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Oracle Oracle Database 10g: New

TaylorMade Golf Tees Off with Oracle self sustaining Database | actual Questions and Pass4sure dumps

leading golf gadget manufacturer turns over key records administration projects to Oracle, boosting performance and scalability

REDWOOD SHORES, Calif., Feb. eleven, 2019 /PRNewswire/ -- TaylorMade Golf, in its quest for growth after divesting from Adidas, is popping to Oracle autonomous Database to underpin its cloud modernization approach and power innovation. A key profit of the brand modern Oracle Database is that it automates the everyday database operations and tuning, liberating TaylorMade to focal point on making the area's ultimate golf device.

Oracle logo (PRNewsfoto/Oracle)


When TaylorMade separated from Adidas, the company needed to build out a platform within the cloud and selected Oracle self adequate Database for its unheard of availability, performance, and security. The business's first and simplest independent database, Oracle self adequate data Warehouse provides TaylorMade with the capability to scale as mandatory for planned commerce initiatives, above total around seasonal workloads, in a simple and cost-efficient manner. It likewise works with TaylorMade's present commerce analytic tools to coerce sooner analysis to impulsively alter income concepts as needed. The database likewise offers TaylorMade the tools they should pinpoint alternatives for commerce diversification.

"As their enterprise needs endured to adapt, they required a greater effective solution to seamlessly control and scale their information management system," stated Tom Collard, vice chairman of IT, TaylorMade. "With Oracle self adequate data Warehouse, they now hold a scalable, reasonable cloud platform to dash their enterprise. this will cheer preserve boom and unlock useful employee time so one can focal point on extra mission-important initiatives."

Taking odds of Oracle self sustaining statistics Warehouse's self-driving, self-securing, and self-repairing capabilities, TaylorMade will exist inevitable its censorious infrastructure is running successfully with efficiency it really is 40x faster than its feeble on-premise database solution. this will permit its IT group of workers to focus on actions that pressure growth and stronger meet consumer calls for while keeping expenses low.

"TaylorMade has a tradition of constructing the ultimate golf rig for authorities and patrons," notable Andrew Mendelsohn, govt vp of Database Server applied sciences, Oracle. "With Oracle self sustaining Database, Oracle handles total of the database operations and tuning so TaylorMade's IT corpse of workers can consign greater time to deriving commerce value from their statistics."

further supplies

About TaylorMade Golf business

Headquartered in Carlsbad, California, TaylorMade Golf is a number one manufacturer of tall performance golf device with trade-leading innovative items like M5/M6 metalwoods, M5/M6 irons and TP5/TP5X golf balls. TaylorMade is the #1 Driver in Golf and likewise an incredible drive on the PGA TOUR with some of the strongest athlete portfolios in golf, that includes Dustin Johnson, Rory McIlroy, Jason Day, Jon Rahm and Tiger Woods.

About OracleThe Oracle Cloud offers an entire suite of integrated applications for income, provider, advertising, Human resources, Finance, supply Chain and Manufacturing, plus incredibly-automated and snug era 2 Infrastructure featuring the Oracle independent Database. For greater guidance about Oracle (ORCL), gladden talk over with us at

TrademarksOracle and Java are registered emblems of Oracle and/or its affiliates. other names may well exist logos of their respective house owners.

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KT Corp Connects With Oracle for brand spanking modern 5G commerce capabilities | actual Questions and Pass4sure dumps

Press liberate

Redwood Shores, Calif.—Feb 14, 2019

KT Corp has selected Oracle Communications for the 5G coverage handle feature (PCF) within the buildout of its 5G community and to allow modern network as a provider (NaaS) offerings for corporations. An early adopter of 5G, KT Corp is universal for innovation and selected Oracle for its mediocre 5G readiness, product maturity and competitive strengths, including its agile and feature-rich 5G PCF answer.

“building on their longstanding relationship with Oracle Communications, we're satisfied to continue working together as they hold expertise of total that 5G has to offer,” observed Gwangwook Lee, VP Core network strategy & Planning department., KT Corp. “In trials, the Oracle 5G PCF reply performed past expectations and met their discerning metrics for using the success of their upcoming 5G deployment. After six years of successful partnership with Oracle within the 4G realm, they look to exist ahead to carrying on with the partnership with Oracle in the 5G domain and as they swagger to bring new, imaginitive offerings to their clients.”

The 5G PCF is the policy management characteristic of the 5G handle airplane, and some of the 5G Core network points supplying satisfactory of carrier and different community guidelines to communications service suppliers’ (CSPs) networks. Leveraging Oracle’s 5G Core community, KT Corp might exist capable of proceed its network transformation towards 5G, and will unencumber modern doorways for differentiated and customized consumer choices, assisting incremental 5G network monetization with enhanced service agility, improved bandwidth and extra customized functions.

With the introduction of 5G, CSPs like KT Corp are able to launch and evolve customized-healthy community slices faster than ever. network slicing is a totally dynamic process that gives CSPs with the desultory to tailor connectivity services to the precise requirements of any given software; person, device or context, by means of logically setting apart virtualized network substances. This skill will permit CSPs to launch NaaS solutions tailored to the inevitable wants of their commerce valued clientele that may latitude from AR and VR to connected vehicles, smart Factories, and smart Cities.

“by means of supplying an reply that addresses 5G policy requirements and underpins KT Corp’s main 5G transformation,” observed Andy Hicks, major Analyst at GlobalData, “Oracle is staking a declare to leadership within the 5G core.”

“As they lengthen their partnership with visionary, KT Corp past their collective 4G success, Oracle is unlocking doors to modern innovations in this subsequent generation of connectivity spanning from commercial enterprise functions to sensible ecosystems,” pointed out Doug Suriano, senior vice president and accepted manager, Oracle Communications.

Contact data About Oracle Communications

Oracle Communications provides integrated communications and cloud options for provider suppliers and corporations to accelerate their digital transformation journey in a communications-driven world from community evolution to digital commerce to customer journey.

To gain scholarship of extra about Oracle Communications trade solutions, hunt advice from: Oracle Communications LinkedIn, or exist Part of the dialog at Twitter @OracleComms.

About Oracle

The Oracle Cloud presents an entire suite of built-in applications for income, service, advertising, Human resources, Finance, deliver Chain and Manufacturing, plus extremely-computerized and comfy technology 2 Infrastructure that includes the Oracle self sustaining Database. For extra counsel about Oracle (NYSE: ORCL), gladden debate with us at


Oracle and Java are registered logos of Oracle and/or its associates. different names can exist emblems of their respective house owners.

Oracle provides modern devOps capabilities to blockchain platform | actual Questions and Pass4sure dumps

Oracle is including modern aspects to the Oracle Blockchain Platform, making it less demanding for developers to integrate their blockchain applications with present commerce and IT systems. About seven months after the platform became generally obtainable, Oracle is likewise highlighting modern consumers the expend of the nascent expertise.

also: Oracle introduces modern commerce digital assistant 

A blockchain, the expertise behind the cryptocurrency Bitcoin, is a shared, disbursed ledger that may store complete transaction histories. It has a number of expend cases for enterprises that want to weigh on tamper-proof transactions to create modern salary streams or enhance enterprise operations. Oracle's platform makes blockchain expertise obtainable as a service.

one of the vital platform's modern points are aimed at letting corporations and builders expend their current expertise to construct and manage their applications. for instance, it elements an more advantageous world state database to aid universal SQL-primarily based ledger queries. This lets developers construct chaincode with typical programming advantage. The platform additionally now supports Hyperledger cloth 1.three, including aspects such as  chaincode construction in Java.

ought to examine

in the meantime, the brand modern prosperous legacy database shadows transaction background perquisite into a relational database schema in Oracle's self reliant information Warehouse or different Oracle databases. This lets corporations integrate their transaction background into interactive analytics dashboards. additionally, enhanced leisure APIs should soundless simplify integration with current IT equipment.

The up to date platform additionally lets businesses expend exterior id suppliers for authentication. The feature should soundless aid consortium blockchains with many distinctive contributors, total of which may well exist using diverse identity management methods. businesses can additionally now expend third-party certificates to register client companies on the blockchain community.

amongst Oracle's lately-delivered blockchain customers are China Distance education Holdings limited, which uses blockchain to share educational facts and skilled certifications throughout assorted academic associations. This helps employers and recruiters examine people' claimed academic credentials. in the meantime, the commerce Circulor uses blockchain to music affray minerals from their starting region at mines to processing and expend in electronic accessories. different Oracle blockchain shoppers involve Arab Jordan funding monetary institution, CargoSmart, certified Origins, HealthSync and ICS monetary techniques.

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Oracle Database 10g: modern Features for Oracle8i OCPs

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Top 10 modern data warehousing features in Oracle Database 10g | actual questions and Pass4sure dumps

Mark Rittman

Mark Rittman is a guest contributor. He is an OCP DBA and works as a consulting manager at Plus Consultancy in England, where he specializes in developing commerce intelligence and data warehousing applications using the Oracle Database, Application Server, Discoverer, Warehouse Builder and Oracle OLAP.

You can find more of Mark's labor at

Plus Consultancy's heed Rittman shares what he believes are the top 10 modern data warehousing features in Oracle Database 10g. expend the following list to navigate to each feature.

  TABLE OF CONTENTS  1. The SQL Model Clause  2. The SQLAccess Adviser  3. Improvements to the Multidimensional OLAP Engine  4. The Tune MView Advisor and improvements to Query Rewrite  5. Data Pump, The replacement for import and export  6. Improvements to storage management  7. Faster full table scans  8. Automatic tuning and maintenance  9. Asynchronous Change Data Capture  10. Improvements to Oracle data mining

  1. The SQL Model clause[ recur to Table of Contents ]

The modern data warehousing feature in Oracle Database 10g that has probably received the most attention is the SQL Model clause. The SQL Model clause allows users to embed spreadsheet-like models in a SELECT statement, in a route that was previously the domain of dedicated multidimensional OLAP servers such as Oracle Express and Oracle9i OLAP. The SQL Model clause brings an entirely modern dimension to Oracle analytical queries and addresses a number of traditional shortcomings with the route SQL normally works.

The SQL Model clause has been designed to address the sort of situation where, in the past, clients hold taken data out of relational databases and imported it into a model held in a spreadsheet such as Microsoft Excel. Often, these models involve a progression of macros that aggregate data over a number of commerce dimensions, over varying time periods, and following a set of knotty commerce rules that would exist difficult to express as simple SQL. I've worked on many a client engagement where the limitations of SQL meant that a number of standalone excel spreadsheets had to exist used, and while these gave the client the analytical capabilities they required, the usual issues of scalability and reliability of replicated data, and want of overall control often became limpid after a while.

The point of the SQL Model clause is to give simple SQL statements the competence to create a multidimensional array from the results of a simple SELECT statement, carry out any number of interdependent inter-row and inter-array calculations on this array, and then update the base tables with the results of the model. An sample SQL statement using the MODEL clause would leer like;

SELECT SUBSTR(country,1,20) country, SUBSTR(prod,1,15) prod, year, sales FROM sales_view WHERE country IN ('Italy','Japan') MODEL recur UPDATED ROWS PARTITION BY (country) DIMENSION BY (prod, year) MEASURES (sale sales) RULES ( sales['Bounce', 2002] = sales['Bounce', 2001] + sales['Bounce', 2000], sales['Y Box', 2002] = sales['Y Box', 2001], sales['2_Products', 2002] = sales['Bounce', 2002] + sales['Y Box', 2002]) ORDER BY country, prod, year;

More details on the SQL Model clause can exist establish in "The modern Oracle10g SQL Model Clause", the OracleWorld white paper "SQL Model clause of Oracle Database 10g", the OTN article "Announcing the modern Model" by Jonathan Gennick and OTN's documentation.

  2. The SQLAccess Adviser[ recur to Table of Contents ]

Part of the Oracle Database 10g Server Manageability feature, the SQLAccess Adviser recommends the best combination of indexes and materialized views for a given database workload. Available either at the command line (via the DBMS_ADVISOR package) or through the Advisor Central element of the modern Web-based Oracle Enterprise Manager, the SQLAccess Adviser is based on the index and summary advisors previously bundled with Oracle9i and provides a one-stop-shop for tuning and summarizing your warehouse data.

More details on the SQLAccess Adviser can exist establish in this OracleWorld white paper, ""Turbocharge your database: expend the Oracle Database 10g SQLAccess Advisor" by Lillian Hobbs, the OTN documentation and this Oracle-by-example tutorial.

  3. Improvements to the multidimensional OLAP engine[ recur to Table of Contents ]

With Oracle9i, the previously standalone Express multidimensional engine is now incorporated into the Oracle database, and with Oracle Database 10g, benefits of integration with the traditional relational Oracle engine are starting to become apparent.

First up is improvements to the route large analytic workspaces can exist partitioned, introducing into the Oracle OLAP world some of the advanced partitioning options currently enjoyed by Oracle database users. Currently, analytic workspaces, stored as AW$ tables within an Oracle schema, can exist partitioned across multiple rows in the AW$ table by specifying a maximum segment size, allowing you to split an individual analytic workspace into (say) 10 GB segments, one in each table row. This table could then exist partitioned just like any other Oracle table, allowing you to reclaim one row in one tablespace, another in another, and each of these tablespaces could of course exist stored in datafiles on different physical disk units. Although this was of some benefit, splitting by segment size was the only route of partitioning the data, and you couldn't specify what objects within the analytic workspace went in to each partition. Oracle10g OLAP will now involve an enhancement where you can specify exactly which objects within the analytic workspace retract in to each partition, and you can further subdivide this by segment size if objects are particularly large.

In a similar fashion, variables within the analytic workspace can now exist partitioned, either by ambit of dimension members, a list of dimension members, or by reference to a CONCAT dimension. The 10g multidimensional engine then stores each variable partition as a sunder physical object, which can exist directed to sunder rows in the AW$ table (allowing you to partition these across different tablespaces and physical disk drives); the variable, however, appears as just one protest to the application, simplifying the data model and allowing Oracle to sequel total the arduous labor in the background.

Another excellent modern feature, and a actual improvement over what was available with Express, is support for multi-user read-write access to individual analytic workspaces. In the past, one drawback with Express was that only one user could attach to an Express database in read-write mode, leading Express developers to develop a entire ambit of alternative solutions to allow ad-hoc write access to Express databases. In Oracle 10g OLAP, analytic workspaces can exist attached in MULTI mode, whereafter applications then ACQUIRE individual variables in the analytic workspace for read-write access. Once an protest has been acquired (and locked by the Oracle multidimensional engine), updates can then hold region and the application can accomplish whatever modifications are necessary. After total changes hold been made, the UPDATE command is issued against the variable, followed by a COMMIT, and then a RELEASE command is issued against the variable to accomplish it available for other applications to write to. It'll exist enchanting to discern how the multidimensional engine handles multi-write access; in the past with Express databases could balloon in size when one user had read-write access to a database, and others were accessing it in read mode, as Express had to clone the database for each user to ensure that they had a consistent view of the data. I wouldn't exist surprised if individual variables were copied out of a 10g analytic workspace into a temporary workspace while updates happened, with updates being propagated back (as with the feeble Express excel Add-In) when the changes are finally COMMITted -- the key thing here is how database size is dealt with as the feeble Express route of doing it was less than optimal.

Aggregation has been improved with Oracle10g OLAP, with formulas now allowed as sources of data for the AGGREGATE command, eliminating the exigency to calculate and store data at the detail level. Aggregation, particularly dynamic aggregation, is another area where Oracle9i and now 10g OLAP are a discrete improvement over Express and it's well worth looking at this area in more detail if this is an issue with an existing Express system.

More details on Oracle10g OLAP's modern features can exist establish in the OLAP Application Developer's Guide, the OLAP DML Reference and a white paper by Bud Endress, "OLAP Option to the Oracle10g Database."

  4. The Tune MView Advisor and improvements to Query Rewrite[ recur to Table of Contents ]

Query Rewrite (the competence for Oracle to transparently redirect queries from detail even to summary tables) is one of the best data warehousing features in Oracle8i and 9i, but it's sometimes a bit temperamental and you can often find that queries don't actually comeby rewritten. Sometimes this is because you've broken one of the Query Rewrite restrictions, sometimes it's because your materialized view doesn't hold the revise columns and aggregates. Oracle 10g has a number of improvements to Query Rewrite and the materialized view tuning process that should accomplish this process a bit more productive. With Oracle Database 10g, query rewrite is now possible when your SELECT statement contains analytic functions, full outer joins and set operations such as UNION, MINUS and INTERSECT. In addition, you can now expend a hint, /*+ REWRITE_OR_ERROR */, which will desist the execution of a SQL statement if query rewrite cannot occur.

SQL> SELECT /*+ REWRITE_OR_ERROR */ 2 s.prod_id, 3 sum(s.quantity_sold) 4 FROM sales s 5 GROUP BY s.prod_id; FROM sales s * oversight at line 4: ORA-30393: a query block in the statement did not rewrite

Oracle9i came with two packages, DBMS_MVIEW.EXPLAIN_MVIEW and DBMS_MVIEW.EXPLAIN_REWRITE that could exist used to diagnose why a materialized view wasn't being used for query rewrite. However, although these packages told you why rewrite hadn't happened, they left it down to you to labor out how to alter your CREATE MATERIALIZED VIEW statement to ensure that rewrite happened correctly. Oracle Database 10g comes with a modern advisor package, DBMS_ADVISOR.TUNE_MVIEW, that takes as its input a CREATE MATERIALIZED VIEW DML statement, and outputs a corrected version that supports query rewrite and features such as snappy refresh.

More details on Query Rewrite improvements and the Tune MView Adviser can exist establish in the TUNE_MVIEW online documentation, the Query Rewrite online documents and this Oracle Database 10g Oracle-by-Example tutorial.

  5. Data Pump: The replacement for import and export[ recur to Table of Contents ]

Data Pump is a replacement for the venerable IMP and EXP applications used for creating ratiocinative backups of Oracle tables, schemas or databases. Data Pump is a server application (as opposed to IMP and EXP, which were client applications), which in beta testing was twice as snappy as the feeble EXP for exporting data, and 10 times as snappy as the feeble IMP for importing data. Data Pump is callable either through the DBMS_DATAPUMP package, through the replacements for IMP and EXP, known as IMPDB and EXPDB, or through a wizard delivered as Part of Oracle Enterprise Manager 10g.

Data Pump (and the modern IMPDB and EXPDB applications) offers a number of improvements over the feeble IMPORT and EXPORT, including resumable/restartable jobs, automatic two-level parallelism, a network mode that uses DBLINKs/listener service names instead of pipes, fine-grained protest selection (so you can select individual tables, view, packages, indexes and so on for import or export, not just tables or schemas as with IMPORT and EXPORT), and a fully callable API that allows Data Pump functionality to exist embedded in third-party ETL packages.

More details on Data Pump can exist establish in this OracleWorld white paper by George Claborn, "Data Pump in Oracle Database 10g: Foundation for ultra-high-speed data movement utilities,", OTN's online documentation and this Oracle-by-example tutorial.

  6. Improvements to storage management[ recur to Table of Contents ]

Automatic Storage Management (ASM) is one of the 'cool modern features' in Oracle10g that is meant to reduce the workload for Oracle DBAs. ASM completely automates the process of creating ratiocinative volumes, file systems and filenames, with the DBA only specifying the location of raw disks and ASM doing the rest. Disk I/O is managed by evenly distributing the data across blocks within a disk group, with ASM in addition handling disk mirroring and the creation of mirror groups and failure groups.

ASM deals with the problems caused by rapidly expanding data warehouses, where administators can no longer deal with the sheer number of disk units, nodes and ratiocinative groupings, and is a key feature of the Oracle 10g Grid Architecture, which aims to 'virtualize' computing power and present database features like processing and storage as utilities that effectively manage themselves.

More details on Automatic Storage Management can exist establish in this OTN article by Lannes Morris-Murphy, this Oracle-by-example tutorial (which comes with a number of demonstration viewlets) and OTN's online documentation.

  7. Faster full table scans[ recur to Table of Contents ]

Full table scans are common in data warehousing environments, and with this in mind, table scan performance has been improved in Oracle10g. Code optimization in Oracle Database 10g has decreased CPU consumption and this leads to faster table scan execution (when queries are CPU bound, rather than I/O bound), and gives the potential for greater query concurrency, offering up to 30-40% accelerate improvements when comparing CPU-bound queries.

  8. Automatic tuning and maintenance[ recur to Table of Contents ]

Automatic maintenance and tuning has always been one of the key product differentiators for Microsoft SQL Server and with Oracle10g, features that meet and match those establish in competitor products are being introduced to the server technology stack.

Surveys present that over 50% of a DBAs time is spend tuning and monitoring the database server, a assignment that while necessary is often knotty and difficult to comeby exactly right. With Oracle Database 10g, Oracle has introduced a number of components that together accomplish it possible for the database server to monitor itself, accomplish quick-witted changes to configuration, and alert DBAs when situations arise that exigency manual intervention.

The first component in this framework is the Automatic Workload Repository, which uses an enhanced version of Statspack to collect instance statistics every 30 minutes and stores these for a rolling seven day period. This enhanced version of Statspack now collects a broader ambit of statistics and has a number of optimizations to streamline the route high-cost SQL statements are captured, ensuring that only SQL activity that has significantly affected performance since the terminal snapshot are collected. The usage information stored in the Automatic Workload Repository is then used as the basis for total the self-management functionality in Oracle Database 10g.

Next up is the Automatic Maintenance Tasks feature, which acts on the statistics gathered by the Automatic Workload Repository, and carries out tasks such as index rebuilding, refreshing statistics and so on, where such tasks don't require any manual intervention by the DBA. A modern scheduling feature known as Unified Scheduler runs these tasks during a predefined maintenance window, set by default to exist between 10:00 pm and 6:00 am the next day, although these times can exist customized to reduce impact on other tasks (such as batch loads) that might exist taking place.

The third component of the self-managing framework is Server Generated Alerts, a mode where the database server sends notifications via e-mail to the DBA -- including a recommendation as to how best to deal with the situation. Alerts will normally exist raised where the database itself cannot deal with the situation that has arisen, such as when there is insufficient space on a disk unit to extend a datafile.

Lastly, and perhaps the most exiting of total the self-managing component frameworks, is the Automatic Database Diagnostic Monitor. This component analyzes the data captured in the Automatic Workload Repository and uses an simulated intelligence algorithm, similar to that establish in Oracle Expert, to resolve areas such as lock contention, CPU bottlenecks, I/O usage and contention, issues with checkpointing and so on, in much the identical route that a DBA would currently sequel by analyzing statspack reports.

More details on the self-tuning and maintenance features in Oracle 10g can exist establish in this OracleWorld white paper, "Oracle Database 10g: The self-managing database," by Sushil Kumar.

  9. Asynchronous Change Data Capture[ recur to Table of Contents ]

Oracle Change Data Capture was introduced with Oracle9i, and provided the competence to track changes to tables and store them in a change table, for further consumption by an ETL process. Oracle9i Change Data Capture worked by creating triggers on the source tables, transferring data synchronously but creating a processing overhead and requiring access to the structure of the source tables. Because of the sequel that the triggers had on the underlying tables, many warehouse projects did without change data capture and used other methods to capture changes.

Oracle10g introduces Asynchronous Change Data Capture, which instead of using triggers uses the database log files to capture changes and apply them to collection tables. Asynchronous Change Data Capture therefore doesn't require changes to the table structure and doesn't impact on database performance.

More details on Asynchronous Change Data Capture can exist establish in this OTN white paper, "On-time data warehousing with Oracle 10g -- Information at the accelerate of your business," which likewise details improvements to the transportable tablespaces feature in Oracle Database 10g (tablespaces no longer exigency to exist sourced from the identical O/S platform).

  10. Improvements to Oracle data mining[ recur to Table of Contents ]

Alongside the inclusion of the Oracle Express multidimensional OLAP engine, Oracle9i likewise embedded data mining functionality in the database together, and this data mining functionality has been enhanced with Oracle Database 10g. Oracle Database 10g adds support for two modern classification routines, support Vector Machine (used for top-down rather than a bottom-up calculations, assuming the best possible felicitous and then working backwards to what can exist achieved) and Non-Negative Matrix Factorisation, together with support for Frequent Itemsets, used for such functions as market basket analysis and propensity analysis.

More details on what's modern with Oracle10g Data Mining can exist establish in the OTN online documentation.

About the author:Mark Rittman works for Plus Consultancy, an Oracle partner specializing in commerce intelligence and data warehousing solutions, based in Brighton, England. He manages their data warehousing practice and spends most time designing and edifice BI&W systems based on the Oracle9i platform. Away from Plus, he's likewise the chair of the UKOUG commerce Intelligence & Reporting Tools SIG, working as a liason between the Oracle BI tools community and Oracle. Check out Mark's Web site at

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Upgrading DBMS Versions and Releases | actual questions and Pass4sure dumps

This chapter is from the reserve 

Change is a fact of life, and each of the major DBMS products changes quite rapidly. A typical release cycle for DBMS software is 18 to 24 months for major releases, with constant bug fixes and maintenance updates delivered between major releases. Indeed, keeping DBMS software up-to-date can exist a full-time job.

The DBA must develop an approach to upgrading DBMS software that conforms to the organization’s needs and minimizes commerce disruptions due to outages and database unavailability.

You may hold noticed that I expend the terms version and release significantly interchangeably. That is fine for a broad discussion of DBMS upgrades, but a more precise definition is warranted. For a better discussion of the differences between a version and a release, gladden refer to the sidebar.

A DBMS version upgrade can exist thought of as a special case of a modern installation. total the procedures required of a modern installation apply to an upgrade: You must blueprint for arrogate resources, reconsider total system parameters, and ensure that total supporting software is appropriately connected. However, another sober issue must exist planned for: existing users and applications. An upgrade needs to exist planned to antecedent as runt disruption to the existing users as possible. Furthermore, any additional software that works with the DBMS (such as purchased applications, DBA tools, utilities, and so on) must exist verified to exist compatible with the modern DBMS version. Therefore, upgrading can exist a tricky and difficult task.

In a complex, heterogeneous, distributed database environment, a coherent upgrade strategy is essential. Truthfully, even organizations with only a single DBMS should approach DBMS upgrades cautiously and blueprint accordingly. Failure to blueprint a DBMS upgrade can result in improper and inefficient adoption of modern features, performance degradation of modern and existing applications, and downtime.

Upgrading to a modern DBMS release offers both rewards and risks. The following are some of the benefits of poignant to a modern release:

  • Developers can avail themselves of modern features and functionality delivered only in the modern release. If progress requires a modern feature, or can simply profit from a modern feature, program progress time can exist reduced or made more cost-effective.
  • For purchased applications, the application vendor may require a specific DBMS version or release for specific versions of its application to enable specific functionality within the application.
  • New DBMS releases usually deliver enhanced performance and availability features that can optimize existing applications. Sometimes a modern DBMS release is required to scale applications to support additional users or larger amounts of data.
  • DBMS vendors often provide better support and respond to problems faster for a modern release of their software. DBMS vendors are loath to allow infamous publicity about bugs in a modern and heavily promoted version of their products.
  • Cost savings may accrue by upgrading to a modern DBMS release. Some vendors pervade additionally when a company uses multiple versions of a DBMS, such as the modern version in a test environment and the feeble in production. When both are migrated to the identical version, the expense tag for the DBMS sometimes can exist reduced.
  • Production migration to a modern DBMS release will align the test and production database environments, thereby providing a consistent environment for progress and implementation. If a modern release is running in the test environment for too long, database administration and application progress tasks become more difficult because the test databases will operate differently from the production databases.
  • However, an effective DBMS upgrade strategy must poise the benefits against the risks of upgrading to arrive at the best timeline for migrating to a modern DBMS version or release. The risks of upgrading to a modern DBMS release involve the following:

  • An upgrade to the DBMS usually involves some even of disruption to commerce operations. At a minimum, databases will not exist available while the DBMS is being upgraded. This can result in downtime and lost commerce opportunities if the DBMS upgrade occurs during simple commerce hours (or if there is no planned downtime). Clustered database implementations may permit some database availability while individual database clusters are migrated to the modern DBMS version.
  • Other disruptions can occur, such as having to convert database structures or discovering that previously supported features were removed from the modern release (thereby causing application errors). Delays to application implementation timelines are another possibility.
  • The cost of an upgrade can exist a significant barrier to DBMS release migration. First, the cost of the modern version or release must exist budgeted for (price increases for a modern DBMS version can amount to as much as 10 to 25 percent). The upgrade cost must likewise factor in the costs of planning, installing, testing, and deploying not just the DBMS but likewise any applications that expend databases. Finally, exist positive to involve the cost of any modern resources (such as memory, storage, additional CPUs) required to expend the modern features delivered by the modern DBMS version.6
  • DBMS vendors usually tout the performance gains that can exist achieved with a modern release. However, when SQL optimization techniques change, it is possible that a modern DBMS release will generate SQL access paths that accomplish worse than before. DBAs must implement a rigorous testing process to ensure that modern access paths are helping, not harming, application performance. When performance suffers, application code may exigency to exist changed—a very costly and time-consuming endeavor. A rigorous test process should exist able to snare most of the access path changes in the test environment.
  • New DBMS releases may antecedent features and syntax that are being used in existing applications to exist deprecated.7 When this occurs, the applications must exist modified before migration to the modern release can proceed.
  • To hold odds of improvements implemented in a modern DBMS release, the DBA may hold to apply some invasive changes. For example, if the modern version increases the maximum size for a database object, the DBA may hold to drop and recreate that protest to hold odds of the modern maximum. This will exist the case when the DBMS adds internal control structures to facilitate such changes.
  • Supporting software products may want immediate support for a modern DBMS release. Supporting software includes the operating system, transaction processors, message queues, purchased applications, DBA tools, progress tools, and query and reporting software.
  • After weighing the benefits of upgrading against the risks of a modern DBMS release, the DBA group must create an upgrade blueprint that works for the organization. Sometimes the determination will exist to upgrade immediately upon availability, but often there is a lag between the universal availability of a modern release and its widespread adoption.

    When the risks of a modern release outweigh the benefits, some organizations may resolve to skip an interim release if doing so does not impact a future upgrade. For example, a propitious number of Oracle customers migrated directly from Oracle7 to Oracle8i, skipping Oracle8. If the DBMS vendor does not allow users to bypass a version or release, it is soundless possible to “skip” a release by waiting to implement that release until the next release is available. For example, reckon the following scenario:

  • ABC Corporation is using DB Version 8 from DBCorp.
  • DBCorp announces Version 9 of DB.
  • ABC Corporation analyzes the features and risks and determines not to upgrade immediately.
  • DBCorp later announces DB Version 10 and that no direct migration path will exist provided from Version 8 to Version 10.
  • ABC Corporation decides that DB Version 10 provides many useful features and wants to upgrade its current Version 8 implementation of DB. However, it has no compelling reason to first implement and expend Version 9.
  • To fulfill its requirements, ABC Corporation first upgrades Version 8 to Version 9 and then immediately upgrades Version 9 to Version 10.
  • Although a multiple-release upgrade takes more time, it allows customers to effectively control when and how they will migrate to modern releases of a DBMS instead of being held hostage by the DBMS vendor. When attempting a multiple-release upgrade of this type, exist positive to fully understand the features and functionality added by the DBMS vendor for each interim release. In the case of the hypothetical ABC Corporation, the DBAs would exigency to research and prepare for the modern features of not just Version 10 but likewise Version 9.

    An arrogate DBMS upgrade strategy depends on many things. The following sections contour the issues that must exist factored into an effective DBMS release upgrade strategy.

    Features and Complexity

    Perhaps the biggest factor in determining when and how to upgrade to a modern DBMS release is the functionality supported by the modern release. Tightly coupled to functionality is the inherent complexity involved in supporting and administering modern features.

    It is more difficult to retard an upgrade if application developers are clamoring for modern DBMS features. If DBMS functionality can minimize the cost and application of application development, the DBA group will feel pressure to migrate swiftly to the modern release. An additional factor that will coerce rapid adoption of a modern release is when DBMS problems are fixed in the modern release (instead of through regular maintenance fixes).

    Regardless of a modern release’s “bells and whistles,” inevitable administration and implementation details must exist addressed before upgrading. The DBA group must ensure that standards are modified to involve the modern features, educate developers and users as to how modern features labor and should exist used, and prepare the infrastructure to support the modern DBMS functionality.

    The types of changes required to support the modern functionality must exist factored into the upgrade strategy. When the DBMS vendor makes changes to internal structures, data page layouts, or address spaces, the risks of upgrading are greater. Additional testing is warranted in these situations to ensure that database utilities, DBA tools, and data extraction and movement tools soundless labor with the revised internal structures.

    Complexity of the DBMS Environment

    The more knotty your database environment is, the more difficult it will exist to upgrade to a modern DBMS release. The first complexity issue is the size of the environment. The greater the number of database servers, instances, applications, and users, the greater the complexity. Additional concerns involve the types of applications being supported. A DBMS upgrade is easier to implement if only simple, batch-oriented applications are involved. As the complexity and availability requirements of the applications increase, the vicissitude of upgrading likewise increases.

    Location of the database servers likewise affects the release upgrade strategy. Effectively planning and deploying a DBMS upgrade across multiple database servers at various locations supporting different lines of commerce is difficult. It is likely that an upgrade strategy will involve periods of supporting multiple versions of the DBMS at different locations and for different applications. Supporting different versions in production should exist avoided, but that is not always possible.

    Finally, the complexity of the applications that access your databases must exist considered. The more knotty your applications are, the more difficult it will exist to ensure their continuing uninterrupted functionality when the DBMS is modified. Complexity issues involve the following:

  • Usage of stored procedures and user-defined functions.
  • Complexity of the SQL—the more tables involved in the SQL and the more knotty the SQL features, the more difficult it becomes to ensure that access path changes sequel not impact performance.
  • Client/server processing—network usage and usage of multiple tiers complicates testing the modern DBMS release.
  • Applications that are designed, coded, and generated by a framework or an IDE (for example, Hibernate) may hold additional components that exigency to exist tested with a modern DBMS release.
  • Integration with other infrastructure software such as message queues and transaction processors can complicate migration because modern versions of these products may exist required to support the modern DBMS release.
  • The language used by the programs might likewise impact DBMS release migration due to different support for compiler versions, changes to APIs (application programming interfaces), or modern ways of embedding SQL into application programs.
  • Reputation of the DBMS Vendor

    DBMS vendors hold different reputations for technical support, fixing bugs, and responding to problems, which is why customer references are so necessary when choosing a database.

    The better the reputation of the vendor, the greater the likelihood of organizations rapidly adopting a modern release. If the DBMS vendor is propitious at responding to problems and supporting its customers as they migrate to modern releases, those customers will more actively engage in migration activities.

    Support Policies of the DBMS

    As modern releases are introduced, DBMS vendors will retire older releases and no longer support them. The length of time that the DBMS vendor will support an feeble release must exist factored into the DBMS release migration strategy. You should never avoid a DBMS release in production that is no longer supported by the vendor. If problems occur, the DBMS vendor will not exist able to resolve them for you.

    Sometimes a DBMS vendor will provide support for a retired release on a special basis and at an increased maintenance charge. If you absolutely must continue using a retired DBMS release (for commerce or application issues), exist positive to investigate the DBMS vendor’s policies regarding support for retired releases of its software.

    Organization Style

    Every organization displays characteristics that expose its style when it comes to adopting modern products and technologies. Industry analysts at Gartner, Inc., hold ranked organizations into three discrete groups labeled types A, B, and C. A type-A enterprise is technology driven and, as such, is more likely to risk using modern and unproven technologies to try to gain a competitive advantage. A type-B organization is less willing to hold risks but will adopt modern technologies once others hold shaken out the bugs. Finally, a type-C enterprise, very conscious of cost and averse to risk, will lag behind the majority when it comes to migrating to modern technology.

    Only type-A organizations should blueprint on poignant aggressively to modern DBMS releases immediately upon availability and only if the modern features of the release will deliver advantages to the company. Type-C enterprises should adopt a very conservative strategy to ensure that the DBMS release is stable and well tested by type-A and type-B companies first. Type-B organizations will descend somewhere between types A and C: Almost never upgrading immediately, the type-B company will adopt the modern release after the earliest users hold shaken out the biggest problems, but well before type-C enterprises.

    DBA Staff Skill Set

    Upgrading the DBMS is easier if your DBA staff is highly skilled and/or experienced. The risk of an upgrade increases as the skills of the DBA staff decrease. If your DBAs are not highly skilled, or hold never migrated a DBMS to a modern release, reckon augmenting your DBA staff with consultants for the upgrade. Deploying an integrated team of internal DBAs and consultants will ensure that your upgrade goes as smoothly as possible. Furthermore, the DBA staff will exist better prepared to handle the future upgrades alone.

    If consultants will exist required, exist positive to involve their contracting cost in the DBMS release upgrade budget. The budget should allow you to retain the consultants until total production database environments are stable.

    Platform Support

    When a DBMS vendor unleashes a modern release of its product, not total platforms and operating systems are immediately supported. The DBMS vendor usually first supports the platforms and operating systems for which it has the most licensed customers. The order in which platforms are supported for a modern release is likely to vary for each DBMS vendor. For example, Linux for System z is more strategic to IBM than to Oracle, so a modern DB2 release will most likely support Linux for System z very quickly, whereas this may not exist proper of Oracle. The issue is even thornier for UNIX platforms because of the sheer number of UNIX variants in the marketplace. The most accepted variants are Oracle’s Solaris, IBM’s AIX, Hewlett-Packard’s HP-UX, and Linux, the open-source version of UNIX (the Red Hat and Suse distributions are supported more frequently and rapidly than others). Most DBMS vendors will support these UNIX platforms quickly upon universal availability. Other less accepted varieties of UNIX will hold longer for the DBMS vendors to support.

    When planning your DBMS upgrade, exist positive to reckon the DBMS platforms you expend and try to gauge the priority of your platform to your vendor. exist positive to build some lag time into your release migration strategy to accommodate the vendor’s delivery schedule for your specific platforms.

    Supporting Software

    Carefully reckon the impact of a DBMS upgrade on any supporting software. Supporting software includes purchased applications, DBA tools, reporting and analysis tools, and query tools. Each software vendor will hold a different time frame for supporting and exploiting a modern DBMS release. Review the sidebar to understand the dissimilarity between support and exploitation of a modern DBMS release.

    Some third-party appliance vendors follow guidelines for supporting and exploiting modern DBMS releases. Whenever possible, question your vendors to state their policies for DBMS upgrade support. Your vendors will probably not consign to any solid date or date ambit to support modern versions and releases—some DBMS versions are larger and more complicated and therefore hold longer to fully exploit.

    Fallback Planning

    Each modern DBMS version or release should near with a manual that outlines the modern features of the release and describes the fallback procedures to recur to a prior release of the DBMS. exist positive to review the fallback procedures provided by the DBMS vendor in its release guide. You may exigency to recur to a previous DBMS release if the upgrade contains a bug, performance problems ensue, or other problems arise during or immediately after migration. support in intelligence that fallback is not always an option for every modern DBMS release.

    If fallback is possible, follow the DBMS vendor’s recommended procedures to enable it. You may exigency to retard the implementation of inevitable modern features for fallback to remain an option. Understand fully the limitations imposed by the DBMS vendor on fallback, and exploit modern features only when fallback is no longer an option for your organization.

    Migration Verification

    The DBA should implement procedures—similar to those for a modern installation—to verify that the DBMS release upgrade is satisfactory. accomplish the identical steps as with a brand-new DBMS install, but likewise test a representative sampling of your in-house applications to verify that the DBMS upgrade is working correctly and performing satisfactorily.

    The DBMS Upgrade Strategy

    In general, design your DBMS release upgrade policy according to the guidelines discussed in the preceding sections. Each specific DBMS upgrade will exist unique, but the strategies we’ve discussed will cheer you to achieve success more readily. A well-thought-out DBMS upgrade strategy will prepare you to support modern DBMS releases with minimum impact on your organization and in a style best suited to your company.

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    McData [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Medical [69 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Microsoft [374 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Mile2 [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Military [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Misc [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Motorola [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
    mySQL [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NBSTSA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NCEES [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NCIDQ [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NCLEX [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Network-General [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NetworkAppliance [39 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NIELIT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Nokia [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Nortel [130 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Novell [37 Certification Exam(s) ]
    OMG [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Oracle [279 Certification Exam(s) ]
    P&C [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Palo-Alto [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PARCC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PayPal [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Pegasystems [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PEOPLECERT [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PMI [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Polycom [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PostgreSQL-CE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Prince2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PRMIA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PsychCorp [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PTCB [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    QAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    QlikView [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Quality-Assurance [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
    RACC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Real-Estate [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    RedHat [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    RES [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Riverbed [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    RSA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Sair [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Salesforce [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SANS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SAP [98 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SASInstitute [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SAT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SCO [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SCP [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SDI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    See-Beyond [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Siemens [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Snia [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SOA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Social-Work-Board [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SpringSource [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SUN [63 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SUSE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Sybase [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Symantec [134 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Teacher-Certification [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    The-Open-Group [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    TIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Tibco [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Trainers [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Trend [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    TruSecure [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    USMLE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    VCE [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Veeam [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Veritas [33 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Vmware [58 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Wonderlic [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Worldatwork [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    XML-Master [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Zend [6 Certification Exam(s) ]

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