1Z0-058 exam Dumps Source : Oracle true Application Clusters 11g(R) Release 2 and Grid Infrastructure Administration
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This chapter introduces Oracle Clusterware and Oracle precise application Clusters (Oracle RAC) by describing these items as well as a route to installation, administer, and installation them. This chapter describes Oracle Clusterware and Oracle RAC architectures as neatly as the software and hardware accessories for each of those products. This chapter likewise in brief describes workload management, services, and high availability for each single-instance Oracle databases and Oracle RAC environments. This chapter comprises here themes:Oracle Clusterware and Oracle true application Clusters
A cluster includes multiple interconnected computer systems or servers that emerge as if they're one server to conclusion clients and applications. Oracle Database 10g actual application Clusters (Oracle RAC) enables the clustering of the Oracle Database. Oracle RAC makes employ of Oracle Clusterware for the infrastructure to bind distinctive servers so that they operate as a single system.
Oracle Clusterware is a conveyable cluster administration retort it really is integrated with the Oracle database. The Oracle Clusterware is additionally a required Part for the usage of Oracle RAC. additionally, Oracle Clusterware enables both single-instance Oracle databases and Oracle RAC databases to employ the Oracle high availability infrastructure. The Oracle Clusterware enables you to create a clustered pool of storage for employ by means of any combination of single-example and Oracle RAC databases.
Oracle Clusterware is the simplest clusterware that you simply requisite for most systems on which Oracle RAC operates. that you can additionally employ clusterware from different vendors if the clusterware is certified for Oracle RAC.
Single-example Oracle databases enjoy a one-to-one relationship between the Oracle database and the illustration. Oracle RAC environments, although, enjoy a one-to-many relationship between the database and cases. In Oracle RAC environments, the cluster database cases access one database. The combined processing vitality of the dissimilar servers can supply enhanced throughput and scalability than is accessible from a single server. Oracle RAC is the Oracle Database option that offers a single materiel photograph for multiple servers to entry one Oracle database. In Oracle RAC, each and every Oracle illustration usually runs on a part server.
Oracle RAC is a special technology that provides excessive availability and scalability for everything software varieties. The Oracle RAC infrastructure is likewise a key element for enforcing the Oracle commercial enterprise grid computing architecture. Having dissimilar cases entry a single database prevents the server from being a single point of failure. Oracle RAC enables you to amalgamate smaller commodity servers right into a cluster to create scalable environments that aid mission crucial company applications. applications that you installation on Oracle RAC databases can function with out code alterations.The Oracle Clusterware structure and Oracle Clusterware Processing
The Oracle Clusterware is application that when installed on servers operating the equal working device, allows for the servers to breathe positive collectively to function as if they were one server. The Oracle Clusterware requires two clusterware accessories: a vote casting disk to listing node membership counsel and the Oracle Cluster Registry (OCR) to listing cluster configuration suggestions. The vote casting disk and the OCR enjoy to dwell on shared storage. The Oracle Clusterware requires that every node breathe linked to a personal network by the employ of a personal interconnect.
The inner most interconnect that Oracle Clusterware requires is a part community that you just configure between the cluster nodes. This interconnect, which is required by means of Oracle RAC, can likewise breathe the identical community that the clusterware makes employ of, however the interconnect should no longer breathe purchasable through nodes that don't look to breathe a Part of the cluster.
Oracle recommends that you simply configure a redundant interconnect to linger away from the interconnect from being a single factor of failure. Oracle additionally recommends that you just employ user Datagram Protocol (UDP) on a Gigabit Ethernet in your cluster interconnect. Crossover cables are not supported to breathe used with Oracle Clusterware or Oracle RAC databases.
The Oracle Clusterware manages node membership and prevents split intelligence syndrome wherein two or extra cases try and wield the database. this can ensue in cases where there's a spoil in conversation between nodes throughout the interconnect.
The Oracle Clusterware architecture helps excessive availability via instantly restarting stopped add-ons. The Oracle Clusterware can automatically re-start a node to evade issues with that node from affecting the supply of the leisure of the Oracle RAC environment. In an Oracle RAC atmosphere, everything Oracle techniques are under the wield of the Oracle clusterware. The Oracle Clusterware likewise provides an utility programming interface (API) that allows you to control different Oracle processes with Oracle Clusterware.Oracle Clusterware application element Processing particulars
The Oracle Clusterware contains a yoke of tradition tactics that facilitate cluster operations. The Cluster Synchronization service (CSS), suffer administration (EVM), and Oracle Cluster components communicate with other cluster Part layers within the different cases in the equal cluster database ambiance. These components are likewise the main verbal exchange hyperlinks between the Oracle Clusterware excessive availability accessories and the Oracle Database. additionally, these components computer screen and manage database operations.
the following list describes the services of one of the most essential Oracle Clusterware accessories. This listing includes these components which are procedures on Unix and Linux working techniques or functions on home windows.
notice:On home windows-based mostly working techniques, most of the add-ons are threads of the Oracle process in its space of part strategies.
Cluster Synchronization capabilities (CSS)—Manages the cluster configuration by route of controlling which nodes are members of the cluster and with the aid of notifying participants when a node joins or leaves the cluster. when you are using third-celebration clusterware, then the css fashion interfaces with your clusterware to manage node membership suggestions.
Cluster ready functions (CRS)—The simple program for managing excessive availability operations within a cluster. anything else that the crs technique manages is referred to as a cluster useful resource which generally is a database, an illustration, a service, a Listener, a virtual IP (VIP) tackle, an application procedure, and so forth. The crs procedure manages cluster components in line with the resource's configuration guidance that is saved in the OCR. This includes delivery, cease, panoply screen and failover operations. The crs process generates activities when a useful resource fame changes. when you've got installed Oracle RAC, crs displays the Oracle instance, Listener, and so on, and instantly restarts these accessories when a failure occurs. by using default, the crs technique makes five attempts to restart a useful resource after which does not obtain further restart makes an attempt if the aid does not restart.
adventure administration (EVM)—A historical past fashion that publishes pursuits that crs creates.
Oracle Notification provider (ONS)—A post and subscribe service for communicating quick software Notification (FAN) hobbies.
RACG—Extends clusterware to assist Oracle-selected requirements and complicated materials. Runs server callout scripts when FAN hobbies happen.
system monitor Daemon (OPROCD)—This manner is locked in reminiscence to monitor the cluster and provide I/O fencing. OPROCD performs its assess, stops working, and if the wake up is past the expected time, then OPROCD resets the processor and reboots the node. An OPROCD failure results in Oracle Clusterware restarting the node. OPROCD makes employ of the hangcheck timer on Linux systems.
In here table, if a process has a (r) beside it, then the procedure runs as the root consumer. in any other case the process runs as the oracle person.
table 1-1 checklist of strategies and home windows functions linked to Oracle ClusterwareOracle Clusterware part Linux/Unix system windows servicesWindows processes
process monitor Daemon
Oracle Notification service (ONS)
evmd (r), evmd.bin, evmlogger
Cluster in a position
Cluster Synchronization capabilities
init.cssd (r), ocssd (r), ocssd.bin
ocssd.exeThe Oracle Clusterware software add-ons
When Oracle Clusterware operates, a yoke of platform-certain methods or features will likewise breathe running on each node within the cluster to aid Oracle Clusterware. The Oracle Clusterware platform-particular UNIX-based mostly procedures and home windows-based services are described below here headings:Oracle Clusterware approaches on UNIX-primarily based techniques
The Oracle Clusterware techniques on UNIX-based programs are:
crsd—Performs excessive availability healing and management operations corresponding to preserving the OCR and managing utility substances. This technique runs as the root user, or through a consumer within the admin neighborhood on Mac OS X-based programs. This system restarts automatically upon failure.
evmd—adventure supervisor daemon. This system additionally begins the racgevt fashion to maneuver FAN server callouts.
ocssd—Manages cluster node membership and runs because the oracle user; failure of this process results in cluster restart.
oprocd—method panoply screen for the cluster. celebrate that this technique best looks on structures that don't employ dealer clusterware with Oracle Clusterware.
notice:Oracle RAC on Linux platforms can enjoy multiple threads that look as part methods with part procedure identifiers. Oracle Clusterware capabilities on windows-based mostly techniques
The Oracle Clusterware features on windows-primarily based methods are:
OracleCRService—Performs high availability restoration and administration operations similar to retaining the OCR and managing application resources. This fashion runs because the root user, or with the aid of a user within the admin community on Mac OS X-primarily based systems. This fashion restarts immediately upon failure.
OracleCSService—Manages cluster node membership and runs as oracle person; failure of this fashion consequences in cluster restart.
OracleEVMService—adventure supervisor daemon. This technique likewise starts the racgevt manner to control FAN server callouts.
OraFenceService—process monitor for the cluster. notice that this fashion handiest appears on systems that don't employ dealer clusterware with Oracle Clusterware.
An Oracle RAC database is a logically or physically shared every shrimp thing database. everything datafiles, control info, PFILEs, and redo log files in Oracle RAC environments requisite to live on cluster-conscious shared disks so that everything of the cluster database situations can entry them. everything the situations must likewise participate the same interconnect. additionally, Oracle RAC databases can participate the identical interconnect that Oracle Clusterware makes employ of.
as a result of an Oracle RAC database makes employ of a shared every shrimp thing architecture, Oracle RAC requires cluster-aware storage for everything database data. it's your option as to the route to configure your disk, but you requisite to employ a supported cluster-conscious storage solution. Oracle Database 10g offers automated Storage administration (ASM), which is the advised solution to control your disk. despite the fact you may likewise additionally employ a cluster-conscious quantity supervisor or a cluster file device (no longer required). In Oracle RAC, the Oracle Database utility manages disk entry and the Oracle utility is licensed to breathe used on a variety of storage architectures. An Oracle RAC database can enjoy as much as 100 instances. reckoning on your platform, which you could employ the following file storage alternatives for Oracle RAC:
ASM, which Oracle recommends
Oracle Cluster File device (OCFS), which is purchasable for Linux and windows structures, or a 3rd-birthday celebration cluster file device this is licensed for Oracle RAC
A network file device
Oracle RAC databases fluctuate architecturally from Oracle RACsingle-instance Oracle databases in that every Oracle RAC database specimen likewise has:
All nodes in an Oracle RAC environment should hook up with a aboriginal district network (LAN) to allow users and functions to access the database. purposes may quiet employ the Oracle Database capabilities characteristic to hook up with an Oracle database. functions allow you to define suggestions and features to manage how clients and functions hook up with database instances. These traits consist of a special name, workload balancing and failover options, and excessive availability traits. Oracle web functions allows the weight balancing of utility connections across everything of the circumstances in an Oracle RAC database.
users can entry an Oracle RAC database using a consumer-server configuration or through one or more middle tiers, with or with out connection pooling. clients can breathe DBAs, builders, software users, energy users, akin to data miners who create their personal searches, and so on.
Most public networks customarily employ TCP/IP, however you can employ any supported hardware and application aggregate. Oracle RAC database circumstances may likewise breathe accessed through a database's described, default IP tackle and thru VIP addresses.
observe:do not to obtain employ of the interconnect or the deepest community for person conversation as a result of Cache Fusion uses the inner most interconnect for inter-illustration communications.
apart from the node's host title and IP address, you enjoy to likewise allocate a digital host title and an IP wield to each and every node. The digital host title or VIP may quiet breathe used to connect with the database example. for example, you might enter the digital host title CRM in the wield listing of the tnsnames.ora file.
A virtual IP wield is an alternate public tackle that client connections employ as an alternative of the everyday public IP handle. To configure VIP addresses, you deserve to reserve a spare IP wield for every node that makes employ of the equal subnet because the public network.
If a node fails, then the node's VIP fails over to a further node on which the VIP can't settle for connections. often, VIPs fail over when the node on which a VIP runs fails or if everything interfaces for the VIP fail or are disconnected from the network. valued clientele that try to hook up with the VIP receive a speedy connection refused error as a substitute of awaiting TCP connect timeout messages. You configure VIP addresses in the tackle checklist to your database connection definition to allow connectivity. here section describes the Oracle RAC software accessories in additional detail.The Oracle precise software Clusters software add-ons
Oracle RAC databases enjoy two or greater database cases that every hold recollection buildings and history procedures. An Oracle RAC database has the same tactics and reminiscence buildings as a single-example Oracle database in addition to extra system and reminiscence structures that are selected to Oracle RAC. anyone example's database view is practically just dote another instance's view in the identical Oracle RAC database; the view is a single system vivid of the atmosphere.
each and every instance has a buffer cache in its materiel international district (SGA). the usage of Cache Fusion, Oracle RAC environments logically amalgamate each and every illustration's buffer cache to allow the situations to technique facts as if the statistics resided on a logically combined, single cache.
word:The SGA size necessities for Oracle RAC are greater than the SGA requirements for single-illustration Oracle databases as a result of Cache Fusion.
To obtain positive that each Oracle RAC database instance obtains the hide that it should fulfill a question or transaction, Oracle RAC situations employ two approaches, the world Cache service (GCS) and the global Enqueue service (GES). The GCS and GES preserve information of the statuses of every facts file and each cached hide using a worldwide aid listing (GRD). The GRD contents are allotted throughout everything the lively cases, which comfortably increases the measurement of the device global district for an Oracle RAC instance.
After one illustration caches records, every other specimen in the same cluster database can purchase a hide vivid from one other specimen in the equal database faster than by means of analyzing the hide from disk. for this reason, Cache Fusion moves existing blocks between situations rather than re-reading the blocks from disk. When a consistent hide is required or a modified hide is required on another illustration, Cache Fusion transfers the hide photograph without retard between the affected cases. Oracle RAC uses the deepest interconnect for inter-instance communication and hide transfers. The international Enqueue service panoply screen and the instance Enqueue fashion manages entry to Cache Fusion materials in addition to enqueue recuperation processing.
These Oracle RAC methods and the GRD collaborate to allow Cache Fusion. The Oracle RAC strategies and their identifiers are as follows:
LMS—international Cache provider technique
LMD—global Enqueue carrier Daemon
LMON—global Enqueue carrier panoply screen
LCK0—instance Enqueue technique
in case you employ community connected Storage (NAS), then you are required to configure a 2nd deepest community. entry to this network is usually controlled by route of the supplier's utility. The deepest community makes employ of static IP addresses.
be aware:most of the Oracle accessories that this section describes are moreover the add-ons which are described for single-illustration Oracle databases in Oracle Database ideas. Oracle Clusterware accessories and excessive Availability
should you amalgamate Oracle Clusterware and Oracle RAC, which you can obtain dazzling scalability and high availability. The Oracle Clusterware achieves this the employ of the components that this Part describes under right here subject matters:The Oracle Clusterware balloting Disk and Oracle Cluster Registry
The Oracle Clusterware requires right here two critical info:
vote casting Disk—Manages cluster membership by the employ of a health examine and arbitrates cluster ownership among the many cases in case of network disasters. Oracle RAC makes employ of the vote casting disk to investigate which cases are contributors of a cluster. The vote casting disk should linger on shared disk. for prime availability, Oracle recommends that you've varied balloting disks. The Oracle Clusterware allows several vote casting disks but you should enjoy an odd variety of vote casting disks, akin to three, 5, etc. if you define a single vote casting disk, then you should definitely employ exterior mirroring to deliver redundancy.
Oracle Cluster Registry (OCR)—keeps cluster configuration information as well as configuration suggestions about any cluster database inside the cluster. The OCR likewise manages counsel about strategies that Oracle Clusterware controls. The OCR stores configuration suggestions in a sequence of key-value pairs inside a listing tree structure. The OCR ought to reside on shared disk it truly is purchasable by using everything of the nodes on your cluster. The Oracle Clusterware can multiplex the OCR and Oracle recommends that you employ this function to obtain inescapable cluster excessive availability. that you could change a failed OCR online, and you can supplant the OCR via supported APIs comparable to commercial enterprise supervisor, the Server wield Utility (SRVCTL), or the Database Configuration coadjutant (DBCA).
be aware:both the vote casting disks and the OCRs enjoy to live on either cluster file gadget data or on shared raw devices that you configure prior to installing Oracle Clusterware and Oracle RAC. Oracle Clusterware high Availability and the application Programming Interface
Oracle Clusterware offers a high availability application programming interface (API) so you might employ to enable Oracle Clusterware to control functions or approaches that flee a cluster. This makes it feasible for you to give excessive availability for everything your functions. The Oracle Clusterware with ASM makes it feasible for you to create a consolidated pool of storage to guide both the single-instance Oracle databases and the Oracle RAC databases which are operating on your cluster.
To maintain excessive availability, Oracle Clusterware add-ons can respond to status changes to restart functions and tactics based on described excessive availability suggestions. in addition, that you can employ the Oracle Clusterware high availability framework by route of registering your applications with Oracle Clusterware and configuring the clusterware to start, stop, or relocate your utility methods. this is, you can obtain custom functions tremendously obtainable through the employ of Oracle Clusterware to create profiles that computer screen, relocate, and restart your applications. The Oracle Clusterware responds to FAN activities which are created by an Oracle RAC database. Oracle broadcasts FAN pursuits when cluster servers can likewise rotate into unreachable and community interfaces are sluggish or non-practical.Workload management with Oracle true application Clusters
Workload administration allows you to maneuver the distribution of workloads to deliver optimal efficiency for users and purposes. This includes proposing the highest availability for database connections, speedy failure healing, and balancing workloads optimally throughout the dynamic configuration. Oracle Database 10g with Oracle RAC contains many features that may enlarge workload management equivalent to connection load balancing, quick connection failover (FCF), the load balancing advisory, and Runtime Connection Load Balancing. Workload administration offers the most excellent advantages to Oracle RAC environments. which you can, youngsters, hook competencies of workload administration by using Oracle services in single-example Oracle Databases, especially those who employ information safeguard or Streams. Workload management contains here components:
excessive Availability Framework—The Oracle RAC excessive availability framework enables the Oracle Database to retain accessories in a running condition consistently. Oracle excessive availability implies that Oracle Clusterware screens and restarts crucial accessories in the event that they cease, unless you override the restart processing. The Oracle Clusterware and Oracle RAC likewise provide alerts to clients when configurations exchange. This allows for consumers to instantly react to the alterations, enabling software developers to conceal outages and reconfigurations from conclude users. The scope of Oracle excessive availability spans from the restarting of stopped Oracle approaches in an Oracle database instance to failing over the processing of an entire specimen to other available circumstances.
Load Balancing Advisory—here's the aptitude of the database to give tips to purposes about the current service levels being offered by route of the database and its circumstances. applications can hook competencies of this suggestions to direct connection requests to the illustration that will provide the application request with the optimum service first-class to comprehensive the utility's processing. Oracle has integrated its Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) and Oracle facts company for .web (ODP.web) connection pools to work with the weight balancing counsel. purposes can employ the built-in connection swimming pools devoid of programmatic changes.
capabilities—Oracle Database 10g introduces a powerful computerized workload management facility, referred to as capabilities, to enable the trade grid vision. capabilities are entities for you to outline in Oracle RAC databases. features enable you to community database workloads and route the work to the optimal situations that are assigned to system the carrier. in addition, that you could employ functions to outline the elements that Oracle assigns to process workloads and to computer screen workload substances. applications that you allocate to functions transparently acquire the defined workload administration features, together with high availability and cargo balancing guidelines. Many Oracle database points are integrated with services, akin to useful resource supervisor, which allows you to preclude the elements that a carrier can employ within an illustration. Some database features are additionally integrated with Oracle Streams, advanced Queuing, to achieve queue space transparency, and the Oracle Scheduler, to map capabilities to inescapable job courses.
In Oracle RAC databases, the service performance rules that you just configure wield the quantity of labor that Oracle allocates to every attainable specimen for that provider. As you extend your database by route of including nodes, purposes, accessories of applications, and so forth, you can add extra capabilities.
Connection Load Balancing— Oracle internet functions provides connection load balancing for database connections. Connection load balancing occurs when the connection is created. Connections for a given carrier are balanced across everything of the running cases that present the carrier. you should definitely outline the route you want connections to breathe balanced within the service definition. despite the fact, you enjoy to nonetheless configure Oracle web functions. when you enable the load balancing advisory, the Listener uses the load balancing advisory for connection load balancing.
This district introduces the storage alternate options for Oracle RAC and the setting up techniques for both Oracle Clusterware and Oracle RAC under here themes:Oracle Clusterware setting up fashion Description
The Oracle Clusterware is allotted on the Oracle Database 10g installing media. The Oracle conventional Installer (OUI) installs Oracle Clusterware right into a directory constitution, which may likewise breathe called CRS_home, that is become independent from other Oracle software working on the laptop. as a result of Oracle Clusterware works carefully with the working equipment, gadget administrator entry is required for some of the installing initiatives. additionally, one of the Oracle Clusterware techniques requisite to flee because the device administrator, which is often the root person on Unix and Linux systems and the system Administrator user on home windows methods.
prior to installing Oracle Clusterware, Oracle recommends that you flee the Cluster Verification Utility (CVU) to ensure that your atmosphere meets the Oracle Clusterware installation requirements. The OUI additionally instantly runs CVU at the conclusion of the clusterware setting up to examine quite a few clusterware add-ons. The CVU simplifies the setting up, configuration, and standard management of the Oracle Clusterware installing system through settling on complications in cluster environments.
throughout the Oracle Clusterware installing, you should determine three IP addresses for every node that is going to breathe Part of your installation. One IP wield is for the deepest interconnect and the other is for the universal public interconnect. The third IP address is the virtual IP tackle that purchasers will employ to connect with every example.
The Oracle Clusterware installation process creates the vote casting disk and OCR on cluster-conscious storage. in case you choose the option for standard redundant copies throughout the setting up manner, then Oracle Clusterware instantly continues redundant copies of these data to avoid the info from becoming single elements of failure. The ordinary redundancy feature likewise eliminates the requisite for third birthday celebration storage redundancy options. if you employ customary redundancy, Oracle Clusterware instantly keeps two copies of the Oracle Cluster Registry (OCR) file and three copies of the balloting Disk file.
word:in case you opt for exterior redundancy for the OCR and voting disk, then to permit redundancy, your disk subsystem ought to breathe configurable for RAID mirroring. otherwise, your gadget could breathe susceptible because the OCR and vote casting disk are single elements of failure. Oracle actual utility Clusters installation and Database introduction process Description
The Oracle RAC application is disbursed as a Part of the Oracle Database 10g installation media. via default, the commonplace Oracle Database 10g software installation fashion installs the Oracle RAC choice when it recognizes that you're performing the installing on a cluster. The OUI installs Oracle RAC into a directory constitution, which can likewise breathe referred to as Oracle_home, this is shatter away different Oracle software running on the laptop. as a result of OUI is cluster-mindful, it installs the Oracle RAC utility on the entire nodes that you just defined to breathe a Part of the cluster. if you're the usage of a certified cluster file gadget for the Oracle home, then only opt for the node that you're connected to for the installing.
You enjoy to first installation Oracle Clusterware earlier than setting up Oracle RAC. After Oracle Clusterware is operational, that you would breathe able to employ OUI to install the Oracle database utility with the Oracle RAC add-ons. everything through the setting up, OUI runs DBCA to create your Oracle RAC database in response to the alternatives that you simply choose. The DBCA additionally runs the web Configuration coadjutant (NETCA) to configure the community for your Oracle RAC environment.
Oracle recommends that you simply choose ASM during the setting up to simplify storage management; ASM instantly manages the storage of everything database files within disk businesses. which you can likewise configure capabilities right through setting up, counting on your processing necessities. if you are the usage of the Oracle Database 10g universal version, then you definately ought to employ ASM for storing everything the database information.
via default, DBCA creates one carrier on your environment and this service is for the database. The default carrier is attainable on everything circumstances in an Oracle RAC environment, except the database is in restricted mode.Cloning Oracle Clusterware and Oracle RAC application in Grid Environments
This district in short summarizes the tactics for deploying Oracle RAC in grid environments that enjoy tremendous numbers of nodes using cloned photographs for Oracle Clusterware and Oracle RAC. Oracle cloning is the preferred components of extending your Oracle RAC atmosphere with the aid of adding nodes and situations. To function the cloning tactics which are summarized in this section, mention to the Oracle commonplace Installer and OPatch consumer's ebook.which you could additionally employ trade manager Grid wield to accomplish cloning.
The cloning system assumes that you simply correctly installed an Oracle Clusterware home and an Oracle home with Oracle RAC on at least one node. furthermore, everything root scripts should enjoy flee efficiently on the node from which you're extending your cluster database. to obtain employ of Oracle cloning, first clone the Oracle Clusterware home and then clone the Oracle home with the Oracle RAC application.
To clone the Oracle Clusterware home, on UNIX-primarily based methods create a tar file of the Oracle Clusterware home and duplicate the file to the recent node's Oracle Clusterware domestic. On home windows-based mostly programs you requisite to create zip info. Then on UNIX-based mostly systems create the necessary users and companies on the brand recent nodes. On home windows-based techniques, you result not requisite to create users and corporations, however the user that performs the cloning should breathe the equal consumer that performed the setting up.
Extract the tar file, or unzip the zip file, and flee the Oracle regular Installer (OUI) in clone mode as described within the Oracle frequent Installer and OPatch person's guide. Then flee the setting up scripts and repeat these steps on every node that you are including. The system for cloning the Oracle home onto recent nodes is comparable to the technique for cloning the Oracle Clusterware home. in addition, you requisite to flee the Oracle net Configuration coadjutant (NETCA) on each and every recent node to create a Listener.
if you enjoy not already created a database, then which you can flee the Database Configuration coadjutant (DBCA) to create one. at last, celebrate the submit-cloning procedures to comprehensive the extension of your Oracle RAC ambiance onto the brand recent nodes.further considerations and contours for Oracle precise application Clusters
in addition to configuring services to maneuver your workloads, additionally accept as actual with the employ of the following aspects in the event you installation Oracle RAC:
Scaling Your Oracle RAC Database—As mentioned, that you could add nodes and cases to your Oracle RAC environment the employ of Oracle cloning. if you resolve to not employ cloning, then that you can extend your database through the employ of the manual processes that are described in Chapter 10, "including and Deleting Nodes and situations on UNIX-based mostly systems" or Chapter 11, " adding and Deleting Nodes and cases on home windows-primarily based systems".
business manager—Use trade supervisor to administer your total Oracle RAC ambiance, no longer simply the Oracle RAC database. employ enterprise manager to create and modify services, and to delivery and discontinue the cluster database cases and the cluster database. enterprise manager has extra aspects as exact within the Part "Overview of using enterprise manager with Oracle actual utility Clusters".
healing manager (RMAN)—RMAN backs up, restores, and recovers datafiles, control information, server parameter data (SPFILEs) and archived redo logs. that you may employ RMAN with a media supervisor to returned up data to external storage. that you can additionally configure parallelism when backing up or recuperating Oracle RAC databases. In Oracle RAC, RMAN channels can breathe dynamically allocated across the entire Oracle RAC circumstances. Channel failover makes it feasible for failed operations on one node to continue on a different node. that you can employ RMAN in Oracle RAC from the Oracle enterprise manager Backup supervisor or from a command line.
automated undo management—automatically manages undo processing.
computerized segment space management (ASSM)—immediately manages side freelists and freelist companies.
locally managed tablespaces—Enhances space management efficiency.
Cluster Verification Utility (CVU)—Use CVU to examine the repute of your clusterware in case you journey problems or employ it each time you reconfigure your cluster.
Sequences—if you employ sequence numbers, then everything the time employ CACHE with the NOORDER option for top of the line sequence number generation performance. With the CACHE choice, despite the fact, you can likewise enjoy gaps within the sequence numbers. in case your atmosphere cannot tolerate sequence quantity gaps, then employ the NOCACHE alternative or accord with pre-generating the sequence numbers. if your utility requires sequence number ordering but can tolerate gaps, then employ CACHE and ORDER to cache and order sequence numbers in Oracle RAC. if your application requires ordered sequence numbers with out gaps, then employ NOCACHE and ORDER. This combination has essentially the most faulty result on efficiency in comparison to other caching and ordering combinations.
Indexes—if you employ indexes, confidence options, such as invert key indexes, to optimize index performance. invert key indexes are particularly valuable you probably enjoy conventional inserts to one side of an index, similar to indexes which are according to insert date.
This district describes here Oracle RAC ambiance management subject matters:Designing Oracle actual application Clusters Environments
believe performing here steps everything through the design and construction of functions that you're deploying on an Oracle RAC database. respect tuning:
The design and the application
The recollection and that i/O
The operating equipment
word:If an utility doesn't scale on an SMP computer, then poignant the utility to an Oracle RAC database can't enrich performance.
agree with the usage of hash partitioning for insert-intensive online transaction processing (OLTP) purposes. Hash partitioning:
Reduces contention on concurrent inserts into a single database structure
influences sequence-based indexes when indexes are in the community partitioned with a desk and tables are partitioned on sequence-based keys
Is transparent to the software
if you hash partitioned tables and indexes for OLTP environments, then that you may significantly enhance performance to your Oracle RAC database. word that you just can not employ index latitude scans on an index with hash partitioning.
if you're the employ of sequence numbers, then always employ the CACHE choice. if you employ sequence numbers with the CACHE choice, then:Administrative materiel for Oracle actual utility Clusters Environments
Oracle permits you to administer a cluster database as a single device picture through commercial enterprise supervisor, SQL*Plus, or via Oracle RAC command-line interfaces reminiscent of Server wield (SRVCTL). that you would breathe able to likewise employ a few materiel and utilities to maneuver your Oracle RAC atmosphere and its add-ons as follows:
enterprise manager—enterprise supervisor has each the Database manage and Grid wield GUI interfaces for managing each single instance and Oracle RAC environments.
Cluster Verification Utility (CVU)—CVU is a command-line implement for you to employ to examine a number cluster and Oracle RAC-certain components akin to shared storage instruments, networking configurations, materiel requirements, and Oracle Clusterware, in addition to working system corporations and users. you can employ CVU for pre-installing exams as well as for post-setting up assessments of your cluster atmosphere. CVU is notably helpful everything through pre-setting up and throughout setting up of Oracle Clusterware and Oracle RAC components. The OUI runs CVU after Oracle Clusterware and the Oracle installing to check your environment.
Server manage (SRVCTL)—SRVCTL is a command-line interface for you to employ to maneuver an Oracle RAC database from a single factor. you can employ SRVCTL to birth and avert the database and circumstances and to delete or current instances and features. that you may likewise employ SRVCTL to control configuration advice.
See additionally:Appendix E for extra assistance about SRVCTL
Cluster ready capabilities control (CRSCTL)—CRSCTL is a command-line device so that you can employ to control Oracle Clusterware. that you may employ CRSCTL to delivery and avert Oracle Clusterware. CRSCTL has many options akin to enabling online debugging,
Oracle Interface Configuration implement (OIFCFG)—OIFCFG is a command-line device for both single-example Oracle databases and Oracle RAC environments so you might employ to commandeer and de-allocate network interfaces to add-ons. that you would breathe able to additionally employ OIFCFG to direct accessories to obtain employ of specific community interfaces and to retrieve component configuration suggestions.
OCR Configuration implement (OCRCONFIG)—OCRCONFIG is a command-line device for OCR administration. that you can likewise employ the OCRCHECK and OCRDUMP utilities to troubleshoot configuration complications that enjoy an result on the OCR.
internet-based commercial enterprise supervisor Database control and Grid wield permit you to computer screen an Oracle RAC database. The enterprise manager Console is a essential point of manage for the Oracle atmosphere that you simply access by the employ of a graphical person interface (GUI). employ the enterprise manager Console to provoke cluster database administration projects. employ commercial enterprise manager Grid control to administer dissimilar Oracle RAC databases. likewise word here aspects about monitoring Oracle RAC environments:
The international views, or GV$ views, are in accordance with V$ views. The catclustdb.sql script creates the GV$ views. flee this script in case you don't create your database with DBCA. otherwise, DBCA runs this script for you.
Statspack is Oracle RAC-mindful.
observe:as a substitute of the usage of Statspak, Oracle recommends that you employ the greater refined administration and monitoring elements of the Oracle Database 10g Diagnostic and Tuning packs which consist of the automated Database Diagnostic panoply screen (ADDM).
You don't deserve to accomplish special tuning for Oracle RAC; Oracle RAC scales with out special configuration adjustments. if your utility performed neatly on a single-example Oracle database, then it's going to operate neatly in an Oracle RAC environment. many of the tuning initiatives that you'd accomplish on a single-example Oracle database can likewise ameliorate Oracle RAC database efficiency. this is very actual in case your atmosphere required scalability throughout a more suitable variety of CPUs.
some of the Oracle RAC performance elements are:
Dynamic useful resource Allocation
Cache Fusion permits A Simplified Tuning Methodology
You result not requisite to tune any parameters for Cache Fusion
No software-level tuning is quintessential
that you can employ a bottom-up tuning fashion with essentially no impact on your current applications
extra unique efficiency facts
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Simplifies Deployment of a extremely purchasable, Virtualized Database
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With conclude users getting accustomed to instantaneous response times, Oracle, more than ever, is challenged to provide continuous availability to its database products. An essential implement the folks at Redwood Shores enjoy to hearten them accomplish that is Oracle true Application Clusters (RAC).
What is RAC? In a nutshell, it is a software implement that allows a single database to breathe accessed by many Oracle programs. If one server fails, transactions can breathe redirected to another live server with a minimum of downtime.
Oracle advertises RAC as a remedy for many ailments. IT shops can misunderstand such marketing hype, however, and not recognize the cost and benefits of using RAC in a high availability (HA) environment.
Let’s explore some Oracle RAC best practices and in the process shed some light on common mistakes users obtain when using this cluster-based technology. In this Oracle RAC guide, we’ll hook a notice at:
One of the most common mistakes with Oracle RAC is misunderstanding its functions and limitations. Oracle true Application Clusters is used as Part of a comprehensive capacity planning strategy, but the technology’s strengths and limitations are not always understood. Here is a list of the most common misperceptions about the technology.
Oracle RAC is model for scalability
Even though Oracle Corporation wants you to buy tiny “blade servers” and employ their grid computing solution for “horizontal scaling,” that’s not how most shops employ RAC. maintain in intelligence that RAC is only a legitimate scalability option for very great IT shops that requisite more horsepower than a single server can deliver.
Instead, it’s an Oracle best drill to scale-up first, and then scale out by first structure up within a single server through “vertical scaling.” Only after you enjoy saturated a great server result you requisite to employ RAC to “scale out” the application across multiple servers. Today, a single server’s recollection and CPU horsepower can breathe significantly expanded compared with just several years ago, making it easier to add resources instead of plunking in a recent server to the RAC environment. In real-world environments, a single server can wield thousands of transactions per second. Only the world’s largest Oracle databases requisite to scale-out using RAC nodes.
Oracle RAC is a standalone high-availability solution
Remember that RAC only protects you against instance failure, and that’s only one of many components that can occasions an unplanned outage. For actual continuous availability, they must deploy triple-mirrored disks (with a mean-time-to-failure rate expressed in centuries) and redundant network components.
For complete availability on each RAC server node, you will want multiple host bus adapters, multiple network cards and multiple power sources. Just as they enjoy failover at the instance layer, you requisite to purchase software to allow the multiple host bus adapter cards to automatically failover and issue a notification that one has failed.
As they enjoy noted, RAC systems require a cluster interconnect in order to accommodate RAM-to-RAM transfers of data blocks in the RCA cache fusion layer. This interconnect must breathe very fast, with high bandwidth and low latency. Interconnects include:
This cache fusion bottleneck is another judgement why RAC scale-out, or horizontal scalability, is problematic. If your cluster interconnect cannot wield the traffic, extra servers will actually humiliate your performance instead of helping it. The only route around this problem is to change your entire application to accommodate RAC, or to purchase faster storage such as Solid condition Disk.
Oracle RAC ensures snappy response time
Response time for transactions is always important, but it’s especially essential for RAC databases. This is because of the connection wait-time that is used to detect whether a RAC node, or server, has failed. Consequently, you must diagram to ensure that recent transactions are serviced in less than one second wall-clock time so that you can set a failover time of two seconds.
Oracle RAC does not requisite a disaster recovery component
Except in the rare cases where you can deploy Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM) technology, known as dismal fiber, you quiet requisite to create a disaster recovery solution. Because RAC nodes are normally located within a few miles of each other, a natural disaster dote a hurricane would quiet occasions a global outage. So it has become a RAC best drill to likewise deploy a fast-failover geographical solution dote Data Guard -- or better still, n-way Streams.
Now that they understand the planning aspect of best practices, let’s hook a closer notice at RAC best practices issues after they enjoy implemented their recent database.
Oracle RAC implementation best practices
Operational RAC databases follow many of the same best practices as any Oracle database, but there are some that are unique to Oracle RAC systems. First, it’s an essential best drill to diagram RAC servers in a route that minimizes the geographical distance between the RAC nodes while quiet keeping them separate, in order to avoid a failure of everything nodes.
As a reference, you can hook a notice at what I wrote on how to implement RAC implementation guidelines.
In a assiduous RAC database, the hasten of the server interconnect is critical for snappy response times. It’s a commonly accepted best drill to employ the fastest feasible interconnect, typically a fiber optics solution dote dismal fiber.
Some shops will space RAC nodes in part buildings in the same neighborhood, but with the advent of the superfast dismal fiber interconnect, you can employ “Extended RAC” and space RAC nodes up to 100 miles apart. This allows you to combine high availability with disaster recovery.
Dark fiber is rather expensive, however. To reduce costs, most shops adopt a best drill where they combine RAC with disaster recovery solutions dote n-way Streams replication.
The gross point of RAC is to obtain conclude users automatically reconnect to a surviving server when one server fails. This is done either at the Web-server even or with the Oracle Transparent Application Failover (TAF) option. Whichever implement you choose, you should wait about three seconds before assuming that the server is deceased and re-trying a recent RAC server.
Next, let’s hook a closer notice at specific RAC technical best practices.
Oracle RAC interconnect best practices
Since RAC is a fashion in which many instances participate the same database, shared data blocks are transferred between the servers using a high-speed interconnect called “cache fusion.” In order to maintain performance fast, it’s critical that you pay close attention to the interconnect layer and bethink these points:
RAC likes tiny hide sizes, the interconnect must enjoy extremely snappy network hardware, and RAC load balancing is critical to performance.
Oracle RAC node load balancing best practices
I disagree with Oracle’s drill of load balancing using a least-loaded approach because of the overhead it lays on top of the cache fusion layer. In the true world, like-minded conclude users are directed to the same RAC server. If they enjoy a RAC system with different types of conclude users, they would want to load equipoise according to their data needs. For example, customer processing might breathe on node one, order processing on node two, and product processing on node three. Grouping RAC conclude users by data needs ensures that cache fusion overhead is minimized.
Oracle RAC disk storage management best practices
In order to implement a RAC system, you should employ a shared storage device because many servers must enjoy concurrent access to the disks. A single instance database can, however, employ Direct Attached Storage (DAS), which is an array of inexpensive disks connected to a single server. You must now employ what is known as a Storage district Network (SAN). A SAN, which is more expensive and complex, is a disk array capable of connecting to many servers, usually through Fibre Channel. This requires a unique set of hardware, ranging from host bus adapters to the SAN itself. It’s essential that your DBA enjoy complete knowledge of the internals of the data storage layer.
Oracle RAC hide size best practices
It has become a best drill in RAC to employ a tiny 2 kilobyte hide size in order to minimize the “baggage” shipped across the cache fusion layer. Because the hide size is the unit of work, the smaller the hide size, the higher the granularity of data being transferred, with less overhead. If you enjoy long rows (greater than 2 kilobytes), then you will want to roam to a 4 kilobyte hide size.
The implementation of a RAC cluster is only the beginning, and it’s critical to constantly monitor the health of your RAC clusters so that you can spot and fix impending problems before you inconvenience your conclude users.
Oracle RAC monitoring best practices
To ensure that a RAC node never experiences a global problem, a proper monitoring infrastructure is an absolute requirement. RAC databases rarely fail without warning. If the DBA understands the proper metrics to watch, he can create an alert system that notifies him of a looming problem so that he can fix it before the instance crashes.
The DBA must monitor the cluster, the shared disk setup, ASM (or OCFS), the database instance, listeners, and more in-depth metrics such as cache coherency, interconnect latency, disk times from multiple systems, and a ambit of other things.
While higher-cost performance monitoring tools such as Oracle Grid Control can hearten accomplish rudimentary RAC monitoring for beginners, a RAC DBA should enjoy the coding skills to build his own RAC monitoring infrastructure using dictionary queries, dbms_scheduler and email alert mechanisms.
Wrapping up the discussion of Oracle RAC best practices, let’s focus on the best route to define job roles for a RAC database.
Oracle RAC staffing best practices
One best drill for RAC databases is to always hire an experienced RAC DBA to manage your cluster, avoiding people who enjoy had the RAC training but enjoy no job experience.
It’s essential to recognize that human resource costs are the most expensive Part of an Oracle shop. Over the decades, hardware costs enjoy steadily fallen while manpower costs enjoy remained the same.
It’s essential to note that Oracle professionals with RAC skills command a hefty premium over an ordinary DBA. A recent Oracle salary survey notes that an unprejudiced DBA earns about $97,000 per year, whereas RAC experts commonly earn $140,000 a year. Those who manage multi-billion-dollar RAC databases typically command upwards of $250,000 per year.
Sadly, there is no smooth route to “grow your own” RAC DBA. The training courses are very expensive, and there is no substitute for real-world experience. And training your own DBA in RAC may obtain him more marketable. It’s not uncommon to disburse tens of thousands of dollars teaching RAC to your DBA only to lose him to a better job offer.
Oracle RAC job role best practices
There is a perpetual combat between systems administrators (SAs), who traditionally manage servers and disks, and the RAC DBAs who are responsible for managing the RAC database. There are likewise clearly defined job roles for network administrators, who are especially challenged in a RAC database environment to manage the cluster interconnect and packet shipping between servers.
If your DBA is going to breathe held responsible for the performance of the RAC database, then it’s only unprejudiced that he breathe given root access to the servers and disk storage subsystem. However, not every DBA will enjoy the required computer science skills to manage a knotty server and SAN environment, so each shop makes this determination on a case-by-case basis.
Oracle RAC training best practices
One of the positive ways to set your company up for an unplanned outage is to fail to train your SA, DBA and network administrator properly. SAN environments dote EMC, Tagmastore and NetApp enjoy knotty architectures, and they frequently require training classes.
Disk configuration is likewise challenging, and RAC will function only when using specific disk setups such as ASM, OCFS, RAW, or a third-party cluster file system. These tools require training classes.
Network administrators must likewise receive training on how to work with the cluster interconnect, as well as specialized interconnects such as Infiniband and DWDM.
Of everything those on a RAC staff, DBAs will enjoy the greatest learning curve. They will enjoy to understand how to set up and administer everything of the knotty RAC components, including the clusterware and file system storage.
In summary, while RAC offers continuous availability, it’s not magic. There is a lot of work required to ensure that a RAC database is always available. Every RAC database has some unique properties, but there are some well-known perils and pitfalls as well. Using Oracle RAC best practices from other shops is a must for ensuring success. The vast majority of the best practices with RAC relate to properly planning the infrastructure and configuring and deploying the RAC database.
About the author:
Donald K. Burleson is a leading Oracle expert, with more than 25 years of DBA experience. He has authored more than 30 Oracle books, including five officially authorized O books on Oracle tuning. Burleson likewise manages a accepted DBA website, www.dba-oracle.com.
This latest generation of database builds on the innovations introduced in Oracle Database 11g to hearten organizations deliver better information throughout the enterprise, at a higher quality of service, and at a much lower cost.
In this release, Oracle true Application Clusters (RAC) delivers grid plug and play and recent server pooling capabilities that enable organizations to reduce their server costs by streamlining the provisioning and management of consolidated database grids.
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Most articles about Garbage Collection ignore the fact that the Sun Hotspot JVM is not the only game in town. In fact whenever you enjoy to work with either IBM WebSphere or Oracle WebLogic you will flee on a different runtime. While the concept of Garbage Collection is the same, the implementation is not and neither are the default settings or how to tune it. This often leads to unexpected problems when running the first load tests or in the worst case when going live. So let’s notice at the different JVMs, what makes them unique and how to ensure that Garbage Collection is running smooth.
The Garbage Collection ergonomics of the Sun Hotspot JVMEverybody believes to know how Garbage Collection works in the Sun Hotspot JVM, but lets hook a closer notice for the purpose of reference.
The Generational HeapThe Hotspot JVM is always using a Generational Heap. Objects are first allocated in the immature generation, specifically in the Eden area. Whenever the Eden space is complete a immature generation garbage collection is triggered. This will copy the few remaining live objects into the empty survivor space. In addition objects that enjoy been copied to Survivor in the previous garbage collection will breathe checked and the live ones will breathe copied as well. The result is that objects only exist in one survivor, while eden and the other survivor is empty. This figure of Garbage Collection is called copy collection. It is snappy as long as nearly everything objects enjoy died. In addition allocation is always snappy because no fragmentation occurs. Objects that survive a yoke of garbage collections are considered primitive and are promoted into the Tenured/Old space.
Tenured Generation GCsThe designate and Sweep algorithms used in the Tenured space are different because they result not copy objects. As they enjoy seen in one of my previous posts garbage collection takes longer the more objects are alive. Consequently GC runs in tenured are nearly always expensive which is why they want to avoid them. In order to avoid GCs they requisite to ensure that objects are only copied from immature to primitive when they are permanent and in addition ensure that the tenured does not flee full. Therefore generation sizing is the single most essential optimization for the GC in the Hotspot JVM. If they cannot avert objects from being copied to Tenured space once in a while they can employ the Concurrent designate and Sweep algorithm which collects objects concurrent to the application.
While that shortens the suspensions it does not avert them and they will occur more frequently. The Tenured space likewise suffers from another problem, fragmentation. Fragmentation leads to slower allocation, longer sweep phases and eventually out of recollection errors when the holes score too tiny for magnificient objects.
This is remedied by a compacting phase. The serial and parallel compacting GC accomplish compaction for every GC flee in the Tenured space. essential to note is that, while the parallel GC performs compacting every time, it does not compact the gross Tenured mound but just the district that is worth the effort. Worth the application means when the mound has reached a inescapable even of fragmentation. In contrast, the Concurrent designate and Sweep does not compact at all. Once objects cannot breathe allocated anymore a serial major GC is triggered. When choosing the concurrent designate and sweep strategy they enjoy to breathe cognizant of that side affect.
The second magnificient tuning option is therefore the choice of the right GC strategy. It has magnificient implications for the impact the GC has on the application performance. The eventual and least known tuning option is around fragmentation and compacting. The Hotspot JVM does not provide a lot of options to tune it, so the only route is to tune the code directly and reduce the number of allocations.
There is another space in the Hotspot JVM that they everything came to esteem over the years, the Permanent Generation. It holds classes and string constants that are Part of those classes. While Garbage Collection is executed in the permanent generation, it only happens during a major GC. You might want to read up what a Major GC actually is, as it does not addupto a primitive Generation GC. Because a major GC does not chance often and mostly nothing happens in the permanent generation, many people arbiter that the Hotspot JVM does not result garbage collection there at all.
Over the years everything of us flee into many different forms of the OutOfMemory situations in PermGen and you will breathe blissful to hear that Oracle intends to result away with it in the future versions of Hotspot.
Oracle JRockitNow that they had a notice at Hotspot, let us notice at the disagreement in the Oracle JRockit. JRockit is used by Oracle WebLogic Server and Oracle has announced that it will merge it with the Hotspot JVM in the future.
The biggest disagreement is the mound strategy itself. While Oracle JRockit does enjoy a generational mound it likewise supports a so called continuous heap. In addition the generational mound looks different as well.
The immature space is called Nursery and it only has two areas. When objects are first allocated they are placed in a so called maintain Area. Objects in the maintain district are not considered during garbage collection while everything other objects quiet alive are immediately promoted to tenured. That has major implications for the sizing of the Nursery. While you can configure how often objects are copied between the two survivors in the Hotspot JVM, JRockit promotes objects in the second immature Generation GC.
In addition to this disagreement JRockit likewise supports a completely continuous mound that does not distinguish between immature and primitive objects. In inescapable situations, dote throughput orientated batch jobs, this results in better overall performance. The problem is that this is the default setting on a server JVM and often not the right choice. A typical Web Application is not throughput but response time orientated and you will requisite to explicitly choose the low intermission time garbage collection mode or a generational garbage collection strategy.
Mostly Concurrent designate and SweepIf you choose Concurrent designate and Sweep strategy you should breathe cognizant about a yoke of differences here as well. The mostly concurrent designate side is divided into four parts:
The sweeping is likewise done concurrent to your application, but in contrast to Hotspot in two part steps. It is first sweeping the first half of the heap. During this side threads are allowed to commandeer objects in the second half. After a short synchronization intermission the second half is sweeped. This is followed by another short final synchronization pause. The JRockit algorithm therefore stops more often than the Sun Hotspot JVM, but the remark side should breathe shorter. Unlike the Hotspot JVM you can tune the CMS by defining the percentage of free recollection that triggers a GC run.
CompactingThe JRockit does compacting for everything Tenured Generation GCs, including the Concurrent designate and Sweep. It does so in an incremental mode for portions of the heap. You can tune this with various options dote percentage of mound that should breathe compacted each time or how many objects are compacted at max. In addition you can rotate off compacting completely or coerce a complete one for every GC. This means that compacting is a lot more tunable in the JRockit than in the Hotspot JVM and the optimum depends very much on the application itself and needs to breathe carefully tested.
Thread Local AllocationHotspot does employ thread local allocation, but it is difficult to find anything in the documentation about it or how to tune it. The JRockit uses this on default. This allows threads to commandeer objects without any requisite for synchronization, which is profitable for allocation speed. The size of a TLA can breathe configured and a great TLA can breathe profitable for applications where multiple threads commandeer a lot of objects. On the other hand a too great TLA can lead to more fragmentation. As a TLA is used exclusively by one thread, the size is naturally limited by the number of threads. Thus both decreasing and increasing the default can breathe estimable or faulty depending on your applications architecture.
Large and tiny objectsThe JRockit differentiates between great and tiny objects during allocation. The restrict for when an demur is considered great depends on the JVM version, the mound size, the garbage collection strategy and the platform used. It is usually somewhere between 2 and 128 KB. great objects are allocated outside thread local district in in case of a generational mound directly in the primitive generation. This makes a lot of sense when you start thinking about it. The immature generation uses a copy ccollection. At some point copying an demur becomes more expensive than traversing it in ever garbage collection.
No permanent GenerationAnd finally it needs to breathe celebrated that the JRockit does not enjoy a permanent generation. everything classes and string constants are allocated within the everyday mound area. While that makes life easier on the configuration front it means that classes can breathe garbage collected immediately if not used anymore. In one of my future posts I will illustrate how this can lead to some difficult to find performance problems.
The IBM JVMThe IBM JVM shares a lot of characteristics with JRockit: The default mound is a continuous one. Especially in WebSphere installation this is often the initial occasions for faulty performance. It differentiates between great and tiny objects with the same implications and uses thread local allocation on default. It likewise does not enjoy a permanent generation, but while the IBM JVM likewise supports a generational mound model it looks more dote Sun’s rather than JRockit.
Allocate and Survivor act dote Eden and Survivor of the Sun JVM. recent objects are allocated in one district and copied to the other on garbage collection. In contrast to JRockit the two areas are switched upon gc. This means that an demur is copied multiple times between the two areas before it gets promoted to Tenured. dote JRockit the IBM JVM has more options to tune the compaction phase. You can rotate it off or coerce it to chance for every GC. In contrast to JRockit the default triggers it due to a string of triggers but will then lead to a complete compaction. This can breathe changed to an incremental one via a configuration flag.
ConclusionWe discern that while the three JVMs are essentially trying to achieve the same goal, they result so via different strategies. This leads to different behaviour that needs tuning. With Java 7 Oracle will finally declare the G1 (Garbage First) production ready and the G1 is a different beast altogether, so linger tuned.
If you’re interested in hearing me discuss more about WebSphere in a production environment, then check out their upcoming webinar with The Bon-Ton Stores. I’ll breathe joined by Dan Gerard, VP of Technical & Web Services at Bon-Ton, to discuss the challenges they’ve overcome in operating a knotty Websphere production eCommerce site to deliver noteworthy web application performance and user experience. Reserve your seat today to hear me depart into more detail about Websphere and production eCommerce environments.
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