050-720 real questions | Pass4sure 050-720 real questions |

Pass4sure 050-720 dumps | 050-720 actual questions |

050-720 Novell Certified Linux Administrator 11

Study steer Prepared by Novell Dumps Experts 050-720 Dumps and actual Questions

100% actual Questions - Exam Pass Guarantee with high Marks - Just Memorize the Answers

050-720 exam Dumps Source : Novell Certified Linux Administrator 11

Test Code : 050-720
Test designation : Novell Certified Linux Administrator 11
Vendor designation : Novell
real questions : 134 actual Questions

high-quality to hear that state-of-the-art dumps synchronous 050-720 examination are available.
I used to live alluded to the dumps as brisk reference for my exam. Genuinely they executed a terrific pastime, i really relish their overall performance and mode of opemarks. The quick-length solutions were a lot less demanding to hold in brain. I handled ninety eight% questions scoring 80% marks. The exam 050-720 modified birthright into a noteworthy undertaking for my IT profession. On the equal time, I didnt develop a contribution a lot time to set up my-self nicely for this exam.

need to-the-factor expertise modern day 050-720 subjects!
The best preparation I acquire ever experienced. I took many 050-720 certification exams, but 050-720 turned out to live the easiest one thanks to I acquire recently discovered this website and wish I knew about it a few years ago. Would acquire saved me a lot of sleepless nights and grey hair! The 050-720 exam is not an simple one, especially its latest version. But the 050-720 Q and A includes the latest questions, daily updates, and these are absolutely unquestionable and convincing questions. I am convinced this is True occasions I got most of them during my exam. I got an excellent score and thank to making 050-720 exam stress-free.

050-720 enmesh a perceive at prep a ways spotless with those dumps.
This 050-720 dump is remarkable and is absolutely worth the money. I am not crazy about paying for stuff relish that, but since the exam is so expensive and stressful, I decided it would live smarter to acquire a safety net, import this bundle. This dump is really good, the questions are convincing and the answers are correct, which I acquire double checked with some friends (sometimes exam dumps give you wrong answers, but not this one). everybitof in all, I passed my exam just the pass I hoped for, and now I recommend to everyone.

I feel very confident by preparing 050-720 actual test questions.
I acquire become a 050-720 licensed ultimate week. This career route could live very thrilling, so in case you are nonethelessconsidering it, develop confident you acquire questions answers to establish together the 050-720 exam. this is a huge time saver as you acquire exactly what you need to recognise for the 050-720 exam. this is why I selected it, and that i never regarded back.

Do you want actual enmesh a perceive at qustions present day 050-720 examination?
The precise answers had been no longer tough to consider. My information of emulating the actual questions became absolutely appealing, as I made everybitof birthright replies within the exam 050-720. Much preferred to the for the help. I advantageously took the exam preparation inside 12 days. The presentation mode of this aide turned into simple without any lengthened solutions or knotty clarifications. Some of the topic which might live so difficult and tough as rightly are instruct so superbly.

No cheaper source than these 050-720 actual questions dumps available yet.
I was about to surrender exam 050-720 due to the fact I wasnt assured in whether or not or not i might skip or now not. With just a week ultimate I decided to change to actual questions for my exam training. In no manner idea that the subjects that I had always sprint a ways from may live lots a laugh to examine; its simple and short manner of having to the factors made my practise lot easier. everybitof manner to actual questions , I by no means concept i would pass my exam but I did pass with flying colorings.

thrilled to listen that cutting-edge dumps of 050-720 exam are available birthright here.
Excellent 050-720 stuff, 050-720 convincing questions, 050-720 amend answers. Professional exam simulator. I was relieved to notice that this preparation pack has necessary information, just what I needed to know to pass this exam. I detest when they try to sell you stuff you dont need in the first place. This wasnt the case though, I got exactly what I needed, and this is proven by the fact that I passed this 050-720 exam ultimate week, with a nearly flawless score. With this exam experience, has gained my dependence for years to come.

Surprised to behold 050-720 dumps and study guide!
I passed the 050-720 certification nowadays with the assist of your supplied Questions solutions. This combined with the route that you acquire to enmesh for you to grow to live a certified is the manner to go. in case you accomplish but consider that simply remembering the questions and solutions is everybitof you want to pass well you are wrong. There were pretty a few questions about the exam that arent within the supplied QA however in case you prepare these kinds of Questions solutions; you may try the ones very without difficulty. Jack from England

surprised to peer 050-720 actual examination questions! is an accurate indicator for a students and users capability to travail and study for the 050-720 exam. It is an accurate indication of their ability, especially with tests taken shortly before commencing their academic study for the 050-720 exam. provides a reliable up to date. The 050-720 tests give a thorough picture of candidates ability and skills.

much less effort, tremendous information, guaranteed achievement.
I started absolutely thinking about 050-720 exam just when you explored me approximately it, and now, having selected it, I feel that i acquire settled on the birthright desire. I handed exam with different evaluations utilizing Dumps of 050-720 exam and got 89% marks which is superb for me. in the wake of passing 050-720 exam, i acquire severa openings for travail now. plenty liked Dumps for helping me progress my vocation. You shaked the beer!

Novell Novell Certified Linux Administrator

Novell licensed Linux Administrator (CLA) | actual Questions and Pass4sure dumps

This seller-impartial Certification is offered by using:Novell CorporationWaltham, MA USAPhone: 1-800-529-3400Email: This email maneuver is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

skill stage: foundation                          popularity: lively

low in cost: $125 (shortest song)               

abstract:for individuals who provide day-to-day administration of installed SUSE Linux enterprise Server networks.

preliminary requirements:You should flow Novell's CLA exam ($125). pick from CLA 11 LPI, CLA 11, and CLA 10.

On February 9th, 2010, Novell and the Linux professional Institute announced a global partnership to standardize their entry-degree Linux certification courses on LPIC-1. under the phrases of the agreement, everybitof certified LPIC-1 holders will acquire the ability to apply for Novell CLA certification with out extra checks or prices.

be confident to enmesh a perceive at the CompTIA Linux+ certification for an identical association.

carrying on with requirements:every now and then, Novell training functions may also require you to enmesh an examination to hold present on the newest options and technologies. These exams are regarded a relentless Certification Requirement (CCR), which hold your potential up-to-date and retain your certification profitable in the industry.

See everybitof Novell Certifications

vendor's web page for this certification

Novell Joins OpenCourseWare Consortium to pressure Linux, IT practicing | actual Questions and Pass4sure dumps

by PR Newswire

Article ranking:

March 19, 2007 07:00 PM EDT



SALT LAKE city, BrainShare(R) 2007, March 19 /PRNewswire-FirstCall/ -- Novell these days announced it has joined the OpenCourseWare Consortium, a worldwide initiative of larger training institutions designed to create open academic content material the usage of a shared mannequin. Novell is among the many first trade organisations to enmesh section in the OpenCourseWare Consortium, becoming a member of the likes of MIT, Harvard legislations school, and a few different main universities worldwide. Novell also launched nowadays its first certification focused on the Linux* computing device, reflecting growing pastime in open source alternate options to latest proprietary computers. subsequently, Novell(R) consumers gain vital recent training tools for maximizing the cost of their Novell investments.

"in the spirit of the open supply utility mannequin, the OpenCourseWare Consortium is a collaboration of over a hundred institutions worldwide working to advertise the free and open digital booklet of excessive best educational substances, organized as courses," spoke of John Dehlin, director of the OpenCourseWare Consortium. "It is simply becoming that Novell, a leader in open supply and a pioneer in IT training, is among the first industrial agencies to live section of the Consortium. They warmly welcome Novell to the OpenCourseWare Consortium, and hope this serves as a model for extra trade corporations to share their potential in the schooling arena."

The OpenCourseWare Consortium has three primary desires. First is to lengthen the gain and impress of opencourseware by encouraging the adoption and adaptation of open educational substances everywhere. second is to foster the structure of further opencourseware initiatives. ultimately, the consortium goals to develop confident the long-term sustainability of opencourseware initiatives through deciding upon ways to ameliorate effectiveness and reduce charges. Novell might live contributing an initial 10 training lessons under the terms of its membership in the Consortium, ranging from well-known-aim introductory courses on Linux to more really amenable courses focused on migration to Novell's Linux and Open commercial enterprise Server systems. Novell's opencourseware library is determined at .

"Contributing to the open schooling group is principal to their mission," observed MaryJo Swenson, vp of Novell practising services. "We crave individuals with ease the usage of Novell products. by means of expanding the attain of open schooling into the company world, they will attain hundreds of americans attracted to advancing their knowledge and capabilities."

also on the working towards front, Novell these days launched its Novell certified Linux computer Administrator 10 software. This certification will validate the competencies of directors managing Novell's award-profitable SUSE(R) Linux enterprise computing device. With expanding traction out there around the Linux desktop, the brand recent certification will supply customers self assurance they can acquire the expertise they deserve to maximize the value of Linux computers of their environment.

For more particulars on the OpenCourseWare Consortium initiative, delight talk over with .

For greater suggestions on Novell's certification courses, together with the recent Novell licensed Linux computer Administrator application, delight debate with .

About Novell

Novell, Inc. grants infrastructure utility for the Open enterprise. we're a leader in enterprise-large operating programs in response to Linux and open source and the protection and systems management services required to operate mixed IT environments. They back their purchasers minimize can charge, complexity and risk, allowing them to focal point on innovation and boom. For greater suggestions, hunt counsel from .

word: Novell and SUSE are registered logos, and BrainShare is a registered provider tag of Novell, Inc. within the united states and different countries. *Linux is a registered trademark of Linus Torvalds. everybitof different third-birthday party logos are the property of their respective owners.

Novell, Inc.

CONTACT: Bruce Lowry of Novell, +1-415-383-8408, or [email protected];or Rebecca Paquette of SHIFT Communications, +1-617-681-1249, or[email protected]

web web page:

IoT & sane Cities experiences

through Zakia Bouachraoui

Feb. 19, 2019 10:15 AM EST

by Pat Romanski

Feb. 19, 2019 07:00 AM EST

by pass of Zakia Bouachraoui

Feb. 19, 2019 04:00 AM EST

through Yeshim Deniz

Feb. 19, 2019 04:00 AM EST

by Zakia Bouachraoui

Feb. 18, 2019 04:00 PM EST

by pass of Yeshim Deniz

Feb. 18, 2019 07:forty five AM EST

by using Zakia Bouachraoui

Feb. 17, 2019 05:00 PM EST

by Elizabeth White

Feb. 16, 2019 04:45 PM EST  Reads: 14,062

through Roger Strukhoff

Feb. 14, 2019 05:00 PM EST

by using Elizabeth White

Feb. 13, 2019 08:15 PM EST

Linux certified professional Certification & degree software information | actual Questions and Pass4sure dumps

desktop tips know-how or community expertise majors additionally present lessons related principally to Linux techniques. while these classes are not always the focal factor of the bachelor's diploma program, they could establish together college students for Linux certification. Internships might insert college students to purposeful functions in Linux server and network administration, troubleshooting and programming.

Bachelor's diploma classes in computing device engineering and network expertise continually handiest comprise one or two classes connected particularly to Linux techniques. despite the fact, those lessons mix thought and lab travail and constantly cowl more than a few Linux-linked themes. students gain knowledge of the fundamentals of file gadget administration, doc processing, information redundancy, configuration and person administration. They also anatomize selected Linux concepts, such as the working equipment's kernel and daemons. Some issues regarding genesis and advanced Linux administration consist of:

  • Server-side programming equipment
  • email and networking protocols
  • junk mail filtering recommendations
  • background of open source and free utility
  • IBM computing device architecture
  • gadget navigation and instructions
  • universal career options

    Graduates of a certificate software might qualify for entry-degree positions in the IT box. Some alternatives include:

  • methods engineer
  • Linux community administrator
  • Open supply programmer
  • counsel protection specialist
  • net server administrator
  • Employment Outlook

    according to the U.S. Bureau of Labor facts (BLS), community and desktop device administrators held over 374,000 jobs throughout the nation in 2015 ( The median income for these identical employees turned into $seventy seven,810 in 2015. The BLS projected that demand for network and laptop techniques administrators between the years 2014 and 2024 will develop 8%.

    Certification options

    CompTIA, a supplier-neutral IT company, includes a Linux+ administration credential among its certification options. The Linux knowledgeable Institute also presents three stages of widely wide-spread Linux administration certifications, together with Junior (LPIC-1), superior (LPIC-2) and Senior degree Linux knowledgeable (LPIC-3) designations. moreover, Novell offers certifications in response to the SuSE edition of the working device. apart from Novell's certified Linux professional credential, Linux specialists can also examine for computer and server administrator designations, in addition to a Linux engineer credential. pink Hat gives administration and engineering credentials based on its own distribution of the Linux working system.

    students attracted to fitting a Linux licensed professional can prepare for the certification by using enrolling in a certificates, affiliate's or bachelor's degree application. Graduates can travail in quite a lot of suggestions know-how positions and can need to pursue further credentials.

    While it is very difficult stint to pick reliable certification questions / answers resources with respect to review, reputation and validity because people acquire ripoff due to choosing wrong service. develop it confident to serve its clients best to its resources with respect to exam dumps update and validity. Most of other's ripoff report complaint clients foster to us for the brain dumps and pass their exams happily and easily. They never compromise on their review, reputation and attribute because killexams review, killexams reputation and killexams client self-confidence is principal to us. Specially they enmesh care of review, reputation, ripoff report complaint, trust, validity, report and scam. If you behold any unsuitable report posted by their competitors with the designation killexams ripoff report complaint internet, ripoff report, scam, complaint or something relish this, just hold in reason that there are always irascible people damaging reputation of amenable services due to their benefits. There are thousands of satisfied customers that pass their exams using brain dumps, killexams PDF questions, killexams rehearse questions, killexams exam simulator. Visit, their sample questions and sample brain dumps, their exam simulator and you will definitely know that is the best brain dumps site.

    Back to Brain dumps Menu

    HP0-D17 rehearse test | 1Z0-219 braindumps | LOT-986 cheat sheets | 000-397 dump | C2070-982 rehearse test | F50-533 questions and answers | 000-899 rehearse Test | HP2-E47 rehearse exam | 920-262 brain dumps | 000-597 braindumps | ST0-29B test prep | HP5-B05D dumps questions | HP0-E01 bootcamp | C9010-262 mock exam | 70-564-VB dumps | 000-993 actual questions | C2090-612 free pdf | LOT-412 questions answers | ST0-086 braindumps | 000-M37 free pdf download | 050-720 actual question bank
    If are you confused how to pass your Novell 050-720 Exam? With the inspirit of the verified Novell 050-720 Testing Engine you will learn how to expand your skills. The majority of the students start figuring out when they find out that they acquire to appear in IT certification. Their brain dumps are comprehensive and to the point. The Novell 050-720 PDF files develop your vision vast and inspirit you a lot in preparation of the certification exam.

    We acquire their experts working continuously for the collection of actual exam questions of 050-720. everybitof the pass4sure questions and answers of 050-720 gathered by using their crew are reviewed and up to date through their Novell certified team. They abide connected to the applicants regarded in the 050-720 exam to acquire their evaluations approximately the 050-720 exam, they collect 050-720 exam tips and hints, their Enjoy approximately the techniques used within the actual 050-720 exam, the errors they accomplished inside the actual exam after which enhance their material accordingly. Click Once you undergo their pass4sure questions and answers, you will feel assured about everybitof the subjects of exam and undergo that your know-how has been greatly stepped forward. These pass4sure questions and answers are not simply exercise questions, these are actual exam questions and answers which will live enough to pass the 050-720 exam at first attempt. Huge Discount Coupons and Promo Codes are as beneath;
    WC2017 : 60% Discount Coupon for everybitof exams on website
    PROF17 : 10% Discount Coupon for Orders greater than $69
    DEAL17 : 15% Discount Coupon for Orders more than $99
    DECSPECIAL : 10% Special Discount Coupon for everybitof Orders helps a gigantic scope of applicants cinch through the tests and acquire their certification. They acquire a major wide assortment of productive audits. Their dumps are strong, slight, updated and of genuinely agreeable remarkable to beat the requesting circumstances of any IT certifications. exam dumps are latest updated in quite clobber pass on well known commence and material is released from time to time. Latest dumps are open in testing centers with whom we're holding up their relationship to acquire latest material. Novell Certification study aides are setup through IT experts. A remarkable many people grumbling that an over the top scope of inquiries in this kindhearted of sizable wide assortment of tutoring evaluations and exam asset, and they might live as of late wiped out to deal with the cost of any additional. Seeing specialists rehearse session this far achieving version in the meantime as still certification that every one the becoming more acquainted with is anchored after significant investigations and exam. Everything is to develop console for hopefuls on their street to certification.

    We acquire Tested and Approved 050-720 Exams. offers the most particular and latest IT exam materials which relatively fuse everybitof exam subjects. With the steer of their 050-720 study materials, you don't need to misuse your hazard on examining actual piece of reference books and genuinely need to consume 10-20 hours to expert their 050-720 genuine inquiries and answers. Whats more prominent, they appoint you with PDF Version and Software Version exam inquiries and answers. For Software Version materials, Its displayed to insert the applicants reenact the Novell 050-720 exam in a actual environment.

    We give free updates. Inside authenticity length, if 050-720 brain dumps which you acquire gotten state-of-the-art, they will uncover you with the steer of email to down load most extreme most recent variety of actual questions . On the off peril that you don't pass your Novell Novell Certified Linux Administrator 11 exam, They will give you replete refund. You should deliver the filtered generation of your 050-720 exam archive card to us. Ensuing to declaring, they will out of the blue appoint you with replete REFUND. Huge Discount Coupons and Promo Codes are as under;
    WC2017: 60% Discount Coupon for everybitof exams on website
    PROF17: 10% Discount Coupon for Orders greater than $69
    DEAL17: 15% Discount Coupon for Orders greater than $99
    DECSPECIAL: 10% Special Discount Coupon for everybitof Orders

    In the occasion which you prepare for the Novell 050-720 exam using their exam test system engine. It is something anyway difficult to prevail for everybitof certifications inside the main endeavor. You don't need to control everybitof dumps or any free downpour/rapidshare everybitof stuff. They tender free demo of each IT Certification Dumps. You can watch the interface, question remarkable and convenience of their tutoring exams sooner than you select to purchase.

    050-720 Practice Test | 050-720 examcollection | 050-720 VCE | 050-720 study guide | 050-720 practice exam | 050-720 cram

    Killexams 000-238 brain dumps | Killexams ST0-148 free pdf | Killexams 000-052 free pdf | Killexams 1T6-521 test prep | Killexams LOT-918 cram | Killexams 000-765 rehearse test | Killexams 400-101 braindumps | Killexams C2030-280 brain dumps | Killexams HP0-M44 pdf download | Killexams 000-533 free pdf | Killexams 000-288 examcollection | Killexams 000-298 mock exam | Killexams 000-253 rehearse exam | Killexams OG0-081 rehearse questions | Killexams 190-612 braindumps | Killexams BAS-010 actual questions | Killexams C2180-606 sample test | Killexams 190-711 questions answers | Killexams CBM rehearse Test | Killexams 70-778 study guide |

    Exam Simulator : Pass4sure 050-720 VCE Exam Simulator

    View Complete list of Brain dumps

    Killexams P8060-001 exam prep | Killexams HP0-081 VCE | Killexams C2150-400 study guide | Killexams 000-560 rehearse test | Killexams 98-361 cram | Killexams HP2-E19 rehearse Test | Killexams A2010-502 free pdf | Killexams 70-344 actual questions | Killexams HH0-220 braindumps | Killexams 642-164 free pdf | Killexams 4A0-105 rehearse questions | Killexams 212-77 free pdf | Killexams HP0-S26 free pdf download | Killexams LOT-832 pdf download | Killexams M6040-419 dumps | Killexams 000-M226 test prep | Killexams 499-01 actual questions | Killexams 000-003 actual questions | Killexams 1Z0-344 rehearse test | Killexams EVP-100 test prep |

    Novell Certified Linux Administrator 11

    Pass 4 confident 050-720 dumps | 050-720 actual questions |

    Novell Certified Linux Administrator (CLA) | actual questions and Pass4sure dumps

    This vendor-neutral Certification is Offered By:Novell CorporationWaltham, MA USAPhone: 1-800-529-3400Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

    Skill Level: Foundation                          Status: Active

    Low Cost: $125 (shortest track)               

    Summary:For individuals who provide day-to-day administration of installed SUSE Linux Enterprise Server networks.

    Initial Requirements:You must pass Novell's CLA exam ($125). pick from CLA 11 LPI, CLA 11, and CLA 10.

    On February 9th, 2010, Novell and the Linux Professional Institute announced an international partnership to standardize their entry-level Linux certification programs on LPIC-1. Under the terms of the agreement, everybitof qualified LPIC-1 holders will acquire the opportunity to apply for Novell CLA certification without additional exams or fees.

    Be confident to check out the CompTIA Linux+ certification for a similar arrangement.

    Continuing Requirements:From time to time, Novell Training Services may require you to enmesh an exam to hold current on the latest solutions and technologies. These exams are considered a Continuing Certification Requirement (CCR), which hold your skills up-to-date and hold your certification valuable in the marketplace.

    See everybitof Novell Certifications

    Vendor's page for this certification

    Novell Certified Linux Professional Exam: preliminary GNU and Unix Commands | actual questions and Pass4sure dumps

    With an eye toward passing the Novell Certified Linux Professional Exam, this chapter focuses on the basic GNU and Unix commands.

    This chapter is from the bespeak 

    The NCLP practicum requires you to acquire a mastery of SuSE Linux Enterprise Server. Before you can acquire a mastery of any one specific implementation, however, you must first know and understand the basics of the operating system. This chapter does not focus on any specific testing objectives for the practicum, but provides you with the core set of skills that you must know in order to live able to travail effectively with any Linux implementation.

    This chapter covers the following course objectives:

  • Accessing the Command Line (3036)

  • Introduction to Command Shells (3036)

  • Understanding Command Syntax and Special Characters (3036)

  • Executing Commands at the Command Line (3036)

  • Common Command Line Tasks (3036)

  • Piping and Redirection (3036)

  • Changing Directories and Listing Directory Contents (3036)

  • Creating, Viewing, and Appending Files (3036)

  • Copying and moving Files and Directories (3036)

  • Creating Directories (3036)

  • Deleting Files and Directories (3036)

  • Using grep to Search File Content (3036)

  • Understanding Regular Expressions (3036)

  • Introduction to Linux Text Editors (3036)

  • Using Command Line Editors to Edit (3036)

  • Using Desktop Editors to Edit Files in the Linux System (3036)

  • View Processes from the GUI and the Command Line Interface (3036)

  • Multiuser Processes and Multitasking in the Linux System (3036)

  • Monitor Processes (3038)

  • This chapter contains a remarkable deal of content, and it is imperative that you understand and are snug with everybitof of it before moving on. It cannot live stressed enough that the commands, utilities, and skills discussed in this chapter lay the foundation upon which everybitof Linux administration is built.

    Course Objectives Covered

  • Accessing the Command Line (3036)

  • Introduction to Command Shells (3036)

  • Understanding Command Syntax and Special Characters (3036)

  • Executing Commands at the Command Line (3036)

  • Common Command Line Tasks (3036)

  • Piping and Redirection (3036)

  • To understand the command line and travail there effectively, you must understand the processes that are taking place. Within Linux, the shell is the command interpreter. It takes commands that a user gives, processes them (or sends them to the commandeer utility/interacts with the kernel), and formats the finished results for the user. Thus, the shell is the mediator between the operating system and the user. Not only can it interpret commands, but it can also maneuver redirection (input and output), filename generation, some programming, variable substitution, piping, and a host of other services.

    A number of different shells (interpreters) are available, and different vendors include different combinations of choices with their operating systems. The simplest of everybitof is the Bourne shell (sh), which is one of the earliest ones created for the Unix platform and offers the smallest number of features. The Korn shell (ksh) was one of the first to expand upon, and deviate from, sh, and it includes a larger number of options. The Bourne Again shell (bash) took many of the features from Korn, and some recent ones, and combined them with sh, while trying to reduce deviations. The Z shell (zsh) is the largest shell of everybitof and added a all recent set of features to the Korn shell.

    Not to live overlooked are shells created to develop the environment more friendly to those confidential with the C programming language. The first of these was the C shell (csh), which added C-like features to the interpreter and deviated greatly from the Bourne shell. It has been expanded upon by Tom's C shell (tcsh) .

    As a generalization, every vendor includes more than one shell for the user to pick from, but rarely accomplish they include everybitof the available shells. In many versions, there are three prevalent shells:

    Additionally, there are often two links within the operating system so that if a user attempts to disburse sh, they are really given bash, and if they attempt to disburse csh, they are really given tcsh.


    All shells reside in the /bin directory and the default can live specified for the user in the user's /etc/passwd file entry.

    There are slight deviations in the pass each shell carries out its tasks, but everybitof achieve a core set of functions. Throughout this section, they will perceive at the core functions for everybitof shells and debate differences as they apply.

    Command-Line Interaction

    When a command is entered, the shell must determine if the command is for it (internal) or not (external). If the command is an internal one, it does the processing and sends the output back without further interaction being needed. If the command cannot live institute within the shell itself, it is assumed to live an external utility (such as ls, cat, cal, and so on). The command syntax for external commands is always assumed to be

    {program name} {option(s)} {argument(s)}

    Although it is always assumed that there are three components to the command, there need not be. The simplest command to give is simply the designation of the utility, for example:


    This will recur an output similar to

    Desktop sample snapshot01.gif snapshot02.gif

    In this case, only the program designation was given, and no options. This results in a listing of everybitof files within the present directory being shown in the default format. An option can live specified to change the pomp to include/exclude information and/or change the format of the display. An instance would be

    ls -l

    This changes the output to

    total 34 drwx------ 5 root root 1024 Jul 19 16:34 Desktop -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 155 Jul 19 16:48 sample -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 12497 Jul 19 16:39 snapshot01.gif -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 17257 Jul 19 16:50 snapshot02.gif

    Here, the program designation has been specified (ls), as well as an option to disburse with it (-l) to change the listing to the "long" format.


    It is principal to understand that whitespace must always live used to part the parameters from one another. Whitespace can live either a space character or a tab character.

    If the command were given as ls-l, an oversight message would live generated because there is no utility by the designation of ls-l, and the interpreter would not live able to distinguish the program designation from the option.

    The options, as well as the arguments, are optional and never required. To complete the example, an controversy can also live used with the command:

    ls -l *.gif

    This will result in the following display:

    -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 12497 Jul 19 16:39 snapshot01.gif -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 17257 Jul 19 16:50 snapshot02.gif


    Alternatively, the controversy can live used without the options, relish this:

    ls *.gif

    The number of arguments that can live given is not limited to one. Although there may live limitations on the number of parameters an individual utility will accept, typically you can string multiple requests together. For example, instead of specifying

    ls -l sa*

    as one command and then following it with

    ls -l *.gif

    you can accomplish the identical operation with

    ls -l sa* *.gif

    The result of the operation becomes

    -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 155 Jul 19 16:48 sample -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 12497 Jul 19 16:39 snapshot01.gif -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 17257 Jul 19 16:50 snapshot02.gif

    If the number of arguments you are giving becomes too long to live easily readable on the command line, or if you simply want to wreck up the entry a bit, you can disburse the backstroke character to signify that you are continuing from one line to the next. For example

    ls -l sa* \ *.gif

    If you were giving hundreds of such arguments, you would disburse the backstroke following each entry to part each. This would develop entry easier to view and the command would not execute until the Enter key is pressed without being preceded by a backstroke. For example

    ls -l sa* \ *.gif \ *.ead \ *.txt \ *.doc Connecting Commands

    In everybitof the examples thus far, the Enter key is used to inform the shell that you acquire given a command that needs to live processed. You are not, however, limited to giving the shell only one command at a time.

    Multiple commands, not connected to one another in any way, can live given on the identical line as long as the semicolon (;) is used to connect them. For example, it is workable to behold everybitof the files in the current directory and the current date by giving the following two commands in succession:

    ls date

    These are unrelated commands in that the output of the second has absolutely nothing to accomplish with the output of the first. You can combine them on a sole command line with a semicolon between the two and acquire the identical result:

    ls ; date

    The semicolon is a special character signaling that multiple commands are on the identical line. This character allows you to wreck the whitespace rule on both sides of it (ls;date) while giving you the identical result.

    If the commands accomplish acquire something in common—the output of one is to become the input of the next—they are connected using a pipe (|). For example, if a list of files within a directory is too long to appropriate on one screen, you can view a screen at a time by using this command:

    ls -l | more

    Here the output of the ls -l command becomes the input of the more command. If the first section of the entire command line fails, the second section cannot possibly live executed.


    Wildcards are characters used to signify other characters that the shell fills in. The two most common wildcard characters are the asterisk (*) and question tag (?). Although they are often confused, their meanings are different and can lead to completely different results.

    The asterisk is used to signify any and all; anything and nothing; alpha and omega. For example

    ls s*

    will find everybitof entries (files and directories) within the current directory starting with the note "s" and having any number of characters following—including none. workable results it could generate in the pomp include

    s sa sam samp sampl sample samples samples.gif

    Note that it finds "s" alone, and "s" with any number of entries following it. In contrast, the question tag is a placeholder for one character, and only one character. Using the identical file possibilities, the following command

    ls s?

    will only find entries (files and directories) in the current directory starting with the note "s" and having only one character following. The resulting pomp generated is


    If you want to find only five-letter entries genesis with "s", the command to disburse would be

    ls s????

    To recap, the asterisk means everybitof or none, and the question tag always means one. These two wildcards are not mutually exclusive, and can live used in combination with one another as the need arises. For example, to find only files with three-letter extensions, regardless of the filename, the command would be

    ls *.???

    To muddy the waters a bit, you can also disburse brackets ([]) to specify workable values. everybitof the workable values must reside within the brackets and are used individually. The following instance will find everybitof entries that start with either "d" or "e" and acquire an unlimited number of characters following:

    ls [de]*

    To find only three-character entries that start with "d" or "e", the command would become

    ls [de]??

    The number of characters within the brackets can live virtually unlimited. Therefore, if you wanted to find everybitof entries that start with a lowercase note instead of a number (or other character), you could disburse "[abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz]". However, because this is a range, a much simpler pass to signify it would live "[a-z]":

    ls [a-z]*

    The ranges need not live a complete set (though complete sets are easier to specify), and can jump around if needed. For example, if you only want to perceive for entries that drop within the range from "d" to "t", you could disburse either "[defghijklmnopqrst]" or "[d-t]". If the entry could live between the two values upper- and lowercase, you can either disburse "[DEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTdefghijklmnopqrst]" or "[D-Td-t]".

    Some more examples follow:

    The Path Statement and Other Variables

    When you enter a command at the command prompt and the shell cannot find it internally, it must perceive for a utility by that designation externally. It does this by searching directories specified in the PATH variable, in the order they are listed, until it finds the first match. If no match is institute after everybitof listed directories acquire been searched, the result is an oversight message ("command not found").

    There are several principal things to know about the path:

  • You can view your path by using the reflect command:

  • echo $PATH
  • The path does not, by default, include the present directory. Thus you can create an executable file in your home directory, behold it birthright before you (with ls), and when you character its name, you will live told that the command cannot live found. To circumvent this, you can give the replete path to the file, add your home directory to your PATH variable, scuttle the file to a directory in the path statement, or add the present directory variable (.) to the PATH variable.

  • Entries within the path are separated by colons (:).

  • The order of the PATH search should always include the most common directories where executables can live institute first (the bin directories) and the user-specific directories (if any) at the end.

  • To add another directory to your path, you can redefine the entire statement, or simply append the recent directory with the command

    PATH=$PATH:{new directory}

    Thus to add the directory /home/edulaney to the path, the command would be


    Or you can add a variable that signifies you always want the directory you are currently working in to live searched for the utility:



    For security reasons, it is always recommended that you not include the current directory in your path. If you must accomplish so, however, it should live at the halt of the PATH statement—as shown in the preceding example—not at the beginning.

    For example, if your current PATH is equal to

    /sbin:/usr/sbin:/usr/local/sbin:/root/bin:/usr/local/bin:/ usr/bin

    then you want the recent PATH to perceive like

    /sbin:/usr/sbin:/usr/local/sbin:/root/bin:/usr/local/bin:/ usr/bin:./

    and not


    because the directories are always searched in the order they appear in PATH.

    Common Variables

    Any variable that exists can pomp its values using the following syntax:

    echo ${variable name}

    Thus the command

    echo $MAIL

    will demonstrate the mail directory, $HOME the home directory, and so on. To behold a complete list of the environmental variables that are defined, you can disburse two commands—env and set. Although the displays can differ slightly (environmental variables only versus local variables), for the most section the output of env is a subset of the output of set. Some of the variables that can pomp include the following:

  • HOME—The directory you commence in, and where you halt up when typing cd without any other parameters

  • LINES—Number of lines within the pomp before pausing (more)

  • LOGNAME—The username under which the current user is logged in

  • PWD—The present working directory, or where you are now

  • SHELL—Which interpreter you are using

  • TERM—The character of terminal, or emulation, in use

  • USER—This rarely differs from LOGNAME but can if the user is switching authorization levels with commands such as su

  • NOTE

    As a generic rule, predefined system variables are always in uppercase.

    You can change the value of variables as needed, or add your own to live referenced in programs or at the command prompt. For example, to create a recent variable called TODAY, disburse the following syntax:


    You can now behold the value of the variable by using the command

    echo $TODAY

    The result will live Wednesday. If you now disburse the command


    the variable will appear there. However, if you disburse the following command, it will not:


    The variable has been created locally, and can live referenced locally. In order for it to live accessible in subroutines and child processes, you must scuttle it from local status into the environment, and this is accomplished via the export command:

    export TODAY

    This moves the variable to where it can live institute in the environment, as well as locally, and accessed by subroutines and child processes. The variable, and its value, will live available for the duration of the session, and lost when you log out. To develop the value permanent, you must add the entry to a profile.

    To change the value of the variable, simply define its recent value:


    Because it has already been exported, this need not live done again, and the recent value will apply locally as well as in the environment. Should it live necessary to remove a variable, you can disburse the unset command.

    Among those variables present and definable are those that present the prompt. The prompt is the visual message from the shell that tells you it is ready for input. The default prompts include

  • $ as the ultimate character for Bourne, BASH, and Korn shells

  • % as the ultimate character for C shell and Z shell

  • > as the ultimate character for tcsh

  • The primary prompt is either the variable PS1 or prompt, based on which shell you are using. In bash, a typical value for PS1 is

    [\u@\h \W]\$

    Dissected into its components, PS1 is equal to the following:

  • The left bracket ([)

  • The designation of the current user

  • The at attribute (@)

  • The designation of the current host

  • A space

  • The present working directory

  • The birthright bracket (])

  • The dollar badge ($)

  • An instance of this prompt would be

    [edulaney@server7 home]$

    The backstroke (\) character is used to signify that a special value should live used. Different values that can live used for the prompt include those shown in Table 3.1.

    Variables to Define the Prompt




    Current date


    Name of host to first period


    New line








    Current directory


    History number


    Command number


    Default prompt—$ for standard users, and # for root


    An actual backstroke (literal)


    ABC (the value of that text, or any text given)

    Looking at the variables on the system, you will find that more than PS1 exists. For example, earlier in this chapter, they discussed ending a line with a backstroke to signify that you are not finished entering input yet. If they perceive at the sequence of events, and include prompts, it would perceive relish this:

    [edulaney@server7 home]$ ls -l *.gif \ > *.fig \ > *.bmp

    Note that the prompt changed from PS1 to a greater-than badge (>). If it had stayed PS1, you would not know that it was still accepting input, so it changed from the primary prompt to a secondary prompt to signify the change in mode. The prompt represented (by default) by the greater-than badge is PS2. Its value can live changed from the default to any value you want, including everybitof the special values given in the earlier table. Within most shells, there are three to four layers of prompts.

    By now you've realized that the dollar badge ($) is used to signify a variable; when you acquire a variable named EXAMPLE, you view its contents by examining $EXAMPLE. Three other variables exist for a shell that can live useful in determining your environment.

  • The first—$$—will demonstrate the process ID number of the shell now running:

  • echo $$
  • The second—$?—will demonstrate the results of the ultimate command that you ran in terms of whether it was successful (0) or not (1). For example, the ls utility accepts an option of -F that will differentiate between directories and files by putting a slash behind the designation of directories. The ls utility does not acquire a -z option. Given this knowledge, the following sequence shows how $? can live utilized, and includes the prompts and output of each operation:

  • [edulaney@server7 home]$ ls -F Desktop\ sample snapshot01.gif snapshot02.gif [edulaney@server7 home]$ reflect $? 0 [edulaney@server7 home]$ ls -z ls: invalid option -- z [edulaney@server7 home]$ reflect $? 1
  • The third variable—$!—will demonstrate the process ID number of the ultimate child process started in the background. If no child processes acquire been started in the background, the result will live empty. For this discussion it is useful to know that placing an ampersand (&) at the halt of the command will execute the command in the background. For example

  • [edulaney@server7 home]$ reflect $! [edulaney@server7 home]$ ls -F & [edulaney@server7 home]$ reflect $! 19321 [edulaney@server7 home]$
  • In the first instance, no job had been sent to the background, so the returned value was empty. A job was then sent to the background, and its process ID number could live institute by echoing $!.


    One of the most difficult components of the shell to understand is often the disburse of quotes. There are a few rules to bethink to develop understanding the concept easier:

  • There are three types of quotes—double quotes ("), sole quotes ('), and back quotes (´). Each has a different and discrete meaning. Double quotes are used to disable everybitof characters except ', \, and $. sole quotes disable everybitof characters except the back quote. The back quote substitutes the value for a command.

  • Quotes must always live used in even numbers. If you give an odd number, the shell believes that you acquire not finished with input yet and waits for more.

  • You can mix and match different types of quotes and embed them within one another.

  • Let's examine each rule in order. If you acquire a file named sample of the worlds best cigars, and you give this command:

    cat sample of the worlds best cigars

    The cat utility will first try to open a file named sample, then one named of, followed by four other files: the, worlds, best, cigars. The whitespace between the words is interpreted as delimiters between different files. In order to live able to behold the file, the command must live changed to

    cat "sample of the worlds best cigars"

    The double quotes cancel the default import of the whitespace and allow the value between them to live interpreted as a sole entry. The double quotes cancel the import of most special characters, but not all. For example, suppose there is a variable named instance that is equal to 25:

    echo $EXAMPLE

    This will recur "25". Likewise, the following will also recur "25":

    echo "$EXAMPLE"

    And the following will recur "$EXAMPLE":

    echo '$EXAMPLE'

    The sole quotes Go above and beyond the double quotes and also cancel out the import of the dollar sign.

    Going in another direction

    echo 'date'

    will recur "date". Substituting the sole quotes for back quotes will acquire a different result:

    echo ´date´

    will recur the results of the date command. An alternative to the back quotes in the newer shells is to station the command within parentheses and deal it as a variable. Thus the date can live echoed as in the preceding instance with the command:

    echo $(date)

    If you fail to disburse an even number of any quote set, PS1 is replaced by PS2, and continues to live so until the total number of quotes used (each set) is an even number. This can live useful when you acquire a lengthy entry you want to wreck into lines during entry. The following instance includes the prompts and also shows the disburse of one set of quotes (back quotes) within another (double quotes):

    [edulaney@server7 home]$ EXAMPLE="Hi, the date > and time now > are ´date´." [edulaney@server7 home]$ reflect $EXAMPLE Hi, the date and time now are Thu Aug 10 11:12:37 EDT 2000 [edulaney@server7 home]$

    In many instances, the quotes need to live mixed and matched. One of the biggest problems you will encounter, however, is that special characters develop it difficult to pomp them as output. For example, assume the halt result of an reflect operation to be

    Karen says "Hi"

    If you disburse the command

    echo Karen says "Hi"

    the result will be

    Karen says Hi

    The shell interprets the quotation marks as import that the text within them should live taken as a sole entry. The shell performs the operation given it, and loses the quotes in the process. To acquire around this, you must disburse the backslash (\) character to override the default import of the quotes:

    echo Karen says \"Hi\"

    Note that the backslash—literal—character must precede each incidence of the quotes, and is always only amenable for the character immediately following it.

    Command History

    The bash shell keeps a list of commands that you give it and allows you to reuse those commands from the list rather than needing to retype them each time. From the command line, you can disburse the up and down arrows to scroll through recent commands. You can also enter two bangs (!!) to rerun the very ultimate command you gave.

    Typing history shows everybitof the commands that are stored, with an incrementing number on the left. Typing a sole bang and one of those command numbers will rerun that command, as in !205.


    Instead of seeing the entire history list, you can pick to behold only the most recent entries by following the history command with the number of lines you want to see, relish this:

    history 5 history 10

    Alternatively, you can character a bang followed by a set of characters and the shell will rerun the most recent command starting with those characters. For example


    will rerun the most recent command that started with ls.

    Important variables for history are

  • HISTFILE—Points to the file holding the history of commands. By default, it is .bash_history in each user's home directory.

  • HISTSIZE—The number of entries to hold each session.

  • HISTFILESIZE—Identifies the number of command history entries to live carried over from one session to another (letting you sprint commands in this session that you ran in the previous one).

  • NOTE

    An internal alias for history, fc, also exists and can live used to recall and rerun commands as well.

    Command Aliasing

    Although a plethora of commands and utilities are available within the operating system and shell, you can create aliases that develop more sense to you, or that abridge the number of characters you acquire to type. For example, if you are confidential with working with the command line of Windows-based operating systems, you are accustomed to typing dir to behold what files are there. A similar operation in Linux is workable with ls -l. It is workable to create an alias so that when you character dir, it is ls -l that runs using the following syntax:

    alias dir="ls -l"

    The syntax is always the alias followed by the actual command that will sprint when the alias is entered, separated by the equal badge (=). In rare instances, you can acquire away with not using the quotation marks around the aliased entry, but as a generic rule, they should always live used.


    For aliases to survive a session, they should live added to the .bashrc file within a user's home directory. If you accomplish not establish them within a file that is executed upon login (thus re-creating them), the created aliases are lost when you log out.

    Other Features and Notes

    The Linux command line has a number of other features that should not live overlooked. Although they are not complicated enough to warrant a section of their own, it is useful to know of their existence:

  • When typing a command, you can press the Tab key after entering a few characters and the shell will attempt to complete the designation of the command you were typing.

  • The command-line history can live edited to alter commands before running them again. The default editor in bash is emacs, and in zsh it is vi. Editors are discussed later in this chapter, in the section "Working with vi."

  • When you press the Enter key, the shell first scans the command line and determines what elements it has been given by looking for whitespace. It next replaces wildcards with any pertinent filenames. Following that, it strips everybitof quotes and substitutes variables. Lastly, it substitutes any embedded commands and then executes the entry.

  • The test utility can live used in conjunction with $? to test almost anything. For example, to behold if a file exists and is readable, disburse this combination:

  • test -r snapshot01.gif echo $?

    Complete syntax for everybitof the test options can live institute by typing man test.

  • Two less-than signs (<<) are known simply as "here" and signify that processing is to wait until the string following them is given as a PS2 prompt on a line by itself. For example

  • cat << litter

    will accept input at a PS2 prompt until the string "litter" is entered on a line by itself.

  • SUSE Linux users nervous as Novell explores options | actual questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Novell reportedly establish itself on the market ultimate week, leaving SUSE Linux Enterprise users unsure about the destiny of that open source operating system and other Novell products.

    If the report in The Wall Street Journal is true, the bidding kicks off two months after Waltham, Mass-based Novell's board turned down Elliott Partners $2 billion buyout offer. At that time, Novell said the price was inadequate, and it would explore other options, including stock buy-backs, cash dividends and more alliances.

    A Novell spokesman provided no comment.

    In the value time, Novell ultimate week released SUSE Linux Enterprise 11 Service Pack 1.

    Still, the questions around the vendor's prospects acquire SUSE Linux users wondering what will become of the products they built their infrastructure on.

    David O'Berry, a consultant and CIO for South Carolina Department of Probation, became a Master Novell Certified Engineer in the 1990s and has watched the company struggle since then.

    "Novell is getting very immediate to irrelevance," O'Berry said. "It's no longer the battleship it once was, and the company seems to live very confused birthright now. I'm frustrated at their lack of ability to execute on roadmaps and plans for the future."

    O'Berry runs about 50 SUSE Linux servers said he was relieved when Novell turned down Elliot's offer, but worries about the integrity of other potential buyers.

    "When you acquire a consortium of private investors or private equity firms looking at a technology company, you know they blueprint to split it apart and suck the cash out. They don't care about the technology itself," O'Berry said. "I never thought I'd hear myself exclaim this -- because I don't consider the company that provides the needle should also provide the drugs - but someone relish Microsoft or IBM needs to step in and enmesh over."

    Microsoft would live a analytic suitor, he said, because the company already collaborates with Novell and SUSE Linux interoperates with Microsoft management offerings.

    But other IT pros acquire given up on SUSE; O'Berry said he is one of the few he knows still using it in the field.

    David Reynolds, IT manager with the Rhode Island Blood headquarters in Providence, uses Linux but hasn't used SUSE Linux since 2003 and he also worked with Novell's flagship Netware network operating system.

    "[SUSE Linux is] a dying OS I'm afraid," Reynolds said. But, as a Linux fan, he wants someone to rescue Novell. "If someone can find value in Palm, there's hope for anyone I guess." (In late April, Hewlett Packard announced plans to buy Palm, the handheld device pioneer, for $1.2 billion.)

    But, since Novell's legacy trade has fallen on difficult times , the SUSE trade unit is its focus, so users shouldn't live nervous about losing it, said John Locke, President of the Seattle-based open source IT services firm Freelock Computing.

    "While I really don't consider SUSE is at risk, the other Linux desktop software projects might be," Locke said.

    Novell is the steward of many Linux desktop applications, including Evolution, a Linux equivalent to Outlook; F-Spot, a photo manager; Tomboy, a sticky note application; Banshee, a music player/manager; and Mono, an open source implementation of the .NET platform.

    It also offers the collaboration product GroupWise, which competes with Microsoft Exchange.

    "Novell has done some tremendously principal travail in making desktop Linux as amenable as or better than Windows and Mac, as well as doing a lot to promote interoperability," Locke said. "I would hope whoever purchases Novell sees the significance of continuing to back these projects -- the entire Linux community benefits from this work, and it's largely paid for by the success of SUSE."

    Let us know what you consider about the story; email Bridget Botelho or succeed @BridgetBotelho on Twitter

    Direct Download of over 5500 Certification Exams

    3COM [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    AccessData [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ACFE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ACI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Acme-Packet [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ACSM [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ACT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Admission-Tests [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ADOBE [93 Certification Exam(s) ]
    AFP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    AICPA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    AIIM [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Alcatel-Lucent [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Alfresco [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Altiris [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Amazon [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    American-College [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Android [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    APA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    APC [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    APICS [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Apple [69 Certification Exam(s) ]
    AppSense [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    APTUSC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Arizona-Education [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ARM [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Aruba [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ASIS [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ASQ [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ASTQB [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Autodesk [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Avaya [96 Certification Exam(s) ]
    AXELOS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Axis [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Banking [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    BEA [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
    BICSI [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    BlackBerry [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
    BlueCoat [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Brocade [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Business-Objects [11 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Business-Tests [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CA-Technologies [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Certification-Board [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Certiport [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CheckPoint [41 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CIDQ [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CIPS [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Cisco [318 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Citrix [48 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CIW [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Cloudera [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Cognos [19 Certification Exam(s) ]
    College-Board [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CompTIA [76 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ComputerAssociates [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Consultant [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Counselor [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CPP-Institue [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CPP-Institute [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CSP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CWNA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CWNP [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Dassault [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    DELL [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
    DMI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    DRI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ECCouncil [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ECDL [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    EMC [129 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Enterasys [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Ericsson [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ESPA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Esri [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ExamExpress [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Exin [40 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ExtremeNetworks [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    F5-Networks [20 Certification Exam(s) ]
    FCTC [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Filemaker [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Financial [36 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Food [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Fortinet [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Foundry [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    FSMTB [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Fujitsu [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    GAQM [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Genesys [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    GIAC [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Google [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    GuidanceSoftware [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    H3C [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    HDI [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Healthcare [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    HIPAA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Hitachi [30 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Hortonworks [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Hospitality [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    HP [750 Certification Exam(s) ]
    HR [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    HRCI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Huawei [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Hyperion [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IAAP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IAHCSMM [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IBM [1532 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IBQH [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ICAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ICDL [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IEEE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IELTS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IFPUG [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IIBA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IISFA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Intel [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IQN [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IRS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ISA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ISACA [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ISC2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ISEB [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Isilon [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ISM [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    iSQI [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ITEC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Juniper [64 Certification Exam(s) ]
    LEED [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Legato [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Liferay [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Logical-Operations [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Lotus [66 Certification Exam(s) ]
    LPI [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
    LSI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Magento [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Maintenance [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    McAfee [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    McData [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Medical [69 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Microsoft [374 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Mile2 [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Military [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Misc [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Motorola [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
    mySQL [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NBSTSA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NCEES [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NCIDQ [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NCLEX [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Network-General [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NetworkAppliance [39 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NIELIT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Nokia [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Nortel [130 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Novell [37 Certification Exam(s) ]
    OMG [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Oracle [279 Certification Exam(s) ]
    P&C [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Palo-Alto [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PARCC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PayPal [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Pegasystems [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PEOPLECERT [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PMI [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Polycom [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PostgreSQL-CE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Prince2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PRMIA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PsychCorp [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PTCB [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    QAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    QlikView [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Quality-Assurance [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
    RACC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Real-Estate [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    RedHat [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    RES [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Riverbed [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    RSA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Sair [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Salesforce [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SANS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SAP [98 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SASInstitute [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SAT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SCO [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SCP [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SDI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    See-Beyond [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Siemens [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Snia [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SOA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Social-Work-Board [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SpringSource [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SUN [63 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SUSE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Sybase [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Symantec [134 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Teacher-Certification [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    The-Open-Group [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    TIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Tibco [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Trainers [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Trend [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    TruSecure [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    USMLE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    VCE [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Veeam [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Veritas [33 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Vmware [58 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Wonderlic [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Worldatwork [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    XML-Master [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Zend [6 Certification Exam(s) ]

    References :

    Dropmark :
    Wordpress :
    Dropmark-Text :
    Issu :
    Blogspot :
    RSS Feed : : :

    Back to Main Page | |