used to negate the gauge comparison operators, =, <, <=, >, and >=.

    When dealing with nulls, NOT or negation may not revert the opposite of the positive logic. For example, WHERE SEAT_NO = 1 will revert only the rows for seat number 1. Any value other than 1 is discarded, as these rows are FALSE, including nulls, since these are unknown. WHERE SEAT_NO <> 1 excludes rows where the seat number is 1, and moreover discards nulls because these are unknown.

    Searching for a Set of Values

    In SQL, it is workable to establish a restriction condition based on a set of values. Suppose that you necessity a list of the test centers that gain candidates registered for the DB2 Fundamentals test and for the DB2 Application evolution test. This can exist queried with the following statement:

    SELECT discrete name,phone FROM test_center tc, test_taken tt WHERE tc.tcid=tt.tcid AND (number = '500' or number ='502')

    To simplify structure multiple OR conditions when multiple values for the very column are being compared, it is workable to rewrite the statement using the IN clause.

    SELECT discrete name,phone FROM test_center tc, test_taken tt WHERE tc.tcid=tt.tcid AND number IN ('500','502')

    The IN clause is used to denote a set of values. In this example, they employ a constant set of values.

    You can moreover employ the NOT predicate with the IN clause. In this case, the condition will exist precise when a value is not present in the set of values provided to the IN clause. You can employ as many values as you wish in the IN clause, within the defined limits of the size of a SQL statement.

    Advanced Selection Functionality

    In Chapter 4, "Advanced SQL Coding," they will behold at more of the functionality and power of the SELECT statement. They will cover topics such as

  • Subqueries
  • Inner and outer joins
  • Nested table expressions
  • CASE expressions
  • Row expressions
  • Unions

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