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000-955 towering Volume Storage Fundamentals V2

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000-955 exam Dumps Source : High Volume Storage Fundamentals V2

Test Code : 000-955
Test denomination : High Volume Storage Fundamentals V2
Vendor denomination : IBM
real questions : 69 true Questions

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IBM towering Volume Storage Fundamentals

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Falk Pollok, Parijat Dube

Introduction

With over 40,000 Github stars and adoption in cloud systems from IBM Cloud Kubernetes provider, Amazon Elastic Container carrier for Kubernetes (EKS) over Azure Kubernetes service (AKS) to without doubt Google Kubernetes Engine (GKE), Kubernetes has develop into one of the vital favorite cloud applied sciences. besides these public cloud examples it has in a similar course superior in on-premise and hybrid cloud deployments from IBM Cloud inner most (ICP) to GKE on-prem and Redhat’s OpenShift. hence, it comes at no amaze that it's additionally heavily used within IBM research where they abide efficaciously tailored it for AI workloads. despite the fact, microservice architectures often require procedures and hence containers to live stateless which is for instance demanded in ingredient 6 of the Twelve factor App instructions. Sending facts over the community is among the main bottlenecks to avoid in any facts-centric workload from massive information jobs akin to Spark-primarily based facts science jobs to practising in profound studying and profound reinforcement researching up to neural network visualization. Storage options in Kubernetes abide considered a lot of adjustments over concomitant types leading to the present solution of Persistent quantity Claims and Flex Drivers as well as really expert storage drivers enjoy Intel’s VCK. rather than focusing on a historic perspective they can in this article result a extra hands-on approach and present distinct storage alternate options in addition to a quick future outlook on this evolving box.

we are able to first loom on the three natural storage alternate options cloud expostulate storage (COS), file storage (NFS) and obstruct storage (ext4 by means of iSCSI) as the main theme of this text after which in short contact upon AI-particular concerns and evolving technologies.

fundamental quantity Provisioning Mechanisms in Kubernetes Provisioning Volumes with Persistent Volumes and persistent extent Claims

There are two famous objects for Kubernetes volumes, Persistent Volumes (PV) and confirmed extent Claims (PVC), which allows a separation of considerations: administrators can provision PVs and developers can request storage via PVCs. Volumes can either live provisioned statically by course of manually growing these objects or they may moreover live provisioned dynamically via a storage category, wherein case the developer best creates a PVC that refers to a particular storage classification and Kubernetes will tackle the provisioning dynamically through storage drivers.

firstly, quantity plugins needed to live in-tree, i.e. they needed to live compiled with Kubernetes which was alleviated by course of so referred to as Flex volumes that are the present state-of-the-artwork in productive used and should live used in this weblog post. Flex volumes allow exterior quantity plugins, but nevertheless often require root node entry because they require dependencies to live installed on the employees.

The Cloud expostulate Storage driver they argue beneath, as an example, depends upon s3fs binaries and should deploy them by using launching a daemonset that runs one pod on every employee node in order to then open a tunnel into the employee itself (which requires privileged entry) to replica its binaries.

a more robust manner in the close future could live using CSI drivers with the intention to elope completely containerized and for that understanding no longer reckon upon advanced privileges. moreover, it is an impartial commonplace that moreover applies to different cloud orchestrators (COs) enjoy Docker and Mesos and it'll live used in the course of the equal Kubernetes primitives outlined above (PVs, PVCs and storage courses), so most of this blog post collection may still live applicable even after the transition.

File Storage

File storage is the least difficult to install, for the understanding that it is supported by default — we attain not deserve to install drivers and may without retard provision a Persistent extent pretension with it. in the event you listing your storage courses (and grep for file storage in certain) you'll locate that there are diverse QoS courses:

$ kubectl gain sc | grep ibmc-filedefault ibm.io/ibmc-file 24dibmc-file-bronze ibm.io/ibmc-file 24dibmc-file-custom ibm.io/ibmc-file 24dibmc-file-gold ibm.io/ibmc-file 24dibmc-file-retain-bronze ibm.io/ibmc-file 24dibmc-file-hold-customized ibm.io/ibmc-file 24dibmc-file-continue-gold ibm.io/ibmc-file 24dibmc-file-preserve-silver ibm.io/ibmc-file 24dibmc-file-silver ibm.io/ibmc-file 24d

The bronze, silver and gold courses are so called SoftLayer endurance storage (roughly significance it determines IOPS by means of dimension and offers serve for snapshots and replication) — that you could ascertain their exact specs in the storage class reference. customized storage allows one to specify with best granularity how many IOPS are required. The underlying difficult disk character is then decided by using the IOPS/GB ratio (<= 0.3 SATA, >0.3 SSD). hold determines no matter if your data are stored when you delete the corresponding PVC.

upon getting determined your storage classification which you could create a PVC as follows:

kubectl celebrate -f - <<EOFapiVersion: v1kind: PersistentVolumeClaimmetadata:name: nfspvcspec:accessModes:- ReadWriteOnceresources:requests:storage: 41GistorageClassName: ibmc-file-goldEOF

we can first conclude showing a course to create PVCs for each and every storage category after which pomp how to mount them interior a pod.

Block Storage

Block storage is fairly greater concerned, but moreover very effortless to installation, since its helm charts are already provided within the IBM Cloud registry. subsequently, they are able to simply add the repository and elope privilege here instructions to acquire a brand unique set of storage courses:

helm inithelm repo add ibm https://registry.bluemix.web/helm/ibmhelm repo updatehelm deploy ibm/ibmcloud-block-storage-plugin

if you exigency to search every accessible helm charts, elope helm search. they can then provision a PVC similar to before:

kubectl celebrate -f - <<EOFapiVersion: v1kind: PersistentVolumeClaimmetadata:identify: regpvcspec:accessModes:- ReadWriteOnceresources:requests:storage: 1GistorageClassName: ibmc-block-goldEOF Cloud Object Storage

S3, the primary Storage carrier, originated as Amazon’s fifth cloud product over a decade ago. in keeping with SimilarTech it is used with the aid of over 200k sites, it's moreover the imperative storage component for Netflix (which developed S3mper to deliver a constant secondary index on proper of an ultimately constant storage) in addition to Reddit, Pinterest, Tumblr and others. Arguably, more crucial than the success of someone product is its adoption as an API. With cloud expostulate storage options from various cloud vendors adapting it, it has been one of the vital first dealer-independent cloud standards. IBM’s Cloud expostulate Storage is S3 compatible and might as a result live used with any S3-appropriate tooling. In privilege here, they are able to setup a COS example, present faultfinding tools and argue the course to readily usher it inside a Kubernetes cluster through FLEX drivers.

Setup of COS

seek “Cloud expostulate Storage” in IBM Cloud, click on on the “Object Storage” infrastructure carrier.

click on “Create”. that you would live able to expend default parameters.

Afterwards, you should create unique credentials. tickle manufacture confident to set "HMAC":true as inline configuration parameter. this will live inescapable that an entry key id and stealthy access key pair are created that they can expend for a Watson laptop getting to know flaunt up as well as managing their COS buckets with the AWS CLI.

Afterwards, that you could swap to the Buckets tab and create a brand unique bucket. tickle live confident that this denomination has to live globally enjoyable.

once a bucket exists, they are able to manually add files to it. The picture depicts how to attain so by means of the GUI.

as an example, they could add the MNIST dataset.

Cloud expostulate Storage Tooling AWS CLI

after getting a COS instance, you could access it during the S3 a piece of the AWS CLI. besides the typical file instructions cp (reproduction), ls (record), mv (circulation) and rm (eliminate) time-honored from unixoid working systems it permits us to sync info, manufacture buckets (mb) and remove them (rb) [interested readers find the less used commands presign and website in the documentation]. In apply, this could peer as follows:

aws s3 rm --recursive --endpoint-url https://s3-api.us-geo.objectstorage.softlayer.web s3://<bucket_name> aws s3 ls --endpoint-url https://s3-api.us-geo.objectstorage.softlayer.internet s3://<bucket_name>
  • replica file to COS (additionally works to down load COS info if parameters are flipped)
  • aws s3 cp --endpoint-url https://s3-api.dal-us-geo.objectstorage.service.networklayer.com <local_file> s3://<target_bucket>
  • add every info from current listing to COS
  • aws s3 cp --endpoint-url https://s3-api.dal-us-geo.objectstorage.carrier.networklayer.com --recursive . s3://<target_bucket>

    To specify the credentials to manufacture expend of you can define the ambiance variables AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID and AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY both globally or simply in front of the command, e.g.

    AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID=<AWS_ACCESS_KEY> AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY= <AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY> aws s3 ls --endpoint-url https://s3-api.us-geo.objectstorage.softlayer.net s3://<BUCKET_NAME>

    however, you can regulate ~/.aws/credentials to encompass distinct keys following the pattern

    [<PROFILE_NAME>]aws_access_key_id = <AWS_ACCESS_KEY>aws_secret_access_key = <AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY>

    The entry where <PROFILE_NAME> is default is used in case you don't specify a profile within the CLI command. different entries will moreover live used as follows:

    aws s3 ls --endpoint-url https://s3-api.us-geo.objectstorage.softlayer.net --profile <PROFILE_NAME> s3://<BUCKET_NAME> Mounting COS to file system by course of s3fs and goofys

    as a substitute of at every times specifying every parameters and the exact bucket identify and performing every operations through the AWS CLI, it's extra effortless to mount the bucket as a folder onto the existing file device. This can live performed by the expend of s3fs or goofys. To mount a bucket by means of goofys simply create a file ~/.aws/credentials that incorporates the credentials enjoy this:

    [default]aws_access_key_id = <ACCESS_KEY>aws_secret_access_key = <SECRET_ACCESS_KEY>

    down load goofys with wget http://bit.ly/goofys-newest after which mount the extent by course of

    ./goofys-latest --endpoint=https://s3-api.us-geo.objectstorage.softlayer.internet <BUCKET_NAME> ~/testmount

    (assuming you abide got created the mount goal by the expend of mkdir ~/testmount and made goofys executable by the expend of chmod +x goofys-latest)

    that you could unmount the extent by means of sudo umount ~/testmount/

    however, you could expend s3fs. Create a credentials file ~/.cos_creds with:

    <ACCESS_KEY>:<SECRET_ACCESS_KEY>

    make inescapable neither your group nor others abide entry rights to this file, e.g. by means of chmod o-rwx ~/.cos_creds you can then mount the bucket by the expend of

    s3fs dlaas-ci-tf-practising-records-us-ordinary ~/testmount -o passwd_file= ~/.cos_creds -o url=https://s3-api.us-geo.objectstorage.softlayer.internet -o use_path_request_style

    note that s3fs can optionally give huge logging guidance:

    s3fs dlaas-ci-tf-working towards-records-us-typical ~/testmount -o passwd_file= ~/.cos_creds -o dbglevel=data -f -o curldbg -o url=https://s3-api.us-geo.objectstorage.softlayer.web -o use_path_request_style &

    greater suggestions about s3fs can e.g. live discovered here.

    In simple test environments it may live enough to mount the folder as a number extent, e.g. into Minikube by the expend of minikube mount ~/testmount:/cosdata [Note: This will spawn a daemon that will support running so either reserve it in background or continue in unique terminal] To test you could then ssh into Minikube (minikube ssh) and listing the files with ls /cosdata Then in revolve which you can mount the listing from inside the Minikube VM into a pod by the expend of hostPath binding:

    kubectl create -f proxymounttest.yml

    with proxymounttest.yml:

    apiVersion: v1kind: Podmetadata:name: ubuntuspec:containers:- name: ubuntuimage: ubuntu:14.04imagePullPolicy: IfNotPresentstdin: truestdinOnce: truetty: trueworkingDir: /cosdatavolumeMounts:- mountPath: /cosdataname: host-mountvolumes:- identify: host-mounthostPath:course: /cosdata

    Of course, you could achieve the identical through a PVC. both methods lead to the outcome that you should exec into the pod (kubectl exec -it ubuntu -- /bin/bash) and elope ls /cosdata to listing the folder just enjoy they did in the Minikube VM.

    however, for Kubernetes clusters in creation it is more captivating to adequately mount volumes by the expend of drivers and therefore they can focus on in here a course to expend a Flex driver.

    Cloud expostulate Storage: Driver Setup

    Now that the Helm charts can live create in IBM Cloud it suffices to expend them to attain storage classes for COS, i.e.

    helm repo add stage https://registry.stage1.ng.bluemix.net/helm/ibmhelm repo updatehelm fetch --untar stage/ibmcloud-object-storage-pluginhelm plugin install ibmcloud-object-storage-plugin/helm-ibmchelm initkubectl gain pod -n kube-equipment | grep tiller# Wait & examine until situation is Runninghelm ibmc deploy stage/ibmcloud-object-storage-plugin –fibmcloud-object-storage-plugin/ibm/values.yaml

    which you could then checklist the unique storage courses: kubectl gain sc

    Cloud expostulate Storage: usher Driver Setup

    IBM has launched an open supply COS plugin for Kubernetes. it is at the instant probably the most difficult to setup of every classes, but it surely isn't unreasonable to expect that helm charts for COS are soon added to the IBM repository after which the setup may live as convenient as obstruct storage. nonetheless, it is an outstanding demonstration, due to the fact it suggests a course to load customized drivers into IBM Cloud. The manual setup needs custom images, so that you want credentials for both an IBM Cloud container registry or for a personal Docker registry. The steps below matter on that you've set the atmosphere variables DOCKER_REPO, DOCKER_REPO_USER, DOCKER_REPO_PASS and DOCKER_NAMESPACE to your registry credentials as well as docker namespace.

    let us afterwards clone and bring together the driver:

    git clone https://github.com/IBM/ibmcloud-object-storage-plugin.gitcd ibmcloud-object-storage-plugin/install/binary-construct-and-installation-scripts/./build-all.sh

    We then should login to their registry and shove the pictures they simply constructed.

    docker login --username=$DOCKER_REPO_USER --password=$DOCKER_REPO_PASS https://$DOCKER_REPO docker tag ibmcloud-object-storage-deployer:v001 $DOCKER_REPO/$DOCKER_NAMESPACE/ibmcloud-object-storage-deployer:v001docker tag ibmcloud-object-storage-plugin:v001 $DOCKER_REPO/$DOCKER_NAMESPACE/ibmcloud-object-storage-plugin:v001 docker shove $DOCKER_REPO/$DOCKER_NAMESPACE/ibmcloud-object-storage-deployer:v001docker shove $DOCKER_REPO/$DOCKER_NAMESPACE/ibmcloud-object-storage-plugin:v001

    Now they deserve to deploy the plugin and driver. As a primary step, they deserve to adapt the YAML descriptors to parley with their docker registry and namespace. due to the fact they try this by course of sed and macOS doesn't expend GNU sed by means of default, they expend a variable CMD_SED to ingredient to the redress command. On macOS this assumes you installed GNU sed as gsed, e.g. by the expend of brew. They additionally exigency to create a docker-registry stealthy on the Kubernetes cluster so it will possibly authenticate against the container registry and draw the photos. finally, they will installation the plugin, provisioner and storage type.

    operating_system=$(uname)if [[ "$operating_system" == 'Linux' ]]; thenCMD_SED=sedelif [[ "$operating_system" == 'Darwin' ]]; thenCMD_SED=gsedfi# exchange photograph tag in yaml descriptors to point to registry and namespace$CMD_SED -i "s/picture: \"ibmcloud-object-storage-deployer:v001\"/picture: \"$DOCKER_REPO\/$DOCKER_NAMESPACE\/ibmcloud-object-storage-deployer:v001\"/g" set up-plugin.yaml$CMD_SED -i "s/photograph: \"ibmcloud-object-storage-plugin:v001\"/image: \"$DOCKER_REPO\/$DOCKER_NAMESPACE\/ibmcloud-object-storage-plugin:v001\"/g" deploy-provisioner.yaml# Create secret, then deploy daemonset and pluginkubectl create stealthy docker-registry regcred --docker-server=$DOCKER_REPO --docker-username=$DOCKER_REPO_USER --docker-password=$DOCKER_REPO_PASS --docker-e mail=unknown@docker.io -n kube-systemkubectl create -f deploy-plugin.yamlkubectl create -f deploy-provisioner.yamlcd ..kubectl create -f ibmc-s3fs-general-StorageClass.yaml kubectl create -f ibmc-s3fs-standard-StorageClass.yaml Provision Cloud expostulate Storage PVC and check Pod

    With the driving compel it is now effortless to create a PVC, but not enjoy the previous strategies they exigency a stealthy to hold their COS credentials. hence, they create the stealthy first:

    kubectl celebrate -f - <<EOFapiVersion: v1kind: Secrettype: ibm/ibmc-s3fsmetadata:name: peer at various-secretnamespace: defaultdata:entry-key: <AWS_ACCESS_KEY>secret-key: <AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY>EOF

    Please note that the credentials exigency to live Base64 encoded, so tickle encode them by course of resound -n "<SECRET>" | base64

    we will then create the PVC itself:

    kubectl celebrate -f - <<EOFkind: PersistentVolumeClaimapiVersion: v1metadata:name: s3fs-look at various-ds-pvcnamespace: defaultannotations:quantity.beta.kubernetes.io/storage-type: "ibmc-s3fs-standard"ibm.io/auto-create-bucket: "proper"ibm.io/auto-delete-bucket: "true"ibm.io/bucket: "<wonderful bucket_name>"ibm.io/endpoint: "https://s3-api.us-geo.objectstorage.softlayer.net"ibm.io/vicinity: "us-common"ibm.io/secret-name: "check-secret"spec:accessModes:- ReadOnlyManyresources:requests:storage: 40GiEOF

    Now that every one PVCs were created they will create a pod that mounts every of them:

    kubectl apply -f - <<EOFapiVersion: v1kind: Podmetadata:name: s3fs-look at various-podnamespace: defaultspec:containers:- identify: s3fs-look at various-containerimage: anaudiyal/countless-loopvolumeMounts:- mountPath: "/cos"identify: s3fs-look at various-quantity- mountPath: "/block"identify: block-examine-volume- mountPath: "/nfs"identify: nfs-examine-volumevolumes:- identify: s3fs-look at various-volumepersistentVolumeClaim:claimName: s3fs-test-pvc- name: block-check-volumepersistentVolumeClaim:claimName: regpvc- name: nfs-test-volumepersistentVolumeClaim:claimName: nfspvcEOF AI-particular Storage options: Intel vck

    Intel vck (formerly KVC — Kubernetes quantity Controller) is being developed by Intel AI and customized-tailor-made for AI workloads. It provides entry to a various set of facts sources via a customized aid Definition the inner workings of which were outlined in a weblog post through them. as an alternative of IBM Cloud they tried this in a local DIND Kubernetes cluster. with a purpose to set it up execute here:

    kubectl create namespace vcknskubectl config set-context $(kubectl config current-context) --namespace=vcknsgit clone https://github.com/IntelAI/vck.git && cd vckhelm init# Wait except kubectl gain pod -n kube-gadget | grep tiller shows operating state# regulate helm-charts/kube-extent-contoller/values.yaml to manufacture expend of legitimate tag from https://hub.docker.com/r/volumecontroller/kube-quantity-controller/tags/helm deploy helm-charts/kube-volume-controller/ -n vck --wait --set namespace=vcknskubectl gain crdexport AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID=<aws_access_key>export AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY=<aws_secret_access_key>kubectl create stealthy familiar aws-creds --from-literal=awsAccessKeyID=$AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID --from-literal=awsSecretAccessKey=$AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEYkubectl create -f materials/customresources/s3/one-vc.yaml# content material of supplies/customresources/s3/one-vc.yaml:apiVersion: vck.intelai.org/v1alpha1kind: VolumeManagermetadata:name: vck-example1namespace: vcknsspec:volumeConfigs:- identification: "vol1"replicas: 1sourceType: "S3"accessMode: "ReadWriteOnce"nodeAffinity:requiredDuringSchedulingIgnoredDuringExecution:nodeSelectorTerms:- matchExpressions:- key: kubernetes.io/hostnameoperator: Invalues:- <SOME_K8S_WORKER_NODE_NAME>means: 5Gilabels:key1: val1key2: val2options:endpointURL: https://s3-api.us-geo.objectstorage.softlayer.netawsCredentialsSecretName: aws-credssourceURL: "s3://<BUCKET_NAME>/" kubectl create -f supplies/pods/vck-pod.yaml# content of materials/pods/vck-pod.yaml:apiVersion: v1kind: Podmetadata:name: vck-claim-podspec:affinity:# nodeAffinity and hostPath below abide been copied from output of# kubectl gain volumemanager vck-example1 -o yamlnodeAffinity:requiredDuringSchedulingIgnoredDuringExecution:nodeSelectorTerms:- matchExpressions:- key: vck.intelai.org/vckns-vck-example1-vol1operator: Existsvolumes:- name: dataset-claimhostPath:course: /var/datasets/vck-aid-<LONG_ID>containers:- picture: busyboxcommand: ["/bin/sh"]args: ["-c", "sleep 1d"]identify: vck-sleepvolumeMounts:- mountPath: /var/dataname: dataset-declare

    that you could afterwards exec into the pod with kubectl exec -it vck-claim-pod sh and record the bucket content with ls /var/information.


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    IBM dropped its quarterly wave of storage products this week, focusing particularly on latency-decreasing NVMe technologies and managing growing volumes of unstructured information.

    IBM followed via on its roadmap to expand aid for end-to-conclusion NVMe from utility servers to storage arrays with the launch of a unique Storwize V7000 gadget. The Storwize V7000 is the primary IBM midtier device to add serve for NVMe-oF, offering a Fibre Channel (FC) alternative.

    other IBM storage products launched or upgraded encompass Spectrum Virtualize, Spectrum find, Storage Insights, IBM Cloud expostulate Storage, a FlashSystem A9000R array and a TS1160 enterprise tape pressure.

    "here's simply a different instance that we're within the yr of NVMe," said Scott Sinclair, an analyst at trade approach community. "Storage vendors are embracing the merits of NVMe know-how to deliver larger storage performance and more efficient statistics access."

    Eric Burgener, an IDC analyst, said it live vital for IBM to prolong NVMe usher across its portfolio. IDC analysis predicts that, by using 2021, methods that expend NVMe as opposed to SCSI as a basis technology will generate at least half of external simple storage revenue.

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    IBM's FlashSystem 900 enabled NVMe over InfiniBand early this yr, and the FlashSystem 9100 shipped in August with conclusion-to-conclusion NVMe help.

    IBM Storwize V7000 all-flash array IBM Storwize V7000 is a midrange all-flash array that helps end-to-conclusion NVMe. NVMe over Fibre Channel help

    IBM now supports the NVMe over FC transport option in storage products that expend its Spectrum Virtualize application, including the brand unique Storwize V7000. purchasers that purchased IBM's SAN extent Controller, FlashSystem 9100 and V9000 or Storwize V7000F after September 2016 can enable NVMe over FC through a nondisruptive update of the IBM Spectrum Virtualize code. IBM plans so as to add advocate for NVMe over Ethernet via Spectrum Virtualize in 2019, in line with Eric Herzog, chief marketing officer and vice president of international storage channels at IBM.

    Like many IBM storage products, the unique Storwize V7000 ships with Spectrum Virtualize utility to carry commercial enterprise facts functions to IBM and third-birthday party storage techniques. These functions encompass snapshots, replication, at-relaxation encryption and synthetic intelligence-based facts tiering.

    The Storwize V7000 now includes hardware-based mostly compression and encryption to minimize the efficiency impact of those features. Herzog observed IBM uses further processor chips in its unique FlashCore Modules to enable the hardware-based mostly at-relaxation statistics encryption and compression.

    a brand unique NVMe-based mostly 19.2 TB FlashCore Module moreover serves to augment the density of the Storwize system. The all-flash Storwize V7000 presents a highest raw potential of 461 TB per ply enclosure and as lots as 32 PB in a four-manner cluster. glisten compel competence alternate options are four.eight TB, 9.6 TB and 19.2 TB, and IBM claims it might bring 5-to-1 facts compression.

    Enabling off-the-shelf NVMe SSDs

    Storwize ships with IBM's unique 2.5-inch FlashCore Modules by means of default, however purchasers can select industry ordinary NVMe-based mostly SSDs or add HDDs from third-birthday party vendors. Herzog referred to IBM's FlashCore Modules offer higher performance, reduce latency and an extended seven-12 months guarantee than open-market SSDs which are usually inescapable for 3 to 5 years.

    Burgener observed IBM's shift to enable using off-the-shelf NVMe SSDs "actually shows that they don't assume there is that a stately deal of a performance change associated with custom hardware anymore."

    "in case you wish to elope inline facts capabilities, enjoy compression and encryption, you could attain this with reduce latencies on those FlashCore Modules. but if you're no longer attracted to that, then the NVMe SSDs are basically a much less towering priced option. That, to me, is their future direction," Burgener mentioned.

    also amongst unique IBM storage items is a unique 18 TB customized glisten module that can double the highest potential of its FlashSystem 900. a unique 15.36 TB glisten module boosts storage density in IBM's excessive-conclusion DS8880F arrays concentrated on the Unix, Linux and mainframe markets. a brand unique DS8880 zHyperLink card improves latency.

    IBM moreover delivered an entry-stage configuration of the FlashSystem A9000R apparatus designed for cloud storage.

    Spectrum ascertain product aimed at 'statistics oceans'

    IBM's unique Spectrum find product is designed to automate the cataloging of unstructured records through regular metadata and newly created customized metadata to facilitate statistics analytics, governance and storage optimization. The application deploys as a VMware virtual apparatus and comprises an API to allow facts analytics, compliance and different purposes to access the metadata.

    "overlook facts lakes. you've gotten now obtained oceans of facts. how will you leverage that ocean of data to gain value out of it?" Herzog stated.

    using custom metadata tags, Spectrum find can serve to velocity the records scanning manner, specifically with compliance functions that deserve to search through doubtlessly billions of info, Herzog referred to. With analytics workloads, information scientists commonly must work with storage directors to prepare the records, and Spectrum find may automate and streamline the method, he added.

    "The fastest array on earth might not aid if you don't know what your facts is," wrote Steve McDowell, an analyst at Moor Insights & strategy, in an e mail. "IBM's Spectrum find will resolve real-world problems in statistics management. I believe they are going to observe others emulating IBM on this entrance."

    Spectrum ascertain is in keeping with know-how from IBM research and helps unstructured records in IBM Cloud expostulate Storage apparatus and IBM Spectrum Scale. IBM plans so as to add serve for Dell EMC Isilon subsequent yr.

    extra updates to IBM storage products

    An replace to IBM's free cloud-primarily based Storage Insights resource administration instrument provides capabilities to create and agenda customized experiences and diagnose SAN bottlenecks. AI know-how can celebrate storage network gridlock, triggering an alert for an IBM assist technician to contact the customer. the first edition of Storage Insights became commonly obtainable final February.

    IBM's pay-for-what-you-use Storage Utility providing can now allow dual-gadget excessive-availability configurations at a birth month-to-month cost it's handiest 20% more than the can impregnate to hire a lone gadget. The IBM Storage Utility offering additionally brought advocate for a scholarship coverage product, the TS7760 virtual tape library.

    Updates to IBM storage products aren't limited to flash. the brand unique entry-level TS1160 commercial enterprise tape drive improves performance; helps write as soon as, competent many (WORM) for clients in regulated industries; and boosts capacity to 20 TB, a doubling of the prior TS1150 mannequin. IBM's TS3500 and TS4500 libraries usher the brand unique tape force.

    IBM Cloud expostulate Storage moreover provides unique WORM competence for not pricey mirrored and concentrated dispersal mode configurations. The product additionally helps more concurrent expend situations with a 50% augment within the maximum number of usher vaults per system.

    next yr, IBM plans to serve NVMe in its Cloud expostulate Storage, as the supported servers that elope the software add NVMe-based glisten drives. NVMe over Ethernet advocate is on IBM's 2019 roadmap for Spectrum accelerate, with the FlashSystem A9000/R, and Spectrum Virtualize.

    FlashSystem A9000/R is moreover anticipated to manufacture expend of AI know-how to automate information deduplication and ease skill administration subsequent year.

    additionally in 2019, IBM plans to extend its AI reference architectures with an Nvidia alternative, constructing on the vigor AI reference structure the trade unveiled in June.

    The newest updates to IBM storage products moreover protected SAP HANA certification for its FlashSystem 9100 and unique Storwize V7000, Spectrum protect, Spectrum copy records administration and Spectrum Virtualize. IBM licensed FlashSystem 9100 with Epic digital healthcare records administration software this yr and plans to add usher for Meditech next 12 months. IBM moreover expects to extend options advocate to blockchain next yr.


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    Extra Space Storage Inc (EXR) Q4 2018 Earnings Conference summon Transcript | killexams.com true questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Extra Space Storage Inc  (NYSE:EXR)

    Logo of jester cap with thought bubble.

    Image source: The Motley Fool.

    Q4 2018 Earnings Conference CallFeb. 21, 2019, 1:00 p.m. ET

    Contents:
  • Prepared Remarks
  • Questions and Answers
  • Call Participants
  • Prepared Remarks:

    Operator

    Good day ladies and gentlemen and welcome to the Fourth Quarter 2018 Extra Space Storage Inc. Earnings Conference Call. At this time, every participants will live in a listen-only mode. Later, they will conduct a question-and-answer session and instructions will live given at that time (Operator Instructions) As a reminder, this summon is being recorded.

    I would now enjoy to revolve the summon over to Jeff Norman. You may begin.

    Jeff Norman -- Vice President of Investor Relations

    Thank you, Michelle. Welcome to Extra Space Storage's fourth quarter and year discontinuance 2018 earnings call. In addition to their press release, they abide furnished unaudited supplemental monetary information on their website. tickle recall that management's prepared remarks and answers to your questions may contain forward-looking statements as defined in the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act. Actual results could differ materially from those stated or implied by their forward-looking statements, due to risks and uncertainties associated with the company's business.

    These forward-looking statements are qualified by the cautionary statements combined in the company's latest filings with the SEC, which they animate their listeners to review. Forward-looking statements delineate management's estimates as of today, Thursday, February 21st, 2019. The company assumes no obligation to revise or update any forward-looking statements, because of changing market conditions, or other circumstances after the date of this conference call.

    I would now enjoy to revolve the summon over to Joe Margolis, Chief Executive Officer.

    Joseph D. Margolis -- Chief Executive Officer

    Thank you, Jeff, and hello everyone. Thank you for joining us for their fourth quarter and year-end call. It was stately to abide so many of you here eventual month for their Investor Day and they appreciate your interest in and advocate of Extra Space Storage.

    2018 was another solid year. Same-store revenue was in line with expectations. Their diversified portfolio and best-in-class platform are maintaining very towering occupancies, while producing positive rate growth despite a challenging environment, with unique supply in many markets. Expenses were moreover generally in line with expectations, with the exception of a pair of uncontrollable expenses which hit in the first half of the year. Their team stepped up and did a stately job with controllable expenses, especially in the eventual two quarters, and create ways to offset some of the expense growth through savings and efficiencies.

    Our same-store NOI grew 4% for the year, despite a challenging operating environment. Same-store NOI was enhanced by their stout external growth from third-party management and off-market acquisitions, resulting in core FFO growth of 6.6%, which was above the towering discontinuance of their annual guidance.

    Looking forward to 2019, many of the themes are similar to 2018. They continue to observe unique supply delivered in many markets. The rate of deliveries has started to slow. And while they still believe unique openings in 2019 will live lower than in 2018, they expect the impact of unique supply to live greater, due to the cumulative impact of several years of elevated development.

    These concerns are the same concerns they discussed on their summon a year ago. However, there are moreover some encouraging themes from eventual year, that will continue into 2019. First, the economy continues to live healthy. Second, they are in a need-based industry, with uniform demand and solid fundamentals. Third, concerns about declining expend of storage, due to millennials, disruptive unique businesses or otherwise, are proving to live ill-founded. And fourth, large operators continue to abide a significant technology edge over most of the industry.

    As a result, occupancy remains very stout and they abide positive rate growth in most markets. They abide a geographically diverse portfolio and a platform built to drive traffic to their stores, their website and their summon center. In short, Extra Space is well prepared to navigate today's competitive landscape.

    The challenges presented by unique supply moreover continued to bring us opportunities. In 2018, they added 153 stores to their third party platform and continue to abide a robust pipeline for 2019. They invested $580 million in acquisitions, $145 million of which was invested in certificate of occupancy, or evolution deals.

    We were successful at finding accretive acquisition opportunities through their partners and other relationships before they were exposed to the broader market. 84% of every 2018 acquisition volume was completed through off market transactions. This off-market acquisition trend has continued into 2019, as they recently completed the buyout of one of their joint venture partners in 12 properties in Los Angeles and the Bay Area. These are well located, purpose-built properties that they developed ourselves in the early 2000, in top tier infill markets with sound barriers to entry. Extra Space realized the $72.8 million promote in the joint venture through the transaction, which was applied to the purchase price.

    While 2019 will not live without its challenges, they are making the necessary investments to strengthen their platform and advocate their growth, while maintaining operational excellence in the current environment.

    I would now enjoy to revolve the time over to Scott.

    Scott Stubbs -- Executive Vice President and Chief monetary Officer

    Thanks Joe and hello everyone. Their core FFO for the quarter was $1.22 per partake and their core FFO for the year was $4.67 per share, ahead of their guidance. The beat was primarily due to property performance and G&A savings. Core FFO, includes a $0.02 adjustment for the write-off of deferred financing costs related to the prepayment of notes payable to trusts. They continue to evolve their balance sheet which has never been stronger. During the quarter, they amended their credit facility, access to their ATM, and increased their unencumbered pool, which now stands at $5.6 billion. These efforts are piece of their goal to further diversify their capital structure, ladder their maturities, and minimize their objective interest rate, while extending the objective term. This will ensure that they continue to abide capacity to fund future growth through multiple sources of capital.

    Last night, they provided guidance in annual assumptions for 2019. Their unique same-store pool increased by 38 stores to a total of 821. Same-store revenue is expected to augment 2% to 3% in 2019. As Joe mentioned, they believe the impact from unique supply will live greater in 2019 than it was in 2018. The flush of this impact will depend on the timing of deliveries and the speed of absorption in impacted markets, specifically the major Florida and Texas markets.

    Our guidance moreover assumes some revenue growth moderation in markets not heavily impacted by unique supply. This is due to multiple years of outsized growth, resulting in tough comps. Same-store expense growth is expected to augment 3.75% to 4.75%. The augment in expenses is primarily driven by outsized growth in property taxes and marketing spend. Their revenue and expense guidance results in NOI growth of 1.25% to 2.75%.

    Our plenary year core FFO is estimated to live $4.73 to $4.83 per share. In 2019, they anticipate total dilution of $0.23 from value add and C of O acquisitions, up $0.03 from 2018. They recognized the short-term headwind this causes to their core FFO growth rate, but believe me investment in these lease up stores continues to better the attribute of the portfolio, and generates long-term value for their shareholders.

    With that, let's revolve it over to Jeff to start their true questions mp;A.

    Jeff Norman -- Vice President of Investor Relations

    Thanks Scott. In order to ensure they abide adequate time to address everyone's questions, I would question that everyone support your initial questions brief. If time allows, they will address follow-on questions, once everyone has had the occasion to question their initial questions. With that, let's revolve it over to Michelle to start their true questions mp;A.

    Questions and Answers:

    Operator

    (Operator Instructions) Their first question comes from Jeff Spector of Bank of America. Your line is open.

    Shirley Wu -- Bank of America Merrill Lynch -- Analyst

    Good morning, guys. This is Shirley Wu with Jeff Spector. So thanks for the actual color on supply. I assume in previous earnings calls, you've mentioned that the percentage of your portfolio being affected by the unique supply would live around 60% in 2019, has that changed and what attain you assume 2020 is going to peer like?

    Joseph D. Margolis -- Chief Executive Officer

    So their view of 2019 has not changed. The only thing that's changed on the ground, is a inescapable number of developments that they expected to live delivered in 2018 were in fact delayed and now will live delivered in 2019. But they expect the same thing to occur in 2019, at some of the properties that are scheduled to live delivered late in 2019 will in fact live delayed and not delivered in 2020. So their view continues to live that deliveries will live higher in 2018 than in 2019, although peak impact is in 2019, because of a cumulative effect.

    As to 2020 and their views frankly, it's every matter to the trend continuing of decreasing unique developments. If in fact people start putting more shovels in the ground, then they could live wrong and we'd just abide to wait and observe what happens.

    Shirley Wu -- Bank of America Merrill Lynch -- Analyst

    That's fair. So could you talk about achieved street rate in 4Q and maybe how that's going to peer in 1Q of 2019 as well?

    Scott Stubbs -- Executive Vice President and Chief monetary Officer

    Yeah Shirley. Their street rates in the fourth quarter were -- this is their achieved street rate -- they achieved street rates that were in the low lone digits, and it was about 2% in January.

    Shirley Wu -- Bank of America Merrill Lynch -- Analyst

    Got it. Thanks guys.

    Joseph D. Margolis -- Chief Executive Officer

    Thanks Shirley.

    Operator

    Our next question comes from Jeremy Metz of BMO Capital Markets. Your line is open.

    Jeremy Metz -- BMO -- Analyst

    Hey guys. Did you mention the drag from discounting at all? I know eventual quarter it was about an 80 basis points drag. It was supposed to update a shrimp bit here in the fourth quarter, what was it, sorry?

    Scott Stubbs -- Executive Vice President and Chief monetary Officer

    So in the fourth quarter, there was really no drag or no benefit from discounts, it was flat . And their guidance for 2019 assumes same. No benefit or drag.

    Jeremy Metz -- BMO -- Analyst

    So if they combine that with the 2% efficient rate you had just mentioned here, it obviously takes a while to roll through same store, but as they assume where you're at today and where your guidance is, does that 2.5% midpoint for revenue assume you actually depart negative on net efficient rents, and it sounds enjoy January is holding, but are you seeing any sort of signs already maybe in February of some slowing, that's making you more cautious?

    Scott Stubbs -- Executive Vice President and Chief monetary Officer

    February is not significantly different than January. And I assume guidance every depends on where you are in that range.

    Jeremy Metz -- BMO -- Analyst

    Okay and then just one eventual one, Joe, at the Investor Day you touched on the unique bridge financing program you started. Can you just give an update on where that stands today and what sort of activity you're seeing out there and how much capital allocation are you putting in the budget here for 2019?

    Joseph D. Margolis -- Chief Executive Officer

    Sure, Jeremy, would live helping to. For those of you who weren't at Investor Day, they started -- initiated a bridge lending program. The goal of which is to expand their management platform, to figure additional relationships across the industry, because they create through management plus and other activities they attain with those relationships frequently revolve out to produce acquisitions or other benefits, and to fill, what they perceive as a capital void in the market and manufacture some money by lending to non-stabilized stores. They will not live lending to evolution stores. They don't want to abide to bewitch over a half finished development. But they believe there is an occasion to lend on stores that are not yet stabilized. We're just starting this program. We've made a pair of loans. They abide a few in the hopper. We're getting very stately reception in the marketplace. But they are just beginning. We're going to walk before they run. We're going to observe how the market reacts to this, and I would not expect it to live a significant capital allocation in 2019.

    Jeremy Metz -- BMO -- Analyst

    Thanks guys.

    Scott Stubbs -- Executive Vice President and Chief monetary Officer

    Thanks, Jeremy.

    Operator

    Our next question comes from Ronald Kamdem of Morgan Stanley. Your line is open.

    Ronald Kamdem -- Morgan Stanley -- Analyst

    Hey, thanks guys. Just following up on the same-store expenses, I assume you mentioned outsized property taxes and marketing spend. Just inquisitive if you can find more details, how does that -- how does the growth rate compare for those versus 2018 and if there is any markets or any benevolent of a one-time thing that's really driving this outsized nature of these expenses?

    Scott Stubbs -- Executive Vice President and Chief monetary Officer

    Yeah. Their property tax budgets for 2019 assume about 4.5% augment year-over-year. They continue to observe pressure across multiple markets. So it's actually down slightly from 2018, but continues to live higher than inflation. 2019 marketing expend is about 11% in -- is what they budgeted, which is up from their annual elope rate of 2018 and that comes from a pair of things, one is just overall inflation from more people bidding on using the search engines and that's driving the cost of the bids up as well as, you know, they are in a supply cycle and wanting to manufacture confident that they remain top of intellect in people's buying decisions.

    Ronald Kamdem -- Morgan Stanley -- Analyst

    Great. And then just at a quick one on development, maybe could you just comment versus three, six, nine months ago abide you seen any incremental sign from developers, whether it's defer compression, whether it's projects taking longer to lease up, any incremental color on slowing that supply pipeline?

    Joseph D. Margolis -- Chief Executive Officer

    I assume they are seeing the factors you described, defer compression, increased costs and just an awareness that many markets are over-built or fully built and some more caution. So they are seeing a pullback in unique supply in some areas, unique developments, in some areas. But there still are people who abide either a more optimistic views or lower defer requirements that are still trying to depart forward.

    Ronald Kamdem -- Morgan Stanley -- Analyst

    Great. And the eventual one from me is just -- just noticed in the release that Miami was added to markets lagging and Philly was adding -- added to the markets that are outperforming. Can you just -- maybe a shrimp bit more color on what's going on there? Is that -- is there anything to note there?

    Joseph D. Margolis -- Chief Executive Officer

    I assume that's directly related to unique supply. Miami has had a very large influx of unique evolution that is impacting their performance, and they haven't seen the same thing in Philadelphia.

    Ronald Kamdem -- Morgan Stanley -- Analyst

    Helpful. Thank you.

    Joseph D. Margolis -- Chief Executive Officer

    Thank you, Ronald.

    Operator

    Our next question comes from Smedes Rose of Citi. Your line is open.

    Smedes Rose -- Citigroup -- Analyst

    Hi, thank you. I wanted to question you the sequential decline in term discontinuance occupancy from 3Q to 4Q was steeper than what we've seen in several years now. Did that amaze you at all, or can you maybe provide a shrimp more color on, I guess, vacates over the course of the quarter?

    Scott Stubbs -- Executive Vice President and Chief monetary Officer

    So this means -- first of every I would narrate you, I assume sometimes people focus too much on rentals and vacates. I assume if you peer at their year-end occupancy, it was quite strong, maybe slightly stronger at the discontinuance of the third quarter. But again the goal here, obviously is to maximize revenue. You'll observe it plus or minus 10, 15, 20, 30 basis points depending on the month, depending on the quarter. But I don't assume the fourth quarter played out significantly different than what they were expecting, and they felt enjoy they had a stout ending to the quarter and the year.

    Smedes Rose -- Citigroup -- Analyst

    Okay. But you were looking for that flush of benevolent of sequential decline, so nothing that surprised at all.

    Scott Stubbs -- Executive Vice President and Chief monetary Officer

    Not necessarily decline, but on an annual basis, they were expecting no benefit from occupancy, and that's largely where they ended up and the same is sound for 2019. Their budgets and their estimates are no benefit from occupancy. But again we're not focused entirely on occupancy.

    Smedes Rose -- Citigroup -- Analyst

    Okay. And then I just wanted to question you -- you mentioned that these third-party platform maybe has an opportunity, as conditions are more challenging across the industry. abide you seen a pickup in inquiries or just private operators looking to unite a larger platform enjoy yours?

    Joseph D. Margolis -- Chief Executive Officer

    We have. We've had a pretty robust pipeline for several years now. I assume they are seeing more inquiries from folks who are having some problems at their stores, meeting the numbers that they would enjoy to hit. And I expect as things gain tough, that will continue.

    Smedes Rose -- Citigroup -- Analyst

    Okay. Thank you guys.

    Joseph D. Margolis -- Chief Executive Officer

    Thanks, Smedes.

    Operator

    Our next question comes from Todd Thomas with KeyBanc Capital Markets. Your line is open.

    Todd Thomas -- KeyBanc Capital Markets -- Analyst

    Hi, thanks. In terms of the dilution from the lease-up stores $0.23 versus $0.20 in 2018, you abide more deliveries both wholly owned and JV planned in 2019, but a shrimp less than 2018. Would you expect that dilution to continue increasing throughout the year and into 2020 or attain you anticipate that the dilution will flush off and inaugurate moderating during 2019?

    Joseph D. Margolis -- Chief Executive Officer

    I was -- I am sorry Scott.

    Scott Stubbs -- Executive Vice President and Chief monetary Officer

    Go ahead.

    Joseph D. Margolis -- Chief Executive Officer

    Part of it depends on what they buy. A stately deal of what they bought in 2018 were non-stabilized stores and I assume there will live an occasion again, as operating conditions gain tougher and some owners resolve their best that might live to sell, they may abide an occasion to buy stores that are not fully stabilized and may even live fairly dilutive, depending on where they are in the first year. So I assume that's the biggest variable in which direction the dilution goes.

    Scott Stubbs -- Executive Vice President and Chief monetary Officer

    Currently their budgets for C of Os, Todd are -- it's pretty even throughout the year, but that could move, depending on deliveries. They abide seen deliveries continue to bewitch longer. But privilege now, it's pretty flat. Specifically for the C of Os, not the lease up stores Joe is talking about.

    Joseph D. Margolis -- Chief Executive Officer

    I assume it's famous to note that in a number of things they were talking about today, they are very focused on creating long-term value for their shareholders. And if they abide the occasion to buy a stately store at a stately price, that they know long term, will produce value, will live accretive, then we're willing to accept a inescapable amount of short-term dilution to gain there.

    Todd Thomas -- KeyBanc Capital Markets -- Analyst

    Okay, that's helpful. And then can you provide an update or some color on the $300 million acquisition assumption that you abide for operating stores in 2019?

    Joseph D. Margolis -- Chief Executive Officer

    Sure. So we've closed $240 million worth of acquisitions already in 2019. They abide under shrink another $100 million worth of stores, and they assume enjoy in the prior years, that it's going to live difficult for us to live competitive in the bid-auction market and to live the towering bidder, and win a lot of stores that way. But their experience tells us that every year, they are able to buy a inescapable number of stores out of their management platform, from their joint venture partners or from their relationships in off market transactions, and while they can identify those today, history tells us that they will abide some success in that area.

    Todd Thomas -- KeyBanc Capital Markets -- Analyst

    Okay, got it. Right. So that includes the buyout of the JV partners' interests that abide closed to-date. Okay, and then just lastly, I was just inquisitive if you could talk about the augment in G&A expense that you're forecasting and what that's attributable to specifically?

    Scott Stubbs -- Executive Vice President and Chief monetary Officer

    Yeah, the augment in 2019 in terms of their G&A, if you peer at it in terms of a percentage increase, it's actually in line with the augment in the number of stores we've added over the eventual pair of years, and specifically what we're forecasting to add in 2019. Now that being said, about a third of the augment that they will incur in 2019 has to attain with some outsized investments we're making in some technology opportunities, and some technology initiatives that should provide a platform for us to grow in the future, and to moreover achieve some economies of scale. I would narrate you, they don't expect to grow one-for-one G&A with their property count, but this is a year we've chosen to invest more heavily in technology that will assist us in the future.

    Todd Thomas -- KeyBanc Capital Markets -- Analyst

    Okay. Thank you.

    Joseph D. Margolis -- Chief Executive Officer

    Thanks, Todd.

    Operator

    Our next question comes from Ki Bin Kim of SunTrust. Your line is open.

    Ki Bin Kim -- SunTrust -- Analyst

    Hey guys. So this might live a hard question to answer. But from your perspective, what percent of evolution deals attain you assume are missing pro forma expectations?

    Joseph D. Margolis -- Chief Executive Officer

    Well, I don't assume they can respond that question, Ki Bin. I would narrate you that on the deals that they do, their CO deals, evolution deals, we've been very gratified with their underwriting and as a whole, they are meeting or exceeding expectations. But they abide no course of knowing what other people are underwriting or how they are actually performing.

    Ki Bin Kim -- SunTrust -- Analyst

    Yeah, I insinuate I asked that question, just to observe if there is any kinds of trend and people are missing their yields. Well, that's probably the only understanding why evolution will unhurried down, right? And on your expense growth expectations of 4.25%, attain you expect that to continue on to 2020, 2021, or is this a benevolent of unusual year, where you abide some long-term resets that are happening and hitting in 2019?

    Scott Stubbs -- Executive Vice President and Chief monetary Officer

    So in terms of their property expense growth being elevated, I assume you saw eventual year and this year largely as a result of property taxes. They hope that moderates. We're moreover seeing pressure on pay-per-click advertising, and so that continues to increase. But they hope in the future to live able to whisk back more toward inflationary expense growth.

    Joseph D. Margolis -- Chief Executive Officer

    One thing that has harm us in the past few years is that values of self-storage properties has increased dramatically, excuse me. We've had property tax increases commensurate with that and as taxes ensnare up and gain to property values, you would assume outsized property tax growth would stop and will just live inflationary (inaudible).

    Ki Bin Kim -- SunTrust -- Analyst

    Okay. And on -- just eventual one, when you close street rates, how close is that to the actual whisk in rate that you experience in any given quarter? Is that pretty close?

    Scott Stubbs -- Executive Vice President and Chief monetary Officer

    So when I utter achieved rates are up 2%, that is actually their whisk in rate. Their street rates are going to live higher than that.

    Ki Bin Kim -- SunTrust -- Analyst

    Got it. Alright thank you guys.

    Joseph D. Margolis -- Chief Executive Officer

    Thanks.

    Scott Stubbs -- Executive Vice President and Chief monetary Officer

    Thanks Ki Bin.

    Operator

    Our next question comes from Jonathan Hughes of Raymond James. Your line is open.

    Jonathan Hughes -- Raymond James -- Analyst

    Hey stately afternoon. What's the contribution from the unique same store assets on revenue growth guidance, and how should that trend throughout the year?

    Scott Stubbs -- Executive Vice President and Chief monetary Officer

    Jonathan, it's about 10 to 15 basis points of revenue contribution and it is -- at the discontinuance of the year, it's basically zero. And so if you straight lined it, summon it 30 at the start of the year and zero at the discontinuance for a contribution of between 10 to 15 basis points.

    Joseph D. Margolis -- Chief Executive Officer

    Similar in 2018 and 2019, right?

    Scott Stubbs -- Executive Vice President and Chief monetary Officer

    Correct.

    Jonathan Hughes -- Raymond James -- Analyst

    Okay. And then has there been any change to customer behavior and acceptance of renewal rate increases, as competition has increased? I mean, are there any knowledgeable customers out there using these unique deliveries and benevolent of leveraging that and pushing back on, say, 9% 10% rate hikes?

    Joseph D. Margolis -- Chief Executive Officer

    No, they really haven't seen any change in customer behavior in that area.

    Jonathan Hughes -- Raymond James -- Analyst

    Okay. That's just surprising. unbiased enough. And then I realize this isn't in the guidance, but any plans to peer at maybe recycling capital from some of your weaker non-core markets, sell those, focus on better longer term growth markets?

    Scott Stubbs -- Executive Vice President and Chief monetary Officer

    Well they reserve one property under shrink yesterday. So that's one event, and they attain abide a list of properties that are always considered for either recap into a joint venture or outright sale. And they periodically peer at the portfolio and try to peer at where those opportunities would manufacture sense. They don't -- to respond your question, they don't specifically abide any portfolio on the market today. But it's always an option for us.

    Jonathan Hughes -- Raymond James -- Analyst

    Okay. I'll jump off. Thanks for the time.

    Scott Stubbs -- Executive Vice President and Chief monetary Officer

    Thank you.

    Joseph D. Margolis -- Chief Executive Officer

    Thanks Jonathan.

    Operator

    Our next question comes from Eric Frankel of Green Street Advisors. Your line is open.

    Eric Frankel -- Green Street Advisors -- Analyst

    Thank you. I just want to depart back to the same-store calculations. Can you just authenticate -- so you utter it's a 15 basis point track. Can you just authenticate the number of stores that can live added in the same-store pool?

    Scott Stubbs -- Executive Vice President and Chief monetary Officer

    We are adding -- so their current pool is 783 and the unique pool goes to 821. So an add of 38.

    Eric Frankel -- Green Street Advisors -- Analyst

    All right. And the objective occupancy for the -- roughly I guess 40 or so stores. Is that significantly lower or the same as what you currently have?

    Scott Stubbs -- Executive Vice President and Chief monetary Officer

    It's pretty much the same. They're very close to being privilege on top of each other.

    Eric Frankel -- Green Street Advisors -- Analyst

    Okay. Okay. Just trying to understand that better. And then I know you've -- an earlier question just regarding your capital allocation guidance and the investments you abide under shrink and what you're hoping to close. But it seems enjoy you are 70% the course they are essentially, in terms of what you abide under the contractor or abide closed and what you've guided to. That seems fairly conservative, maybe you could provide a shrimp more color on how you're thinking. I guess you abide -- it's roughly $160 million of deals that you haven't gone under shrink or closed down, but it's benevolent of -- baked to your guidance. Any understanding why that shouldn't live higher, just benevolent of given every the the trends that you're referring to?

    Joseph D. Margolis -- Chief Executive Officer

    The only thing I could utter is, it's very difficult for us to forecast when we're going to abide opportunities to transact on an off-market basis. And as I said earlier, that's really where they are able to live successful. So they could talk to the brokers and they can understand the pipeline and what they assume is coming forward. But we're not going to -- they know we're not going to live very successful there. So is it feasible that they exceed their guidance and buy more? Absolutely. The accretive opportunities are available, stately deals, they abide a balance sheet and capital flexibility to execute on those transactions. So I hope they attain exceed their guidance in 2019, enjoy they did in 2018. But we're not banking that.

    Eric Frankel -- Green Street Advisors -- Analyst

    Okay. Thanks everyone.

    Scott Stubbs -- Executive Vice President and Chief monetary Officer

    Thanks, Eric.

    Operator

    (Operator Instructions) Their next question comes from Wes Golladay of RBC Capital Markets. Your line is open.

    Wes Golladay -- RBC Capital Markets -- Analyst

    Hi guys. When rent growth slows, is it driven more by change in distribution channels or lower street rates?

    Scott Stubbs -- Executive Vice President and Chief monetary Officer

    The street rates are really going to drive your rent growth. I insinuate their current -- your current street rates, your current achieved rate at some point flows through and becomes your rental rate growth. And so street rates are going to probably live more influential than anything.

    Wes Golladay -- RBC Capital Markets -- Analyst

    Okay. And then going back to that three-year rolling supply, when attain you observe that peaking and attain you expect a gradual decline or a keen decline or how should they peer at that going forward?

    Joseph D. Margolis -- Chief Executive Officer

    So they believe that 2018 was the peak delivery year and they expect a gradual decline, and that's fully caveated by -- they don't know what people are going to attain in terms of picking up development. We're looking at current trends and assuming that they continue. But if -- for whatever reason, a bunch of people sling capital into evolution and start putting shovels in the ground where they shouldn't, then they could live wrong.

    Wes Golladay -- RBC Capital Markets -- Analyst

    Okay. And then -- and maybe going back to Ki Bin's question about the developers not getting returns; are there inescapable markets where you observe maybe in the next year or two, you can abide an opportunistic fund and bewitch edge of some of this?

    Joseph D. Margolis -- Chief Executive Officer

    I assume that is likely. I assume there are going to live opportunities to purchase projects that are not hitting pro forma or not doing as well as a lender would enjoy or an equity ally would like, and their acquisition guys are fully focused on that.

    Wes Golladay -- RBC Capital Markets -- Analyst

    Okay. That's every from me. Thank you for taking the questions.

    Joseph D. Margolis -- Chief Executive Officer

    Thank you.

    Scott Stubbs -- Executive Vice President and Chief monetary Officer

    Thanks Wes.

    Operator

    Our next question comes from Todd Stender of Wells Fargo. Your line is open.

    Todd Stender -- Wells Fargo -- Analyst

    Hi, thanks. Just to depart back to the $0.23 dilution expected from C of O and value-add, abide you guys separated those two and how much attain you ascribe to those two buckets, each, if you have?

    Scott Stubbs -- Executive Vice President and Chief monetary Officer

    It's about $0.16 from C of Os, and about $0.07 from lease-up properties.

    Todd Stender -- Wells Fargo -- Analyst

    Okay. Thank you, Scott. It could live a pretty stately source of upside to earnings. You've got 12 of the 17 project -- projected openings, I guess, opening in the first half of the year. But I moreover want to observe potential offset -- offsetting that. abide you tapped the ATM already in January, February, just because you've acquired so much, just seeing where your capital is coming from?

    Joseph D. Margolis -- Chief Executive Officer

    We used the ATM in the fourth quarter and in the current quarter they abide not, they abide not hit the ATM.

    Scott Stubbs -- Executive Vice President and Chief monetary Officer

    Third and fourth quarter.

    Joseph D. Margolis -- Chief Executive Officer

    Right. Third and fourth quarter of eventual year they used the ATM.

    Todd Stender -- Wells Fargo -- Analyst

    Okay. Thank you. And then just finally, excluding the 12 assets you described in California that you've already gotten, where are the other locations? I know you've got a pair C of O deals that are wholly owned, that you've acquired already in the first quarter. Where are those markets?

    Joseph D. Margolis -- Chief Executive Officer

    Plantation, Florid; Louisville, Kentucky and Manayunk, Pennsylvania. Actually they just closed one in Brooklyn too eventual week. Was that eventual week?

    Scott Stubbs -- Executive Vice President and Chief monetary Officer

    Yes. They abide several that are closing -- they abide three that are closing, two in Brooklyn, one in Queens. And then also, Massachusetts, Maryland, so they're benevolent of throughout the country.

    Todd Stender -- Wells Fargo -- Analyst

    Okay. Great, thank you.

    Joseph D. Margolis -- Chief Executive Officer

    Thank you.

    Operator

    Our next question comes from Tayo Okusanya of Jefferies. Your line is open.

    Tayo Okusanya -- Jefferies -- Analyst

    Hi. stately afternoon. pair of questions. The first one is, the 2% augment in street rates that you guys discussed, is that net of concessions, or is that without concessions?

    Scott Stubbs -- Executive Vice President and Chief monetary Officer

    It is not net of concessions. That is just their achieved rate, it's the objective someone is paying, no matter which channel they Come from.

    Tayo Okusanya -- Jefferies -- Analyst

    Okay. The --

    Joseph D. Margolis -- Chief Executive Officer

    Just going to say, discounts year-over-year, there is no change.

    Tayo Okusanya -- Jefferies -- Analyst

    Okay. So that's the first thing. Then going back to a question that was asked earlier on, not getting a lot of pushback from in-place tenants on rent increases. But I was just curious, the guidance contemplates a slower rate of rent increases going forward, because of supply or no?

    Scott Stubbs -- Executive Vice President and Chief monetary Officer

    No. They really don't believe supply impacts their competence to augment rents to tenants when appropriate.

    Tayo Okusanya -- Jefferies -- Analyst

    Okay, that's helpful. And then could you serve us understand what the mark-to-market is in the portfolio, enjoy today if a tenant moves out, objective rents are X versus, if a tenant moves in, they will probably whisk in at an objective at this particular rent?

    Scott Stubbs -- Executive Vice President and Chief monetary Officer

    Yeah. If you peer at their in-place rents and compare those two -- or achieved rents, so what people are renting out when they Come in the door. On objective for the year, it is mid-single digits. So summon it 5%. That is considerably higher in the off season. So privilege now it's -- summon it, double digits and then it goes to zero in the summer months. So depending on the time of the year, they typically -- their rates are typically higher in the summer, when more people are moving, and lower in the off-season, when fewer people moving. So that roll down is higher in the colder months. And I would narrate you to live mindful to assume that's the roll down on everybody, because you abide many people that whisk in and whisk privilege back out, and so they're at very close to what the street rate is.

    Tayo Okusanya -- Jefferies -- Analyst

    Got you. Okay. That's helpful. Thank you.

    Unidentified Speaker --

    Thanks Tayo.

    Operator

    There are no further questions. I will revolve the summon back over to Joe Margolis, CEO for any closing remarks.

    Joseph D. Margolis -- Chief Executive Officer

    Thank you everyone for joining us today. They expect another stately year for Extra Space in 2019 despite the challenges we're every sensible of and we've every discussed. They operate in a resilient sector. Their demand is exigency based. They are able to achieve towering occupancies and positive rate growth, and they abide significant external growth opportunities. They continue to invest heavily in technology, their digital marketing and revenue management systems continue to evolve and improve. But notanyone this would live feasible without their people. They abide an incredible profound team of dedicated motivated, and engaged employees, who live their values every day and are driving their performance. And I want to recognize their contributions to their efforts in their success.

    Thank you every for your interest and we'll talk to you soon.

    Operator

    Ladies and gentlemen, thank you for participating in today's conference. This does conclude the program, and you may every disconnect. Everyone abide a stately day.

    Duration: 39 minutes

    Call participants:

    Jeff Norman -- Vice President of Investor Relations

    Joseph D. Margolis -- Chief Executive Officer

    Scott Stubbs -- Executive Vice President and Chief monetary Officer

    Shirley Wu -- Bank of America Merrill Lynch -- Analyst

    Jeremy Metz -- BMO -- Analyst

    Ronald Kamdem -- Morgan Stanley -- Analyst

    Smedes Rose -- Citigroup -- Analyst

    Todd Thomas -- KeyBanc Capital Markets -- Analyst

    Ki Bin Kim -- SunTrust -- Analyst

    Jonathan Hughes -- Raymond James -- Analyst

    Eric Frankel -- Green Street Advisors -- Analyst

    Wes Golladay -- RBC Capital Markets -- Analyst

    Todd Stender -- Wells Fargo -- Analyst

    Tayo Okusanya -- Jefferies -- Analyst

    Unidentified Speaker --

    More EXR analysis

    Transcript powered by AlphaStreet

    This article is a transcript of this conference summon produced for The Motley Fool. While they strive for their fatuous Best, there may live errors, omissions, or inaccuracies in this transcript. As with every their articles, The Motley Fool does not assume any responsibility for your expend of this content, and they strongly animate you to attain your own research, including listening to the summon yourself and reading the company's SEC filings. tickle observe their Terms and Conditions for additional details, including their Obligatory Capitalized Disclaimers of Liability.

    Motley Fool Transcribers has no position in any of the stocks mentioned. The Motley Fool has no position in any of the stocks mentioned. The Motley Fool has a disclosure policy.


    Will sheds retain value? | killexams.com true questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Andrew Allen

    But recommendations around prospective value or growth typically obscure multiple angles with admiration to investing. towering demand from investors supports values, which is stately for existing asset owners, but a substantial question remains about future deployment of capital into the sector.

    Will the sector live as rewarding in the long term as some anticipate, or match the premium it has yielded in the recent past? In their view, the sector still offers compelling risk and return characteristics.

    Where’s the rent?

    Strong occupier demand continues to buoy UK rental levels, but attribute of space is key. Statements around supply volumes exigency to live considered against supply quality.

    Contemporary logistics businesses situation an increasingly towering requirement on the character of space they need. Typically, the demands relate to floor loading, eave heights, vehicle circulation space and flexibility with admiration to loading docks and so on. Ultimately, this means that much of the existing stock is not really optimal. This in revolve compresses demand into the most suitable buildings, which strongly implies ongoing rental growth for the right, but not all, buildings.

    Is the UK logistics market too expensive?

    As ever, the respond depends on perspective. With admiration to rent affordability, the sophistication of modern supply chains means calculations will live different. For example, the volume of movement of stored goods may now live a more famous consideration for occupiers than storage capacity.

    The determining factor must live the ultimate nature of the logistics occupier: is the trade simply focused on storage, or is it more about movement of high-value product for last-mile fulfilment? There are considerable differences between last-mile logistics and long-leased large ‘boxes’. The former relates to growth underpinned by surging demand and fundamental land shortages; the latter is more determined by the underlying lease and covenant and, most likely, will observe more constrained, but still positive, rental growth.

    Warehouse lorries

    Is logistics a one-way investment success?

    Most likely, yes, for the majority of buildings in the short term. But, broadly, we’re very mindful of the potential for these buildings to become obsolete in terms of physical characteristics and location. These factors are probably being understated by some investors aliveto to access the sector, but whose understanding of ongoing changes in the supply chain is limited.

    As for wider considerations, there are the obvious challenges of Brexit and the inevitability of technological change such as the potential impact of semi-autonomous vehicles. They prefer to focus on the known fundamentals, such as the scarcity of stately stock to advocate the market.

    Ultimately, stately logistics investments will live those where investors are confident that the underlying buildings or sites will retain a apposite role beyond the lease term.

    Andrew Allen is global head of investment research, true estate, at Aberdeen gauge Investments



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