250-352 real questions | Pass4sure 250-352 real questions |

Pass4sure 250-352 dumps | 250-352 existent questions |

250-352 Administration of Veritas Storage(R) Foundation and elevated Availability Solutions 6.0 for(R) Windows

Study usher Prepared by Symantec Dumps Experts 250-352 Dumps and existent Questions

100% existent Questions - Exam Pass Guarantee with elevated Marks - Just Memorize the Answers

250-352 exam Dumps Source : Administration of Veritas Storage(R) Foundation and elevated Availability Solutions 6.0 for(R) Windows

Test Code : 250-352
Test appellation : Administration of Veritas Storage(R) Foundation and elevated Availability Solutions 6.0 for(R) Windows
Vendor appellation : Symantec
real questions : 171 existent Questions

exactly very questions in actual test, WTF!
We necessity to ascertain ways to elect their thoughts just the equal manner, they pick out their garments everyday. that is the power they can habitat.Having said that If they want to accomplish matters in their life, they must warfare difficult to comprehend flawless its powers. I did so and worked difficult on to find out awesome position in 250-352 exam with the succor of that proved very energetic and exceptional program to find out favored duty in 250-352 exam.It turned into a flawless program to bear my life relaxed.

it's far grotesque to own 250-352 query bank and examine manual.
The exact answers were not difficult to remember. My lore of emulating the existent questions was truly attractive, as I made flawless perquisite replies in the exam 250-352. Much appreciated to the for the help. I advantageously took the exam preparation inside 12 days. The presentation style of this aide was simple without any lengthened answers or knotty clarifications. Some of the topic which are so difficult and difficult as well are coach so beautifully.

right region to net 250-352 actual test examination paper.
I could surely address ninety three% marks in the long sprint of the exam, as severa questions were just fancy the adviser for me. Much liked to the killexams. I had a weight from workplace to demolish up the exam 250-352. However, I became burdened over taking a first rate planning in itsy-bitsy time. At that point, the existent questions aide showed up as a windfall for me, with its smooth and brief replies.

Is there someone who exceeded 250-352 exam?
Positive, the questions bank will be very advantageous and i insinuate it to everyone who desires to assume the ones checks. Congrats on a manner nicely design out and executed. I cleared my 250-352 tests.

try out those existent 250-352 state-of-the-art and updated dumps.
i used to be trapped in the complicated subjects handiest 12 earlier days the exam 250-352. Whats greater it becomeextremely useful, as the quick solutions may be effortlessly remembered inside 10 days. I scored 91%, endeavoring flawless questions in due time. To store my planning, i was energetically looking down a few speedy reference. It aided me a top notch deal. by no means thought it can be so compelling! At that point, by means of one way or some other I came to account Dumps.

right vicinity to find 250-352 actual test questions paper.
I passed this exam with and feature these days received my 250-352 certificate. I did flawless my certifications with, so I cant commemorate what its want to assume an exam with/without it. But, the fact that I hold coming again for his or her bundles indicates that Im joyous with this exam solution. I clearly fancy being able to workout on my pc, in theconsolation of my domestic, especially when the sizable majority of the questions acting at the exam are precisely the identical what you observed for your trying out engine at domestic. Manner to, I got up to the professionalstage. I am now not positive whether or not or now not sick be shifting up any time fast, as I issue to be joyous wherein i am. Thanks Killexams.

try out these existent 250-352 actual test questions.
i am very satisfied with this bundle as I were given over 96% on this 250-352 exam. I study the professional 250-352 manual a bit, however I ante changed into my primary coaching useful resource. I memorized most of the questions and answers, and besides invested the time to in reality recognize the eventualities and tech/practice centeredparts of the exam. I suppose that by way of itself purchasing the package does now not guarantee that you maypass your exam - and a few test are really tough. but, in case you test their materials difficult and in reality positioned your thoughts and your heart into your exam guidance, then certainly beats some otherexam prep options available out there.

right here is perquisite supply state-of-the-art dumps, revise answers. tackled flawless my problems. considering long questions and answers was a test. anyhow with concise, my making plans for 250-352 exam was virtually an agreeable enjoy. I efficiently passed this exam with 79% score. It helped me recall without lifting a finger and solace. The Questions & answers in are fitting for net prepared for this exam. a total lot obliged in your backing. I could reflect onconsideration on for lengthy simply even as I used killexams. Motivation and high-quality Reinforcement of newcomers is one topic matter which i found tough buttheir succor bear it so smooth.

That was I were given contemporaneous day dumps today's 250-352 examination.
in the exam most of the questions had been identical to existent questions material, which helped me to shop a total lot of time and i used to be in a position to complete the total 75 questions. I besides took the assist of the reference e book. The Questions for 250-352 exam is continually up to date to offer the most revise and updated questions. This surely made me feel confident in passing the 250-352 exam.

you know the satisfactory and fastest way to pellucid 250-352 exam? I were given it.
To become a 250-352 Certified, I was in thrust to pass the 250-352 exam. I tried and failed final 2 attempts. Accidently, I got the material through my cousin. I was very impressed with the existent questions material. I secured 89%. I am so joyful that I scored above the margin brand without difficulty. The material is nicely formatted as well as enriched with necessary concepts. I reflect it is the remarkable altenative for the exam.

Symantec Administration of Veritas Storage(R)

Symantec CEO says pressing ahead with Veritas spin-off | existent Questions and Pass4sure dumps

with the aid of Liana B. Baker

(Reuters) - software security and storage provider Symantec is relocating ahead with its plans to reduce up into two publicly traded corporations with the aid of January, a stream that it views as greater tax-effective than a sale of one of its devices, properly executives referred to this week.

"it's the plan, to spin it," Chief govt Michael Brown pointed out in an interview. "For shareholders, it's tax free, which is a enormous skills for them."

Reuters pronounced ultimate week that Symantec had been exploring a sale of its Veritas tips administration and storage unit or of the total company. however interest from competencies buyers has been restrained because of a tax affliction linked to splitting the enterprise.

The enterprise is planning to start buying and selling as two businesses by means of Jan four, 2016.

Symantec will separate its enterprise focused on corporate and customer security software, which had $4.2 billion in revenue closing year, from Veritas, which is smaller, with about $2.5 billion in salary. It first announced the tax-free spinoff remaining October.

The Reuters record talked about Symantec had been searching into a sale of Veritas for several months and had approached NetApp Inc, EMC Corp and a number of inner most equity corporations to gauge their hobby.

Shareholders were pushing for a break-up with Veritas, which Symantec obtained in 2004 for $13.5 billion, for a long time, Chief fiscal Officer Thomas Siefert spoke of.

"It didn't shock them, it became a 'finally' category of remark," he stated, regarding shareholders' reaction to the spinoff.

Brown, who took over as Symantec CEO in 2014 after joining the enterprise as a Veritas board member in 2004, will remain in his position. Veritas will later search internally and externally for a brand new CEO.

Symantec on Friday published its monetary objectives for both companies for the first time.

In fiscal year 2016, which began April four, Symantec stated salary should be flat to up 2 p.c with EPS expand between $1.eighty and $1.90 per share. Veritas' adjusted profits will be up 4 to 7 p.c.

The traffic is focused on 2016 cash stream for the mixed businesses in the compass of $1.4 billion to $1.5 billion. For 2017, it's aiming for money movement at Veritas to be between $750 million and $820 million, and between $1.08 billion and $1.44 billion at Symantec.

(Reporting via Liana B. Baker; modifying through Christian Plumb)

companions Cheer The authentic cut-off date Of Symantec split | existent Questions and Pass4sure dumps

more than a yr after the resolution to reduce up turned into revealed, and after a prolong and a cost adjustment, Symantec has formally closed on its separation from storage traffic Veritas, headed into the weekend as a totally concentrated safety company.

The sale of Veritas to deepest fairness company The Carlyle group officially accomplished at Friday's inventory market shut, inserting $5.3 billion in after-tax proceeds in the security company's pockets.

partners cheered the information that the reduce up system became officially in the back of Symantec. whereas the information wasn't a shock, with the sale time limit wide-spread neatly in boost and both divisions already working independently, partners stated the professional closing potential Symantec can now dedicate flawless of its consideration to riding its strategic imaginative and prescient for safety.

[Related: 10 Things To hope From Symantec In Coming Months]

"Symantec has flawless these eyes on them for this enormous reduce up. … I believe getting this executed lets them Go lower back to being strategic," famed Steve Barone, CEO at CBI, a Ferndale, Mich.-based mostly Symantec companion.

Wade Wyant, president and founder of august Rapids, Mich.-based ITS companions, stated he "could not be happier" with the enterprise's determination to split and appears ahead to Symantec executing on its security strategy now that the demolish up is finished.

"This split has been dazzling," Wyant talked about. "it's basically allowed them to focus and we're chuffed about it."

The process of splitting Symantec in two began back in October 2014, when the Mountain View, Calif.-primarily based enterprise first revealed its end to split from its storage business, Veritas. This previous August, the company observed, as a substitute of without rigor splitting the enterprise, it will be selling Veritas to The Carlyle neighborhood for $eight billion. the two groups began working independently in October 2015.

due to the fact then, the company pushed returned the anticipated immediate date of the acquisition from Jan. 1 to Jan. 29, and diminished its sale cost from $8 billion to $7.4 billion.

John Thompson, Symantec global vp of accomplice and channel earnings, talked about the split finalization is a "massive deal" for the vendor and clears a route for it to focus on its Unified security method. He talked about Symantec employees did most of their celebrating of the operational reduce up in October, however that "there remains singing and dancing in the hallways nowadays."

"today marks a new first light for Symantec and its companions," Thompson said. "Symantec has accomplished the sale of Veritas and now they are solely concentrated on cybersecurity. I reflect it truly is going to be decent for companions and first rate for Symantec."

Now that the reduce up is complete, partners spoke of, they want to remark Symantec ramp up its know-how investments. it's a thrust the supplier has already begun, rolling out basically a dozen new safety products in contemporaneous months. ITS partners’ Wyant stated he would want to remark Symantec investing in both R&D and acquisitions because it grows its expertise portfolio.

"The channel is just expecting even more super products," Wyant noted. "Symantec has a very favorable company, they own got loads of incredible clients. … in the event that they extend their product set and proceed to innovate, then they can flawless be a success and the client can net lots of value."

that's precisely what companions can expect, Thompson observed, with planned investments in technology, each organically and thru acquisition. He mentioned partners can besides forecast further investments within the channel, in particular round safety-concentrated partners, the SecureOne companion application, companion own interaction routine, working towards and enablement, and partner Enablement resource Kits. Having the split complete will accelerate the enterprise's momentum in flawless of those areas, he talked about, because it is capable of completely focal point on its security investments.

"We're fervent for turning out to be even more with partners as they rush forward," Thompson observed. "We suppose modern day announcement does brand a brand new dawn for us and a brand new morning time for partners."

Symantec Sells Veritas Division To inner most fairness neighborhood For $8B | existent Questions and Pass4sure dumps

Symantec introduced nowadays that it had offered its Veritas division to The Carlyle neighborhood, a Washington, DC-based mostly deepest equity solid for $8 billion in money.

The rush comes after Symantec, mainly referred to as a computer security enterprise, introduced it became splitting into two separate publicly traded agencies ultimate fall. the first became going to be Symantec, which as you may are expecting concentrated on security and the 2nd become Veritas, which concentrated on assistance management. It become named for a storage vendor that merged with Symantec lower back in 2005.

The reduce up was under no circumstances formally achieved, nevertheless it seems as although the traffic got a nice return, which could allow them to focal point on their core security traffic relocating ahead. In selected it’s shifting to the cloud and the recurring subscription revenue flawless and sundry craves.

“The sale enables Symantec to double down on their core with the aid of buying them time to contend with the cloud income conversion,” R Ray Wang, founder at Constellation research informed TechCrunch.

but converting on-premises consumers to subscriptions takes toil and the $eight billion gives the traffic time to retool its revenue and advertising and toddle to a cloud model, Wang explained.

As for Veritas, it becomes Part of the Carlyle community, which saw an organization with loads of potential, that turned into being stifled internal of Symantec. It on no account in reality had a sense of how to assume competencies of an guidance administration asset fancy Veritas, which explains why it become spinning it out as a separate business.

interestingly, before the closing reduce up took place, Symantec saw a far better occasion for its investors and determined to toddle forward with the sale.

As for Carlyle, it saw a corporation with first rate bones, a pacesetter that turned into at or near the revise of many product classes and perhaps extra importantly, a loyal and satisfied consumer groundwork with a remarkable set of items geared towards growing to be markets fancy big facts and the information storage that is a component of that.

Carlyle says its committed to helping Veritas to finally develop into a a hit independent business. “we're absolutely at the back of transforming into this company and transforming into an organization that they hope to assume public in the future,” Patrick McCarter, a Carlyle managing director referred to.

Carlyle had been in talks for a few months with Symantec earlier than it pulled the trigger on the purchase. The traffic has a long tradition of investing in what it calls the “expertise, media and telecommunications” house with a lifetime funding of $18 billion of fairness invested in 243 portfolio companies.

While it is very difficult stint to elect liable certification questions / answers resources with respect to review, reputation and validity because people net ripoff due to choosing wrong service. bear it sure to serve its clients best to its resources with respect to exam dumps update and validity. Most of other's ripoff report complaint clients Come to us for the brain dumps and pass their exams happily and easily. They never compromise on their review, reputation and property because killexams review, killexams reputation and killexams client self-possession is famous to us. Specially they assume custody of review, reputation, ripoff report complaint, trust, validity, report and scam. If you remark any unseemly report posted by their competitors with the appellation killexams ripoff report complaint internet, ripoff report, scam, complaint or something fancy this, just withhold in humor that there are always nasty people damaging reputation of favorable services due to their benefits. There are thousands of satisfied customers that pass their exams using brain dumps, killexams PDF questions, killexams drill questions, killexams exam simulator. Visit, their sample questions and sample brain dumps, their exam simulator and you will definitely know that is the best brain dumps site.

Back to Brain dumps Menu

ISO20KF examcollection | HPE0-J75 exam prep | HP2-B35 bootcamp | 70-345 free pdf | 000-702 questions and answers | 190-822 test prep | HP2-B94 study guide | C2050-219 study guide | 9L0-207 drill test | HP2-N37 braindumps | C2040-441 drill test | 312-50v8 test prep | 000-332 exam questions | EUCOC questions and answers | 62-193 drill questions | JK0-019 exam prep | ECSS existent questions | COG-320 free pdf | 70-768 test prep | COG-700 test questions |

Audit 250-352 existent question and answers before you step through examination
Our 250-352 exam prep material gives flawless of you that you should assume a confirmation exam. Their Symantec 250-352 Exam will give you exam questions with affirmed answers that mirror the existent exam. elevated gauge and motivating coerce for the 250-352 Exam. They at guaranteed to empower you to pass your 250-352 exam with elevated scores.

At, they provide thoroughly reviewed Symantec 250-352 exactly very Questions and Answers that are just required for Passing 250-352 test, and to net certified by Symantec. They really succor people ameliorate their lore to memorize the existent questions and certify. It is a best altenative to accelerate your career as a professional in the Industry. Click supercilious of their reputation of helping people pass the 250-352 test in their very first attempts. Their success rates in the past two years own been absolutely impressive, thanks to their joyful customers who are now able to boost their career in the mercurial lane. is the number one altenative among IT professionals, especially the ones who are looking to climb up the hierarchy levels faster in their respective organizations. Huge Discount Coupons and Promo Codes are as under;
WC2017 : 60% Discount Coupon for flawless exams on website
PROF17 : 10% Discount Coupon for Orders greater than $69
DEAL17 : 15% Discount Coupon for Orders greater than $99
DECSPECIAL : 10% Special Discount Coupon for flawless Orders

It is fundamental to unite to the manual fabric on the off hazard that one needs closer to rescue time. As you require clusters of time to hunt for updated and legitimate research material for taking the IT certification exam. In the event which you find that at one area, what will be progressed to this? Its equitable that has what you require. You can rescue time and avoid inconvenience at the off hazard that you purchase Adobe IT certification from their website page.

You should net the most updated Symantec 250-352 Braindumps with the revise arrangements, which can be establishment by utilizing experts, enabling the likelihood to understand becoming more acquainted with about their 250-352 exam heading in the best, you won't find 250-352 consequences of such awesome wherever inside the commercial center. Their Symantec 250-352 drill Dumps are given to candidates at seeming 100% of their exam. Their Symantec 250-352 exam dumps are most updated in the market, allowing you to prepare in your 250-352 exam in the exemplar way.

if you are enthusiastic about adequately Passing the Symantec 250-352 exam to launch shopping? has riding feature made Symantec exam delivers to own the capacity to guarantee you pass this 250-352 exam! passes on you the most actual, blessing and greatest ongoing updated 250-352 exam questions and reachable with an 100% unlimited guarantee. numerous partnerships that supply 250-352 brain dumps yet the ones are not special and latest ones. Course of action with 250-352 new questions is a most best technique to pass this certification exam in simple way.

We are for the most Part bounty cognizant that an imperative ail inside the IT traffic venture is that there's an absence of cost study materials. Their exam prep material offers you that you necessity to assume an accreditation exam. Their Symantec 250-352 Exam will reflect of exam questions with demonstrated answers that duplicate the actual exam. These questions and answers give you the cherish of taking the existent exam. elevated caliber and motivating coerce for the 250-352 Exam. 100% certification to pass your Symantec 250-352 exam and net your Symantec attestation. They at are set out to empower you to pass your 250-352 exam with inordinate appraisals. The chances of you fail to pass your 250-352 exam, after encountering their far accomplishing exam dumps are nothing. top value 250-352 exam simulator is uncommonly reassuring for their customers for the exam prep. Gigantically fundamental questions, references and definitions are highlighted in brain dumps pdf. social event the data in a lone region is an authentic succor and Ass you net readied for the IT certification exam inside a brief span profile cross. The 250-352 exam offers key core interests. The pass4sure dumps holds the basic questions or considerations of the 250-352 exam

At, they give totally verified Symantec 250-352 making prepared resources which can be the extraordinary to pass 250-352 exam, and to net ensured by way for Symantec. It is a wonderful conclusion to accelerate your situation as an expert in the Information Technology undertaking. They are satisfied with their reputation of helping people pass the 250-352 test in their first attempt. Their flourishing expenses inside the earlier years were totally awesome, because of their peppy customers who're perquisite now arranged to foment their situations inside the expedient tune. is the essential determination among IT specialists, especially the ones who're wanting to transport up the movement capabilities quicker of their individual establishments. Symantec is the traffic pioneer in actualities development, and getting certified through them is a guaranteed way to deal with win with IT positions. They enable you to accomplish actually that with their phenomenal Symantec 250-352 exam prep dumps. Huge Discount Coupons and Promo Codes are as under;
WC2017: 60% Discount Coupon for flawless exams on website
PROF17: 10% Discount Coupon for Orders greater than $69
DEAL17: 15% Discount Coupon for Orders greater than $99
DECSPECIAL: 10% Special Discount Coupon for flawless Orders

Symantec 250-352 is uncommon wherever in the globe, and the endeavor and programming arrangements gave by them are gotten a ply on by each one of the organizations. They own helped in riding a vast scope of organizations on the shot way for progress. Far achieving picking up learning of Symantec objects are viewed as a crucial usefulness, and the experts appeared by way for them are perceptibly regraded in flawless establishments.

250-352 Practice Test | 250-352 examcollection | 250-352 VCE | 250-352 study guide | 250-352 practice exam | 250-352 cram

Killexams 190-821 test prep | Killexams 70-505-CSharp braindumps | Killexams ANP-BC exam prep | Killexams E20-591 mock exam | Killexams 000-196 test prep | Killexams 920-240 existent questions | Killexams HP0-815 drill questions | Killexams 000-093 dumps | Killexams 1K0-002 braindumps | Killexams IELTS drill questions | Killexams 1Z0-403 cheat sheets | Killexams P9050-005 examcollection | Killexams C8010-241 drill Test | Killexams 1Z0-048 existent questions | Killexams 700-703 dump | Killexams LOT-406 questions and answers | Killexams ITEC-Massage bootcamp | Killexams 190-702 drill test | Killexams 000-N02 free pdf | Killexams HP0-M21 cram |

Exam Simulator : Pass4sure 250-352 VCE Exam Simulator

View Complete list of Brain dumps

Killexams 000-M20 free pdf | Killexams 000-667 dumps | Killexams GPHR drill test | Killexams 250-223 braindumps | Killexams A2090-558 sample test | Killexams HP0-J19 cheat sheets | Killexams A4040-124 pdf download | Killexams E20-365 VCE | Killexams M9550-752 test prep | Killexams C2070-448 cram | Killexams 4A0-102 braindumps | Killexams 106 test questions | Killexams HP0-787 existent questions | Killexams 000-138 examcollection | Killexams P2170-013 free pdf download | Killexams 1Z0-470 existent questions | Killexams EX0-003 braindumps | Killexams HP0-M12 study guide | Killexams C4090-452 drill Test | Killexams CAT-140 dump |

Administration of Veritas Storage(R) Foundation and elevated Availability Solutions 6.0 for(R) Windows

Pass 4 sure 250-352 dumps | 250-352 existent questions |

Interview with Sohamn Chatterjee, Senior traffic Systems Architect, Spirent Communications | existent questions and Pass4sure dumps

Can you provide some background on Spirent and the nature of your business?

SC: Spirent is a global leader in communications test and measurement with 20 locations in 15 countries worldwide. They enable their customers’ success in development and deployment of communications networks, services and applications. Their broad solutions portfolio addresses data centers, cloud computing, virtualized environments, security, elevated quicken Ethernet networks and services, and infrastructure test optimization.

How would you categorize Spirent’s IT philosophy as it relates to customer service and your utilize of innovative technologies as a competitive advantage?

SC: The Spirent IT department is continuously looking for ways to ameliorate efficiency and maintain the highest property of service to customers. For example, they recognized that touching their operations to the Amazon cloud would provide a variety of benefits. They saw an occasion to gain significant flexibility, scalability, and efficiency by touching to the Amazon EC2 cloud. This toddle would let us grow quickly and to apply additional IT resources as their needs change.

Once you decided to toddle the cloud, what were your top priorities? What kept you awake at night?

SC: For the toddle to Amazon EC2 to be successful, their IT staff needed to provide elevated availability for their Siebel Gateway Server and File Server application environments. They could not toddle famous applications to the cloud until they were sure that they would not be putting them at risk for downtime or data loss. The traditional shared storage clusters that they would own used in a physical environment require shared storage – which is not available in EC2. They needed an affordable, easy-to-deploy solution that would uphold aboriginal Microsoft Windows Server Failover Clustering (WSFC).

With these objectives in mind, what choices did you make?

SC: They chose SIOS DataKeeper Cluster Edition to protect their traffic captious applications in the cloud. The SIOS software enabled us to create a traditional Windows Server Failover Cluster in AWS without the necessity for shared storage. They built two-node clusters in the Amazon EC2 cloud using yardstick WSFC and added SIOS DataKeeper Cluster Edition software as an ingredient. The SIOS software uses efficient, real-time replication to synchronize storage between instances in different AWS Availability Zones, making them issue to WSFC as a SAN. The SIOS software provided intuitive configuration wizards, enabling us to deploy applications in their SANLess clusters quickly and easily. Complete integrations with WSFC, meant their IT staff did not own to change system administration or add complexity. Because the SANLess clusters utilize local storage, there was minimal performance overhead and mercurial application response times.

Can you provide an illustration of how you were able to provide elevated Availability assurance in the cloud with SIOS’ SANLess clustering software?

SC: They were able to configure the clusters just as they would in a WSFC environment so they did not necessity specialized skills or a SAN administrator. The SIOS software enabled us to implement their toddle to the AWS cloud efficiently. The SIOS software provided the protection they needed to toddle their famous applications to the Amazon EC2 cloud. Since their cluster deployment, they own not experienced any downtime or data loss in the Siebel or File Server environments. They own besides found the SIOS SANLess clusters bear failover/failback testing mercurial and easy. They are very pleased with the SIOS software and the protection their SIOS SANLess clusters provide for both their Siebel Gateway Server and File Server application environments in the Amazon EC2 cloud.

Who is SIOS Technology and accomplish their solutions toil just in virtualized environments? What if I own a hybrid infrastructure?

SC: SIOS delivers software solutions that provide application availability and disaster. SIOS SAN and SANLess clustering software provides the flexibility to build clusters your way to protect your altenative of Windows or Linux environment – and any configuration (or combination) of physical, virtual and cloud (public, private, and hybrid) storage – without sacrificing performance or availability. SIOS’ SANLess clustering solution eliminates both the cost and the single-point-of-failure risk of traditional shared-SAN storage.

Spirent Communications


An examination of factors potentially influencing birth distributions in golden snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana) | existent questions and Pass4sure dumps


Seasonal breeding is defined as the occurrence of births within clearly delimited periods (Van Schaik, Van Noordwijk & Nunn, 1999). It is the norm in a variety of primates animate at both tropical and temperate latitudes (Di Bitetti & Janson, 2000). While documentation of patterns of reproductive seasonality and its regulation in primates own increased steadily over the past few decades, how the set of factors, such as food availability, day length and temperature, influences the timing of reproductive events in both captive and wild groups are noiseless crucial for those endangered species.

Seasonal food availability has been cited as one of the principle factors determining seasonal breeding in primates (Di Bitetti & Janson, 2000; Brockman & Van Schaik, 2005). Given that late gestation and early lactation represent the most energetically demanding periods for reproductively dynamic females, some primate species animate in seasonally predictable environments are reported to coincide the birth season and periods of intensive nursing with increased availability or seasonal peaks in elevated energy-high protein foods (McCabe, Fernánd & Ehardt, 2013). This pattern of reproductive timing has been documented in some strepsirrhines (Richard et al., 2002), new world monkeys (Lewis & Kappeler, 2005b; Lewis & Kappeler, 2005a), and extinct world monkeys (Van Schaik, Van Noordwijk & Nunn, 1999). For example, Hanuman langurs (Semnopithecus entellus) give birth from January until June, and conceptions are confined to the months of July to November, coinciding with the era of highest food availability (Koenig et al., 1997). However, given that relative to corpse mass primates are generally characterized by an elongated era of gestation (5–9 months) and an extended era of lactation (three months to five years), female’s own evolved a compass of alternative behavioral, social, and nutritional strategies designed to enhance reproductive success (Brockman & Van Schaik, 2005). Primate species such as long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) (Van Schaik & Van Noordwijk, 1985) and remarkable apes (Knott, 2005), might time conception to coincide with periods of elevated food availability in order to store reserves that can be drawn on later during pregnancy. Other models own been proposed to justify variation in the timing of reproductive events across primate species. For example, females acting as income breeders utilize energy obtained throughout the reproductive era to uphold their developing offspring (Brockman & Van Schaik, 2005). In contrast, females acting as capital breeders are expected to time conception to periods of elevated food availability and utilize these accumulated resources during periods when the energetic costs of reproduction are elevated and food is less available (McCabe, Fernánd & Ehardt, 2013). For example, even in the captive condition, female Japanese Macaques (Macaca fuscata) noiseless accumulate energy reserves and gain weight in plunge to prepare for mating activity, and to survive the severe conditions of winter, which is the era of gestation if pregnancy occurs (Garcia, Huffman & Shimizu, 2010; Garcia et al., 2011).

Other factors, such as the natural light cycle (photoperiod), which usually is determined by the latitude and controls melatonin release and modulates circadian and circannual pacemakers (Wehr, 2001; Dardene, 2012), besides can operate as a primarily proximate factor influencing the timing of reproduction (Ziegler et al., 2000; Bradshaw & Holzapfel, 2007). Some research on the effects of photoperiod in primates has focused on rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) (Wilson & Gordon, 1989), squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) (Schiml et al., 1999) and tamarins (Mcgrew & Webster, 1995), tufted capuchins (Perret, 1997), and multiple species of lemurs (Carosi, Linn & Visalberghi, 2005). In these species, decreasing day length stimulates the onset of reproduction (Wilson & Gordon, 1989; Schiml et al., 1999). However, results from both laboratory studies and studies of transplanted Japanese macaques (M. fuscata) accomplish not uphold the photoperiod hypothesis because the timing of breeding was not substantially influenced by controlled changes in exposure to different L:D cycles or when individuals were transplanted to different latitudinal zones (Nozaki, Mori & Oshima, 1990).

Evidence besides suggests that temperature can influence the timing of reproduction because extremes in ambient temperature impress energy expenditure, basal metabolic rate, and the costs of thermoregulation (Dunbar, 1988). For example, Zhao & Deng (1988) found direct evidence that female Tibetan macaques (M. thibetana) were characterized by an earlier birth season at higher elevations (colder temperature) than at lower elevations. Similarly, based on a comparison of climatic and reproductive data among 23 provisioned groups of Japanese macaques, Cozzolino et al. (1992) found that the denote conception date was negatively related to the magnitude of the diminish in the denote temperature from summer to fall. Given that many primate species live in tropical habitats (Janson & Verdolin, 2005) in which monthly denote temperature varies only by a few degrees throughout the year and seasonal patterns of rainfall are a strong predictor of food availability (Van Schaik & Pfannes, 2005), temperature as an environmental determinant of reproductive seasonality in primates has not been fully explored (Rutherford, 1980). For primates that inhabit temperate ecosystems, changes in temperature extremes across seasons of the year are likely to own a greater sequel on reproduction than food availability if the temperate species are capital breeders.

An efficient methodological approach to identify factors affecting the timing of reproduction is to compare patterns of breeding seasonality between wild and captive groups of the very species. For example, if seasonal fluctuations in food availability is a primarily factor that determined seasonal breeding in the natural habitat, then animals in captivity would be expected to display a more uniform or non-seasonal breeding pattern compared to conspecifics in the wild. Furthermore, the availability of captive groups animate at different latitudes and under easily monitored temperature regimes, provides a natural experiment to examine the influence of day length (latitude) and temperature variation on reproductive seasonality in primates. As of yet, the limited data available, for shortage of data from both captive and wild groups, accomplish not allow to draw conclusions regarding the primarily factor influencing breeding activities of a colobine species, the foregut-fermenting primates for which the main source of nutrition is leaves.

In this paper, they dissect and compare the reproductive patterns of adult females in 13 captive groups and two free ranging but provisioned groups of R. roxellana. R. roxellana are a species of endangered leaf-eating (colobine) primate endemic to China that inhabits elevated altitude mountainous temperate broadleaf and coniferous forests (Zhang et al., 1992). Zhang, Liang & Wang (2000) reported on the mating and birth seasonality of one captive population and suggested that births peak during the spring, a time of the year when the availability of protein-rich new leaves was assumed to be at its highest. Similarly, Qi, Li & Ji (2008) hypothesized that the pattern of birth seasonality in R. roxellana represented an adaptive response to the seasonality of mountain climate and food resources. Here, through using a long-term and more comprehensive data set, they test a sequence of hypotheses designed to examine the role of food availability, photoperiod, and temperature in influencing patterns of seasonal breeding and birth seasonality in R. roxellana: (1) If food abundance is a primary factor in determining the likelihood of conception, captive animals given nutritionally adequate diets should fail to exhibit seasonal variation in breeding; they thus forecast a significant dissimilarity in breeding patterns between free ranging and captive groups at similar latitude; (2) If mating and fertility are tied to photoperiod, then they hope that females will conceive and give birth later in the year in groups animate at more northern latitude under the very food conditions; and (3) If the magnitude of temperature variations between the coldest and the hottest month has sequel the reproductive fertility in females, then they hope a later conception or birth data when there is a larger temperature variation.

Methods Ethics statement

Prior to conducting this study, approval was gained from the Shennongjia National Nature Reserve (snnr-081201), the Zhouzhi National Nature Reserve (znnr-050621), and the Institutional Animal custody and utilize Committee of Central South University of Forestry & Technology (csuft-090120). Data collected were purely observational in nature and were collected with minimal disturbance to the animals (although the animals were provisioned by reserve staff).


R. roxellana is distributed from 28°58′–33°50′N to 103°05′–110°03′E and at elevations of between 1,000 and 4,100 m above sea plane in the Qionglai, Minshan, Qinling, and Daba Mountains of Central China (Zhang, Liang & Wang, 2000; Kirkpatrick & Grueter, 2010). The species is highly folivorous and its annual diet is composed principally of leaves and fruits. During the winter, when fruits and leaves are unavailable, R. roxellana consume a diet consisting of lichen, pine seeds, oak seeds, and bark (Kirkpatrick & Grueter, 2010; Li, 2006; Guo, Li & Watanabe, 2007). Females usually give birth once every two years provided the previous offspring survived to the age of weaning. If a female’s offspring died before 5–6 months of age, a female will give birth the following year (Qi, Li & Ji, 2008). Mating deportment was seasonal with mating peaks in September, October and November (Li & Zhao, 2007), although copulations own often been observed during other months of the year (Xiang et al., 2014).

Birth events in the natural environment

We observed one free ranging but provisioned group of R. roxellana at Dalongtan (coordinates: 31°29′N, 110°18′E; elevation: 2,200 m asl) in Shennongjia Nature Reserve, central China. This area is a highly seasonal temperate forest. The monkeys were fed two to three times a day at different sites with lichen, pine seeds, apples, carrots, oranges, and peaches. They conducted daily observations at distances between 3 and 50 m from 0800 to 1600 in winter and spring or 0700 to 1900 in summer and autumn so long as weather permitted (Xiang et al., 2014). Seventy birth events own been accurately recorded between 2006 and 2014.

We observed the other free ranging group at Yuhuangmiao in Zhouzhi National Nature Reserve (33°46′N, 108°15′E; 1,500-2,890 m asl), which is located on the northern slope of the Qinling Mountains. Seasonality in temperature and food availability in this region is pronounced; the study troop is provisioned with petite amounts of food 15 days per month for 6–8 months each year (Qi, Li & Ji, 2008). Sixty-one birth events own been identified between 2003 and 2006 (Guo, Li & Watanabe, 2007). Data on birth seasonality were collected through daily observations over the course of 4–6 months during the birth season in a partially provisioned group (Qi, Li & Ji, 2008).

Birth events in the captive environment

Birth data for captive groups were provided by the Chinese Association of Zoological Gardens. The species own been maintained in more than 30 zoos and wildlife parks from Harerbin (45°45′N) in the north, to Guangzhou (23°00′) in the south of China. Almost flawless individuals were captured from the Qinling mountains. Animals of both sexes are kept in an outdoor enclosure during the day throughout the year but given access to an enclosed latitude at night. Although the night latitude for groups housed in northern China is usually equipped with a heating unit, they presume heating has no influence on the resumption of breeding because the heaters were not operational before mid-November. In the wildlife park, the monkeys are kept in a big enclosed area. Although captive groups own been maintained in China since 1956, and >500 births own been recorded for the total captive population, in the current study they only used birth records from 1972 because few of the birth events prior to 1972 included the exact date the infant was born. They besides discarded data from sites with less than 12 birth records. A total of 407 records from 13 colonies were used in their analyses (Table 1). Data from different captive colonies within the very city, such as the Beijing Zoo and Beijing Breeding headquarters of Endangered Animals, and the Shanghai Zoo and Shanghai Wildlife Park, were pooled because a Watson’s U2 test showed the data were not significantly different (Batschelet, 1981).

Table 1:

Golden snub-nosed monkeys groups, the number of snub-nosed monkey-years, and the number of births that were included in the birth and conception analyses.

Site Latitude Longitude Years represented No. of years Birth recorder Data resource Free ranging groups Shennongjia 31°29′ 110°18′ 2006–2013 9 70 This study Qingling 33°46′ 108°15′ 2003–2006 4 61 This study Captive groups Guangzhou 23°00′ 113°18′ 1998–2011 14 12 CAZGa Hangzhou 30°12′ 120°08′ 1997–2012 16 19 CAZG Chengdu 30°42′ 104°06′ 1998–2012 15 18 CAZG Tonglin 30°59′ 118°02′ 2000–2012 13 65 CAZG Shanghaib 31°11′ 121°32′ 1979–2012 34 77 CAZG Louguantai 34°03′ 108°19′ 1997–2010 14 19 CAZG Xi’an 34°15′ 108°59′ 1981–2000 20 18 CAZG Lanzhou 36°02′ 103°49′ 1984–2011 28 21 CAZG Jinan 36°42′ 116°59′ 1994–2010 17 17 CAZG Xixiakou 37°24′ 122°37′ 2004–2012 9 18 CAZG Gansu ERC 37°52′ 102°52′ 1996–2010 15 13 CAZG Beijingc 39°56′ 116°20′ 1972–2012 41 93 CAZG Haerbing 45°45′ 126°36′ 1995–2000 6 17 CAZG Total 538 Conception events

As there are no accurate records of the precise gestation length for wild individuals, conception dates were calculated by deducting 202 days from birth dates; 202 days (sd = 1.1 days, n = 5) is the mediocre gestation of captive individuals (Yan et al., 2003; Qi et al., 1995).

Food availability in the natural environment

For the Shennongjia group, the availability of young/mature leaves, flowers, and fruits/seeds follows a distinctly seasonal pattern; green leaves appeared from April to August, ripen leaves from May to September, flowers from May to June, and fruits/seeds from July to October; lichens and buds were almost year-round available with dynamic buds from April to August and dormant buds from September to next March (Qi, Li & Ji, 2008). A similar pattern of food availability was found for the Qinling group (Guo, Li & Watanabe, 2007). Given that captive groups are generally fed the very diet throughout the year, with only slight variation based on seasonal availability of fruits in local stores, they assumed that R. roxellana housed in different zoos and wildlife parks were fed a nutritionally adequate die and much less seasonal compared with the ones in the natural environment. This is supported by the fact that there were no dissimilarity in female’s reproductive parameters, such as inter-birth interval (t41,289 = 0.621, p < 0.05) and age at first reproduction (t8,73 =  − 1.53, p > 0.05) between free ranging and captive groups (See Supplemental Information).


As the photoperiod was usually determined by the latitude, therefore the latitude was used as substitution for photoperiod in the data analysis.


There are many meteorological stations maintained by the National Meteorological Bureau of China. They used the temperature data provided by the nearest National Meteorological Bureau of China station to the zoos or wildlife parks for the study (Table 2). The following temperature data were included in this analysis: denote annual temperature, denote highest temperature, highest monthly temperature, the temperature variation between the lowest and highest monthly mediocre temperature, and the largest variation in daily denote temperature during one and two months (absolute value of temperature diminish in one and two months) immediately following the month with the highest denote monthly temperature. They decided to examine variation in temperature in one and two months following the highest monthly temperatures because conceptions in R. roxellana occur in early fall, approximately two months after the highest temperatures of the summer. They decided to examine the temperature variation between the lowest and highest monthly mediocre temperature because they want to test if energetic stress has affected the reproduction, as extreme temperature will be sequel the expenditure of energy of an animal.

Table 2:

Mean annual and monthly temperatures (°C) at two territory sites and 13 Zoos and wildlife parks.

Site Annual Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Guanzhou 22.1 13.6 14.6 17.9 22.1 25.5 27.6 28.6 28.4 27.2 24.2 19.6 15.3 Hangzhou 16.5 4.3 5.7 9.6 15.8 20.7 24.4 28.4 27.9 23.4 18.3 12.4 6.8 Chengdu 16.1 5.6 7.5 11.5 16.7 21 23.7 25.2 25 21.2 17 12.1 7.2 Tonglin 16.7 4 5.8 10 16.6 21.8 25.3 28.7 28.4 23.7 18.3 12.1 6.4 Shanghai 16.1 4.2 5.3 8.8 14.6 19.6 23.8 27.9 27.7 23.7 18.7 12.7 6.6 Shennongjia 7.1 −3.5 −2.1 2.3 8.8 12.3 15.4 17.1 16.3 12.5 8.6 1.5 −1.8 Qingling 10.7 0.2 1.9 6.1 12.2 15.9 19.1 21.2 21 16.1 10.8 6.2 1.7 Louguantai 11.6 0.7 2.5 6.6 12.8 16.5 19.7 21.8 21.5 16.6 11.7 6.7 2.2 Xi’an 13.9 −0.1 2.9 8.1 14.8 19.8 24.8 26.6 25.3 19.9 13.9 6.9 1.3 Lanzhou 9.8 −5.3 −1 5.4 12.2 17 20.4 22.4 21.2 16.3 9.8 2.5 −3.9 Jinan 14.7 −0.4 2.2 8.2 16.2 21.8 26.4 27.5 26.3 22 16.1 8.3 1.8 Xixiakou 12.5 −2.9 −0.5 5.5 13.1 18.9 23.7 26.2 25.2 20.5 14.2 6.3 −0.3 Gansu ERC 7.9 −7.8 −4.2 2.5 10.4 15.7 19.3 21.5 20.4 14.9 7.8 0.2 −5.8 Beijing 12.3 −3.7 −0.7 5.8 14.2 19.9 24.4 26.2 24.9 20 13.1 4.6 −1.5 Haerbin 5.7 −15.1 −10.7 −2 7.9 15.3 20.6 23.1 21.6 15.4 7 −3.4 −11.8 Statistical analysis

We used circular statistics (Li & Zhao, 2007) to recount and compare the degree of differences in reproductive seasonality. Daily or seasonal frequency patterns typically own a circular distribution and these cyclic events may be represented by a rotation of 360 degrees (Li & Zhao, 2007). When describing the seasonality of births, the total length of the circular axis is the year, creating an axis divided into 365 equal sections, where each sector is 360°/365. Each day, coded using the Julian calendar, is then converted to an angle that divides the clique into equal sections (Li & Zhao, 2007). Each reproductive event is converted to a vector with an angle, α, and a length, γ. Trigonometric functions were used to dissect flawless vectors (Guo, Li & Watanabe, 2007), resulting in a denote vector angle (μ) and a denote vector length (γ). The denote angle can be converted back to a denote date. The denote vector length of γ gives an indication of how widely spaced the observations are on the axis, with values ranging from 0 to 1.0, where 0 means that flawless observations occurred during the very interval (Li & Zhao, 2007). Raleigh’s uniformity test was used to evaluate whether the birth and (estimated) conception date were distributed uniformly on the circular axis (Batschelet, 1981).

To dissect if food availability has influenced reproductive events when controlling for the sequel of latitude, they compared the reproductive patterns of free ranging but provisioned groups to the captive colonies. In this analysis, the Watson’s U2 test was used to determine whether the degree of variability in the timing of conceptions (estimated conception date) among females in the free ranging but provisioned group differed from females in the captive groups (Batschelet, 1981) in terms to test the probability that two samples of circular data Come from the very population.

Spearman’s rho correlation was used to determine the relationship between denote conception date and latitude. To control for the influence of food availability on reproductive events, they performed analyses with and without the free ranging group.

Spearman’s rho correlation besides was used to dissect the relationship between the denote date of conception and variation in daily temperature. To control for the influence of food availability on reproductive events, they besides performed analyses with and without the free ranging group.

The circular statistical program Oriana verion 4 (Kovach, 2011) was used to dissect evidence of differences in reproductive seasonality and the denote and median date of conceptions and births. Spearman’s rho correlations were analyzed using SPSS 13.0. Statistical tests were two-tailed and probability was set at 0.05.

Results Reproductive seasonality of two free ranging groups

Births and extrapolated conception events of two groups of R. roxellana inhabiting in the natural environment are presented in Fig. 1. Of flawless birth events in the two wild groups, 97.7% took region between March and May.

Figure 1: Distribution of births and conceptions in two free ranging groups (A–B) and 13 zoos/wildlife parks (C–O) in China. (A) Shennongjia; (B) Qingling; (C) Guangzhou; (D) Hangzhou; (E) Chengdu; (F) Tonglin; (G) SHanghai; (H) Louguantai; (I) Xi’an; (J) Lanzhou; (K) Jinan; (L) Xiaxiakou; (M) Gansu ERC; (N) Beijing; (O) Haerbing.

The records of Shennongjia group include 70 births involving 26 adult females that occurred over a nine-year period. The frequency of birth and conception in Shennongjia differed significantly from a random distribution (Rayleigh test, p < 0.001, Table 3). Nearly half of birth events occurred in April; and together with those that occurred in March (30.0%) and May (21.4%), 98.6% births occurred in a three month era (Fig. 1) except one premature birth on January 29, 2011 and one household birth on February 26, 2010. Both the denote birth date and median birth date were April 16. Conception occurred in August (4.3%), September (60.0%), October (31.4%) and November (4.3%) (Fig. 1). Both the denote and median conception date was September 26.

Table 3:

Birth, (estimated) conception distribution and circular statistics for the births at 15 sites (13 captive and two free-ranging) in China that had more than 12 births recorded.

Birth Conception Sites Mean vector (μ) Mean group Length of denote vector (r) Median Median group Mean vector (μ) Mean group Length of denote vector (r) Median Median group Concen tration Circular variance Circular yardstick deviation Standard error of mean Rayleigh test (Z) Rayleigh test (p) Free-ranging groups Shennongjia 104.203 106 0.953 104.055 106 264.97 269 0.953 264.822 269 10.856 0.047 17.822 2.245 57.19 <0.001 Qingling 101.37 103 0.967 101.096 103 262.14 266 0.967 261.863 266 15.595 0.033 14.754 1.889 57.086 <0.001 Captive groups Guangzhou 97.11 99 0.814 105.041 107 257.88 262 0.814 265.808 270 2.324 0.186 36.804 12.03 7.943 <0.001 Hangzhou 97.485 99 0.901 96.164 98 258.25 262 0.901 256.932 261 5.357 0.099 26.118 5.982 15.435 <0.001 Chengdu 101.476 103 0.738 118.356 121 262.24 266 0.738 279.123 284 2.263 0.262 44.709 10.45 9.791 <0.001 Tongling 112.517 115 0.991 113.918 116 273.28 278 0.991 274.685 279 56.424 0.009 7.662 0.95 63.848 <0.001 Shanghai 111.886 114 0.864 111.945 114 272.65 277 0.864 272.712 277 3.981 0.136 30.993 3.521 57.466 <0.001 Louguangtai 106.349 108 0.943 103.068 105 267.12 271 0.943 263.836 268 8.974 0.057 19.712 4.52 16.879 <0.001 Xi’an 97.935 100 0.956 92.219 94 258.7 263 0.956 252.986 257 11.52 0.044 17.275 4.07 16.436 <0.001 Lanzhou 97.574 99 0.955 99.123 101 258.34 262 0.955 259.89 264 11.386 0.045 17.381 3.792 19.154 <0.001 Jinan 102.446 104 0.857 92.219 94 263.21 267 0.857 252.986 257 3.819 0.143 31.773 7.679 12.499 <0.001 Xixiakou 141.222 144 0.896 133.151 135 302.05 307 0.896 293.918 298 5.117 0.104 26.803 6.306 14.462 <0.001 Gansu ERC 116.927 119 0.935 105.041 107 277.69 282 0.935 265.808 270 6.196 0.065 21.069 6.604 11.356 <0.001 Beijing 113.126 115 0.778 108.986 111 273.89 278 0.778 269.753 274 2.615 0.222 40.632 4.166 56.243 <0.001 Haerbing 116.254 118 0.934 113.918 116 277.02 281 0.934 274.685 279 7.816 0.066 21.225 5.144 14.82 <0.001

The data of Qinling group include 61 births involving 42 adult females that occurred over a four year period. The frequency of births and conceptions differed significantly from a random distribution (Rayleigh test, p < 0.001, Table 3). Most births occurred in March (24.6%), April (63.9%) and May (9.8%), with one birth occurring in June 2005 (Fig. 1). Both the denote birth date and median birth date were April 13. Conceptions occurred in August (3.2%), September (73.8%), October (19.8%) and November (3.2%) (Fig. 1). Both the denote and median conception dates were September 23.

Reproductive seasonality of captive groups

Births and extrapolated conception events of 151 females animate in 13 captive groups are presented in Fig. 1. Overall, the number of total births recorded was 407. The frequency of births and conceptions differed significantly from a random distribution (Rayleigh test: p < 0.001, Table 3). There was virtually no overlap in birth and conception dates.

In captivity, births occurred between February and June with 88.1% of births in March (14.8%), April (50.4%) and May (22.9%). The only exceptions involved one infant born on December 9, 1998 in the Beijing Zoo and one infant born on December 15, 2009 in Guangdong. Both infants died within a day of their birth. The denote birth date for the captive population was April 20 and the median birth date was April 18.

In the captive groups, 83.2% of conceptions occurred in August (8.6%), September (38.3%) and October (36.3%). The denote conception date was October 2 and the median conception date was October 1.

Factors associated with birth seasonality Food availability

For the free ranging but provisioned groups, births occurred principally in the spring 2–4 months prior to the peak of food availability, while conceptions occurred in the late plunge 1–2 months after the peak of food availability (Li, 2006; Guo, Li & Watanabe, 2007). flawless captive groups were besides found to be strictly seasonal breeders despite the fact that the property and quantity of food provided across the year was relatively constant. There was no significant dissimilarity in reproductive patterns between two free ranging but provisioned groups and the captive groups (Watson’s U2 test, U = 0.135, p > 0.05).


We found a significant relationship between the timing of conceptions and latitude among the 15 locations of the 13 captive groups and two free ranging groups (Fig. 2, Spearman correlation test, rs = 0.669, p < 0.05). Furthermore, when they excluded the free ranging groups, there noiseless was a significant relationship between the timing of reproductive events and latitude among the captive population (rs = 0.603, p < 0.05), which means that females conceive later in the year in groups animate at higher latitude under the very food conditions.

Figure 2: Relationship between reproductive events (conception date) and latitude at two territory sites and 13 zoos/wildlife parks in China. Temperature

There was, however, a positive correlation between the denote conception date and the magnitude of temperature variations between the coldest and the hottest month in both the captive and free ranging groups (Spearman correlation, with free ranging groups: rs = 0.578, p < 0.05, Fig. 3; without free ranging groups: rs = 0.620, p < 0.05). No other associations were identified between the denote conception date and other temperature variables such as denote annual temperature, denote highest temperature, highest monthly temperature, the magnitude of temperature diminish in the month following the hottest month of the year, and the magnitude of temperature diminish in the two months following the hottest month of the year.

Figure 3: Relationship between the magnitude of denote monthly temperature between the coldest and the hottest month and reproductive events (conception) among golden snub-nosed females inhabiting two territory sites and 13 zoos/wildlife parks in China. X axis, conception date in the Julian calendar; Y axis, the magnitude of denote monthly temperature. Discussion

Using long-term birth data, they analyzed the characteristics of reproductive patterns in captive and free ranging but provisioned groups of R. roxellana. Using the definition of 66.7% of births occurring within a three month era as an indication of breeding seasonally in primates (Van Schaik, Van Noordwijk & Nunn, 1999), R. roxellana is best described as a highly seasonal breeder, with >90% of births occurring between March and May. Furthermore, using circular statistics, they analyzed the relationship between reproductive seasonality (in terms of denote conception date distributions) and environmental factors, such as food availability, day length (latitude) and temperature. The results indicated that latitude had sequel on the timing of reproductive events. However, marked variation in monthly temperature (absolute value of temperature increase) from the coldest month (usually in January) to the peak highest temperature which occurred during the month of July, had the strongest sequel on the timing of reproductive activity in both wild and captive groups of R. roxellana inhabiting temperate latitudes.

Although several studies report variable reproductive patterns in wild primates, primate reproduction tends to be less seasonal in captive environments. For example, spider monkeys (Ateles spp.) are non-seasonal breeders in captivity, but exhibit seasonal reproduction in the wild (Chapman & Chapman, 1990). In contrast, captive brown capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) remain seasonal breeders even when they are provisioned (Bicca-Marques & Gomes, 2005). When one group of rhesus macaques was shifted from Cayo Santiago Island, Puerto Rico to the German Primate Centre, they displayed a non-seasonal reproductive pattern, but returned to seasonal breeding after experiencing constant temperatures and day-length periods for four years (Kaumanns, Singh & Schwibbe, 2013). In the current study, they found that R. roxellana remains a strictly seasonal breeder in both captive and free ranging environments despite animate at different latitudes, having access to differences in food availability and predictability, and exposed to different temperature regimes.

In primates, seasonal breeding is particularly common in species inhabiting higher latitudes or altitudes, where food availability exhibits pronounced seasonal variation (Di Bitetti & Janson, 2000; Brockman & Van Schaik, 2005). In their natural environment, R. roxellana mainly give birth during March through May, which is 2–4 months prior to the short era of highest food availability reported to occur at two territory sites, Shennongjia (Li, 2006), and Qinling (Guo, Li & Watanabe, 2007), where R. roxellana own been studied. This result is besides in keeping with the birth seasonality reported in R. bieti (Cui et al., 2006; Xiang & Sayers, 2009), Cebus capucinus (Carnegie, Fedigan & Melin, 2011), Colobus badius (Struhsaker, 1975), Semnopithecus entellus (Lewis & Kappeler, 2005b), Trachypithecus pileata (Stanford, 1991), Procolobus verus (Korstjens, 2001) and Macaca assamensis (Heesen et al., 2013). However, the era of weaning in R. roxellana is adjusted to a era of elevated food availability (Stanford, 1991). In March, spring buds and green leaves launch to flush and therefore provide elevated protein foods for weaned infants/young juveniles. During the weaning, mothers besides build up energy reserves over the spring and summer to net into reproductive condition reproduction and ovulate at the cease of the summer and early fall; this besides provide an explanation for the later birth and conception peaks at higher latitude. Therefore, they appropriate a model of a capital breeder and utilize accumulated resources for gestation. Thus, to expand their fitness, the long-lived and elevated altitude resident R. roxellana adopted an optimal reproductive strategy for both infant and maternal survival by prolonging their reproductive intervals to more than two years. This strategy assume the handicap of both capital and income breeder. The very reproductive are besides reported in both captive and natural population of R. bieti (Cui et al., 2006; Xiang & Sayers, 2009).

All captive groups of R. roxellana remained highly seasonal breeders even though the individuals were fed nutritionally adequate diets and experienced no seasonal changes in food availability. These results imply that variation in food availability may not be the primary factor that initiates reproduction in this primate species. R. roxellana is highly folivorous with leaves and lichens forming the major dietary constituents throughout the year, supplemented with flowers, seeds/fruits, ubiquitous buds, and bark (Li, 2006; Guo, Li & Watanabe, 2007). Food items fancy buds, leaves and lichens are less seasonal than fruits and seeds, and provide the monkeys with a moneyed source of protein and structural carbohydrates (Liu et al., 2013; Clutton-Brock, Albon & Guiness, 1989) to uphold one of the most energy-demanding phases of the reproductive cycle, late pregnancy and lactation (Heesen et al., 2013). Secondly, the mediocre female corpse weight is sufficiently large, at 9.4 kg (Kirkpatrick & Grueter, 2010), to buffer against fluctuations in food availability (Wehr, 2001). Di Bitetti & Janson (2000) found that the degree of seasonality of reproduction in new world monkeys was related to diet, latitude, and corpse size. They suggested that more folivorous species were less reproductive seasonality than frugivores and insectivores. Small-bodied species, which own shorter life spans and are therefore topic to time constraints, own to confine their reproduction to a Part of the year, while large-bodied species are buffered against variation in food availability. The diet and life history may impress the timing of births in large-bodied platyrrhines under the very seasonal ecological conditions (Strier, Mendes & Santos, 2001).

Our results did uphold the hypothesis that the timing of reproduction was regulated by seasonal changes in photoperiod as the females conceived and gave birth later in the year in groups animate at more northern latitude. However, Nozaki, Mori & Oshima’s (1990) findings on Japanese macaques in laboratory and transplanted groups did not uphold this hypothesis. This suggests that the photoperiod has different sequel on triggering seasonal breeding in R. roxellana and Japanese macaques, even though several anatomical and molecular studies imply that the neural-hormonal mechanisms associated with photoperiod does impress seasonality of reproduction in monkeys and humans (Wehr, 2001).

The noteworthy result in this study is that female R. roxellana experiencing a higher temperature variations between the coldest and the hottest month had a later denote conception and birth date. The feasible mechanism through which temperature might influence reproductive activity is the energetic stress hypothesis, which proposes that energetic stress associated with the costs of thermoregulation can repress or delay reproduction to conserve future reproductive efforts for a time when the environment is more favorable (Wasser, 1996) or females may necessity longer to achieve captious corpse condition for ovulation at larger variation of temperature. Females usually conceive when they are able to expand bulky stores and/or energetic stress is the least as females allocate energy to reproduction once their corpse is in positive energy poise or has low daily maintenance costs in Japanese macaques, apes and human (Garcia, Huffman & Shimizu, 2010; Garcia et al., 2011; Roenneberg & Aschoff, 1990; Bronson, 1995; Ellison, Valeggia & Sherry, 2005).

In temperate ecosystem, energetic stress might include nutrient deficiencies during the time that shortage of elevated property food as well as costs associated with thermoregulation. Therefore, except food availability, the other feasible mechanism that initiate breeding seasonality through energetic stress might be temperature. There are four processes that mainly determine the expenditure of energy of an animal: basal metabolic rate (BMR), dynamic metabolism, growth and reproduction (Carosi, Linn & Visalberghi, 2005). BMR besides is partly determined by the costs of thermoregulation, i.e., when the ambient temperature drops substantially below household corpse temperature, energy has to be expended for homeostasis. For example, Nakayama et al. (1971) reported that the energy expenditure of outdoor-living captive Japanese macaques at 5.2 °C is 2.5 times larger than that at 29.5 °C. For study groups, denote monthly temperatures in July mediocre is 25.3 °C, while in January it decreases to −0.41 °C. Although photoperiod duration, food abundance and temperature display annual variation in the temperate forests, ambient temperature may be more directly related to the animal’s energy expenditure for the costs of thermoregulation. Considering the variation in temperature and food abundance, the higher temperature variations between the coldest and the hottest month might denote higher energetic stress, which means that R. roxellana females may necessity more time to achieve a favorable corpse condition to initiate hormonal changes and regulate fertility. Therefore, if an animal endures a higher temperature variation of environmental temperature would result a later conception or birth.

Although many studies own investigated the relationship between female corpse condition and conception (Van Schaik, Van Noordwijk & Nunn, 1999; Lewis & Kappeler, 2005b; Van Schaik & Van Noordwijk, 1985; Emery Thompson & Wrangham, 2008), only a few studies (Lewis & Kappeler, 2005a; Koenig et al., 1997; Emery Thompson & Wrangham, 2008; Bercovitch, 1987) own relied on direct evidence, such as measures of corpse weight or adiposity. Recently, the mechanisms regulating primate reproductive energetic has been examined in wild Sanje mangabeys (Cercocebus sanjei) (McCabe & Emery Thompson, 2013) and chimpanzees(Pan troglodytes) (Emery Thompson, Muller & Wrangham, 2012) by measuring C-peptide as an indicator of energy balance. In the future, new methodologies should be used to measure reproductive energetics, corpse fat, C-peptide and other indicators of energy storage and energy poise in R. roxellana.

Black and white snub-nosed monkeys (R. bieti) in elevated altitudes and temperate forests besides own a seasonal reproductive pattern. Conception coincides with the cease of the era of highest temperatures and food availability, and births occur during periods of increasing temperatures and food availability (Xiang & Sayers, 2009; Huang et al., 2012), suggesting that at least one environmental factor (temperature and/or food availability) controls the timing of conception. By examining captive data, Xiang & Sayers (2009) speculated that temperature might be a captious factor explaining the degree of differences in birth seasonality between wild and captive groups in this species. Similar patterns of seasonal reproduction own besides been observed in Hanuman langurs, which occur throughout the Indian subcontinent and Sri Lanka (Lewis & Kappeler, 2005b), and in a group of wild rhesus macaques that reside in the harshest habitats of northern China (Tian et al., 2013). Considering that temperature and resource variation besides influence the reproductive pattern of Japanese Macaques (Nozaki, Mori & Oshima, 1990) and Tibetan Macaques (Zhao & Deng, 1988), they bicker that the reproductive energetic stress hypothesis may apply to flawless temperate non-human primates.

The seasonal reproduction of R. roxellana is a complicated adaptive response to its extreme elevated altitude temperate habitat (1,000–4,100 m asl) characterized by low food productivity during late plunge and winter (November to March). Reproduction in the wild may be determined by multiple factors. Food abundance and nutrient availability play a crucial role; lower property and quantity of food availability in the winter as well as ambient temperatures below 0 °C may setaside an energetic stress on both males and females. Food availability might own on the breeding activity might in a different extend when considered there is different influence of food availability on reproductive patterns between free ranging group and those captive group in similar latitude. Generally speaking, in the temperate and tropical zones, the availability of foods such as fruits, leaves, and insects vary with ambient temperature although other foods such as lichens, was available year round. Their data from captive colonies provide a unique occasion to distinguish the effects of temperature from variation of food availability in the timing of reproduction; however, more physiological research is required to validate the hypothesis that energetic stress by temperature and food availability initiate the breeding of temperate primate.

Supplemental Information Dataset

All the observed birthdates for captive groups in zoos and wildlife parks; Dataset used for the Figs. 1, 2 and 3.

Fujitsu Celebrates 20 Years of Fujitsu Server PRIMERGY | existent questions and Pass4sure dumps

News facts: - Newest generation PRIMERGY systems – featuring Intel® Xeon® processor E5-2600 v3 product family – drive power and cooling economies in the data centre - Thanks to the business-centric multifaceted performance of PRIMERGY servers, customers capitalize from lower costs over the extended lifecycle of the system - To brand 20 years of PRIMERGY, Fujitsu is looking for the longest-running PRIMERGY system in use

Fujitsu introduces a new generation of Fujitsu Server PRIMERGY dual-socket systems designed not only to meet the traffic challenges of today but besides to anticipate tomorrow’s needs. edifice on decades of innovation and experience1 in continuing to evolve its hardware, software and services for the data centre, the PRIMERGY server brand is approaching its 20th anniversary this year.

To underline PRIMERGY’s proven quality, Fujitsu has started the search for the world’s longest-running, noiseless productive PRIMERGY system2 – and will succor celebrate the brand’s 20th anniversary by upgrading this legacy server to a state-of-the-art PRIMERGY system for free.

With a new Fujitsu server system being sold around the world on mediocre every 27.5 seconds3, Fujitsu PRIMERGY enables businesses to achieve competitive handicap by delivering the server performance and reliability they need, while exponentially reducing data centre costs. Efficiency is, and has always been, at the heart of the company’s strategy for PRIMERGY, and the servers were already energy efficient even before the phrase became popular.

In fact, PRIMERGY server energy efficiency has improved by a factor of 28 within the final seven years, over several server generations. This is just one illustration of the highest property standards to which Fujitsu builds PRIMERGY servers: every system is topic to comprehensive and rigorous testing to bear sure that it will not just meet, but exceed industry standards.

In developing the next generation of PRIMERGY servers, Fujitsu not only wanted to apply its 20 years of experience, but besides once again bear business-centric improvements to the systems, based on extensive lore and feedback from PRIMERGY customers. As a consequence, the new generation of PRIMERGY systems joins a long line of world-record breakers in the areas of application performance and datacentre virtualization. new breakthrough results own been achieved by the two-processor PRIMERGY RX2540 M1 server on the two-tier SAP® Sales and Distribution (SD) yardstick application benchmark (achieving 16,000 SAP SD Benchmark users4), as well as in VMware VMmark 2.5.2, where the system achieved a result of 26.48@22 tiles5.

Supporting Quotes

Uwe Neumeier, Vice President Global Server Business, Fujitsu “Over the final 20 years, Fujitsu PRIMERGY servers own helped to shape ICT, while setting new standards in quality, efficiency and agility. The new PRIMERGY generation is no exception and introduces innovations that contribute to solving data headquarters management challenges. Customers choosing PRIMERGY can be confident that they are buying a system which provides modular edifice blocks for future requirements of a business-centric data center.”

Shannon Poulin, Vice President, Data headquarters Group, Intel “The new Intel® Xeon® processor E5-2600 v3 product family provides PRIMERGY servers with an incredible combination of performance, built-in capabilities and cost-effectiveness. Together with Fujitsu’s many server innovations, they provide customers with highly efficient, record-performing server solutions to address the diverse workloads and rapidly evolving needs of today’s data centers.”

Shaun Walsh, Senior Vice President Marketing, Emulex “Emulex and Fujitsu own developed a new model for network I/O with the modular design of the Fujitsu PRIMERGY DynamicLoM architecture based on the Emulex EngineTM (XE)100 sequence Ethernet controller. This solution delivers application acceleration with RDMA over Converged Ethernet (RoCE), scales new workloads with up to a 4x boost in petite packet performance, lowers operational cost with hardware offloads and provides the perquisite I/O roadmap for next generation servers using the Intel Xeon processor E5-2600 v3 family.”

Pricing and availability

The new generation of Fujitsu Server PRIMERGY systems will be available directly from Fujitsu and via distribution partners starting from the cease of September 2014. new models include the PRIMERGY RX2540 M1 rack server, the PRIMERGY BX2560 M1 server blade and the CX400 M1 scale-out infrastructure with CX2550 M1 and CX2570 M1 server nodes. Prices vary by region, model and configuration.

Notes to editors

Highlights of the new generation of PRIMERGY include:

- More multifaceted performance to overcome data growth - Boosted application performance by up to 56 percent6 featuring the new Intel® Xeon® processor E5-2600 v3 product family as well as DDR4 memory technology. - aptitude to individually appropriate current server networks and flexibility to meet future requirements with new DynamicLoM technology. - Extended Cool-safe® Advanced Thermal Design as Part of a uniform data headquarters concept for selected PRIMERGY servers, ETERNUS storage systems and network switches which uphold ambient data headquarters temperatures of up to 40°C, enabling customers to rescue energy and cooling costs. - Reduced costs via Fujitsu’s energy management solution that identifies energy inefficient systems of heterogeneous IT infrastructures and provides strategies and action plans to ameliorate energy efficiency. - Foundation for dependence and security to meet increased demand for IT resource availability - Optimized data centre operations that significantly reduce downtime costs and expand process property by automating contingency processes. - Reduced time required to implement new IT projects while simultaneously improving service plane agreements, with Fujitsu’s PAN Manager offering now besides supported by selected PRIMERGY RX and CX systems. - Free of saturate provisioning of BIOS versions, firmware and software updates. Fujitsu continues not to saturate customers to provide access to upgrades that simplify system management, therefore reducing the repercussion on IT resources. - Innovations which simplify the management, therefore freeing up IT resources - ServerView Embedded Lifecycle Management consolidates and enhances management functionalities that are directly available (‘embedded‘) within the server for simplified and highly integrated management processes. - ServerView Agentless Service separates the various networks for productive and management data for enhanced data security. - ServerView System Monitor is particularly designed for smooth and low-overhead management of petite and distributed server installations.

1 20 years of Fujitsu Server PRIMERGY Systems:

The Fujitsu x86-server portfolio has been helping to shape the ICT industry for 20 years. During that time, Fujitsu has concentrated on using its technology to resolve customer’ technology issues. Thanks to continuous adaptation to industry trends and a continually evolving ICT landscape, Fujitsu has developed new approaches to cloud computing, data analytics and elevated performance computing. Some milestones: - In 1994, Fujitsu developed its first x86-based industry-standard PRIMERGY servers. - In 1998, Fujitsu introduced the previously unprecedented aptitude for customers to scale up in x86 environments, with the introduction of the first 8-way server, the PRIMERGY N800/K800. - The first PRIMERGY blade servers in 2002, the PRIMERGY BX300 line, presented customers with new horizons in terms of flexibility, scalability and data headquarters economics. - In 2006, Fujitsu released the PRIMERGY BX630, the first scalable octo-socket server blade, based on an Advanced Blade Ecosystem. - Since 2008, with the introduction of PRIMERGY ServerView Virtual I/O Manager software, Fujitsu has enabled customers to dramatically reduce networking costs and simplify the management of servers in network environments while noiseless enjoying the highest flexibility in tems of operation. - In 2009, Fujitsu introduced a massive scale-out computing platform delivering extreme-performance and highly energy efficient server architecture, with the introduction of the revolutionary PRIMERGY CX server line. - In 2012, Fujitsu was the first vendor to offer a ‘Cluster-in-a-box’ solution. Recently extended, this solution offers mid-sized organizations and arm offices the aptitude to protect their famous data and business-critical services with only a minimal investment of money, administration efforts and time.

2 For terms and conditions, gratify see:

3 Based on Fujitsu shipments from the 2013 calendar year, calculated on the basis of 250 working days each made up of 8 hours.

4 PRIMERGY RX2540 M1 achieved 16,000 SD benchmark users on the two-tier SAP SD yardstick application benchmark. The server was configured with Intel Xeon processor E5-2699 v3, 2 processors / 36 cores / 72 threads, Windows Server 2012, SQL Server 2012, and the SAP enhancement package 5 for the SAP ERP 6.0 application. The SAP certification number was not available at press time. Benchmark comparisons stated above reflect results published on as of September 08, 2014. SAP and flawless SAP logos are trademarks or registered trademarks of SAP AG in Germany and in several other countries.

5 The VMmark result of 26.48@22 tiles was achieved by two Fujitsu PRIMERGY Server RX2540 M1, each with 512 GB of memory, using Intel® Xeon® E5-2699 v3 processors. complete test results including system specification, further details and current results can be found at: comparison reflects the status on? September 8, 2014. For information about VMmark and the rules regarding its usage visit: VMware and VMmark are trademarks or registered trademarks of VMware, Inc. VMware® VMmark™ is a product of VMware, Inc.

6 Comparison based on two-tier SAP Sales and Distribution (SD) yardstick application benchmark: PRIMERGY RX300 S8 featuring Intel® Xeon® processor E5-2697 v2, 2 processors / 24 cores / 48 threads, achieved 10,240 benchmark users (Windows Server 2012, SQL Server 2012, SAP enhancement package 5 for SAP ERP 6.0, certification 2013024) while the PRIMERGY RX2540 M1 featuring Intel Xeon processor E5-2699 v3, 2 processors / 36 cores / 72 threads, achieved 16,000 benchmark users4.

Online resources

- 20 Years of PRIMERGY: - Fujitsu Server PRIMERGY Systems: - Royalty-free photography of the PRIMERGY RX2540 M1: - Royalty-free photography of the PRIMERGY CX400 M1: - Royalty-free photography of the PRIMERGY BX2560 M1: - Fujitsu PRIMERGY Apps for iOS and Android: - Read the Fujitsu blog: - follow Fujitsu on Twitter: - follow us on LinkedIn: - Find Fujitsu on Facebook: - Fujitsu pictures and media server: - For regular tidings updates, bookmark the Fujitsu newsroom:

About Fujitsu

Fujitsu is the leading Japanese information and communication technology (ICT) company offering a complete compass of technology products, solutions and services. Approximately 162,000 Fujitsu people uphold customers in more than 100 countries. They utilize their relish and the power of ICT to shape the future of society with their customers. Fujitsu Limited (TSE: 6702) reported consolidated revenues of 4.8 trillion yen (US$46 billion) for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2014. For more information, gratify remark

About Fujitsu Australia and new Zealand

Fujitsu Australia and new Zealand is a leading service provider of business, information technology and communications solutions. They partner with their customers to consult, design, build, operate and uphold traffic solutions. From strategic consulting to application and infrastructure solutions and services, Fujitsu Australia and new Zealand own earned a reputation as the lone supplier of altenative for leading corporate and government organisations. Fujitsu Australia Limited and Fujitsu new Zealand Limited are wholly owned subsidiaries of Fujitsu Limited (TSE: 6702). remark . ENDS

Press Contact:

Collin Duff-Tytler Marketing Programs and Communications Manager Fujitsu Australia and new Zealand Tel: +61 2 9113 9346 Mobile: +61 409 953 349 Email:

All other company or product names mentioned herein are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective owners. Information provided in this press release is accurate at time of publication and is topic to change without foster notice.

Direct Download of over 5500 Certification Exams

3COM [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
AccessData [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ACFE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ACI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Acme-Packet [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ACSM [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
ACT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Admission-Tests [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
ADOBE [93 Certification Exam(s) ]
AFP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
AICPA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
AIIM [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Alcatel-Lucent [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
Alfresco [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Altiris [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Amazon [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
American-College [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Android [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
APA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
APC [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
APICS [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Apple [69 Certification Exam(s) ]
AppSense [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
APTUSC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Arizona-Education [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ARM [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Aruba [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
ASIS [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
ASQ [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
ASTQB [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
Autodesk [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Avaya [101 Certification Exam(s) ]
AXELOS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Axis [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Banking [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
BEA [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
BICSI [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
BlackBerry [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
BlueCoat [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Brocade [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Business-Objects [11 Certification Exam(s) ]
Business-Tests [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
CA-Technologies [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
Certification-Board [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
Certiport [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
CheckPoint [43 Certification Exam(s) ]
CIDQ [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
CIPS [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Cisco [318 Certification Exam(s) ]
Citrix [48 Certification Exam(s) ]
CIW [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
Cloudera [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
Cognos [19 Certification Exam(s) ]
College-Board [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
CompTIA [76 Certification Exam(s) ]
ComputerAssociates [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Consultant [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Counselor [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
CPP-Institue [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
CPP-Institute [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
CSP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
CWNA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
CWNP [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
CyberArk [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Dassault [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
DELL [11 Certification Exam(s) ]
DMI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
DRI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ECCouncil [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
ECDL [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
EMC [129 Certification Exam(s) ]
Enterasys [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
Ericsson [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
ESPA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Esri [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
ExamExpress [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Exin [40 Certification Exam(s) ]
ExtremeNetworks [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
F5-Networks [20 Certification Exam(s) ]
FCTC [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Filemaker [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Financial [36 Certification Exam(s) ]
Food [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Fortinet [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
Foundry [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
FSMTB [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Fujitsu [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
GAQM [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Genesys [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
GIAC [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Google [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
GuidanceSoftware [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
H3C [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
HDI [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Healthcare [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
HIPAA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hitachi [30 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hortonworks [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hospitality [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
HP [752 Certification Exam(s) ]
HR [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
HRCI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Huawei [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hyperion [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
IAAP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IAHCSMM [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IBM [1533 Certification Exam(s) ]
IBQH [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ICAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ICDL [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
IEEE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IELTS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IFPUG [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
IIBA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
IISFA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Intel [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
IQN [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IRS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISACA [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISC2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISEB [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
Isilon [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISM [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
iSQI [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
ITEC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Juniper [65 Certification Exam(s) ]
LEED [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Legato [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
Liferay [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Logical-Operations [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Lotus [66 Certification Exam(s) ]
LPI [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
LSI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Magento [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Maintenance [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
McAfee [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
McData [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Medical [69 Certification Exam(s) ]
Microsoft [375 Certification Exam(s) ]
Mile2 [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Military [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Misc [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Motorola [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
mySQL [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
NBSTSA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCEES [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCIDQ [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCLEX [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Network-General [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
NetworkAppliance [39 Certification Exam(s) ]
NI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NIELIT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Nokia [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Nortel [130 Certification Exam(s) ]
Novell [37 Certification Exam(s) ]
OMG [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
Oracle [282 Certification Exam(s) ]
P&C [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Palo-Alto [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
PARCC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PayPal [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Pegasystems [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
PEOPLECERT [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
PMI [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Polycom [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
PostgreSQL-CE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Prince2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
PRMIA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PsychCorp [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PTCB [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
QAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
QlikView [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Quality-Assurance [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
RACC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Real-Estate [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
RedHat [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
RES [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
Riverbed [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
RSA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Sair [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
Salesforce [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
SANS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SAP [98 Certification Exam(s) ]
SASInstitute [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
SAT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SCO [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
SCP [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
SDI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
See-Beyond [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Siemens [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Snia [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
SOA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Social-Work-Board [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
SpringSource [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUN [63 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUSE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Sybase [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
Symantec [135 Certification Exam(s) ]
Teacher-Certification [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
The-Open-Group [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
TIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Tibco [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trainers [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trend [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
TruSecure [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
USMLE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
VCE [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veeam [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veritas [33 Certification Exam(s) ]
Vmware [58 Certification Exam(s) ]
Wonderlic [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Worldatwork [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
XML-Master [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Zend [6 Certification Exam(s) ]

References :

Dropmark :
Wordpress :
Dropmark-Text :
Blogspot :
RSS Feed : :

Back to Main Page | |