250-722 exam Dumps Source : Implementation of DP Solutions for Windows using NBU 5.0
Test Code : 250-722
Test cognomen : Implementation of DP Solutions for Windows using NBU 5.0
Vendor cognomen : Symantec
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• howdy Andrey disclose us more in aspect what is the peculiarity of your career?
• hi, the scope of consulting is extremely great and infrequently requires going beyond the gardenvariety action algorithms. My adventure is in a variety of company areas, from the corporation of grain exports to the outlet of the Nano centre. by means of the character of my expert undertaking, I should resolve a huge variety of problems of my consumers, hence, I believe it is more germane to call my distinctiveness not simply a consultant, but reasonably a project manager.
• So, the main direction of your commerce pastime is undertaking administration?
• it is correct! tasks, as already outlined above, there enjoy been many and they're All distinctive. different areas, as, for instance, within the coverage enterprise "Russia", the main project was the structure and extend of commerce capitalization. The outcome of their labor was the entry into the accurate 10 of the largest insurance enterprise's in Russia, and the capitalization of the enterprise increased by using 12 instances. it's furthermore anti-disaster management - for instance, the implementation of the rescue draw of the construction keeping "Monolith maintaining" - the largest from the Urals to Kamchatka, found in the metropolis of Krasnoyarsk. Their team coped with the project and the most advantageous affirmation of this is that the protecting turned into a hit 10 years later.
• With which course is it greater at ease to live just prerogative for you - "task" or "anti-disaster"?
• or not it's a difficult query. With head administration, there's always loads of negativity. The adoption of "unpopular decisions", the discount of carcass of workers and wages - is inevitable.
it is quite another factor when a team moves a company ahead to current horizons. you're employed the equal 12-15 hours, however choices are already made not about a way to design discount rates, but about the spot to discover personnel to advocate boost the business.
hence, if they talk about consolation, then - each person wants to labor and convey joy to the all crew, and never a Part of the survivors. but in terms of adventure - each undertaking is wonderful.
• to your profiles in gregarious networks, you are talking a couple of project involving greater than 5,000 individuals, about saving a titanic systemically vital enterprise for a region, accomplish you hint the implementation of an anti-crisis draw for Monolith protecting? may you inform us greater about this?
• sure. lamentably, as a result of the disaster, the structure market in 2008-2009 skilled a pointy drop in condo sales, which affected Monolith conserving, given that it assumed All responsibilities below a very different market circumstance.
We first carried out due diligence, proposed an anti-crisis plan. At a joint assembly accepted, and that i All started to set in coerce it. and then it became tough 6 months.
We created a management enterprise, centralized economic administration, introduced a treasury agreement mode, when All payments of the conserving went via a solitary treasury. They performed a few adjustments geared toward optimizing the feature of constructing handle, created a gadget for featuring planned and manage reporting, with a view to extend the transparency of the burden on the keeping prison entities ...
• You saved the enterprise, but weren't these movements similar to the behaviour of the infamous Elah chainsaws? How can you in the reduction of such a few personnel, despite the fact that it's to shop a company?
• Wow, I wish to answer, of path, how fantastic it turned into and the way All and sundry unanimously skilled the vital hardships. The truth, regrettably, is different.
When the draw turned into implemented, a all lot of unpopular decisions enjoy been taken, greater than 1,000 individuals were decreased or retired.
it's now not well-nigh saving the company - we've saved about three,000 jobs via huge efforts. here is the result.
• so far as i know, during the past you had been the pinnacle of Euro Commerce bank, which showed the maximum growth among All retail lending associations outdoor of the precise 30. Many americans considered the leading train of success to live the gregarious orientation of capabilities, is that this no longer actual?
• As All the time, not every thing is fundamental and glaring, i might solitary out a couple of components that contributed to the success of this mission: a different product line, focus on poorly lined market niches and over-prompted team of authorities.
• Andrey, clarify in additional detail why they decided to advance the commerce in this particular course, did different banks then rebuff from such an idea?
• survey what the Banks are doing, and indeed most of the groups - they present to the market a provider it is less difficult to deliver, and the margin on which is better. Their crew decided to accomplish otherwise. Their products required lots of labor and gave a low salary from every particular person operation. It does not sound very optimistic, does it?
however here is precisely the factor of growth. The banking sector believed that working with migrants is a job that will never pay for itself ... the groundwork line is that within the miniature workplaces they reached a capability of 400-600 individuals a day for commission products. And this has already brought a major income. They made payments and transfers quicker than every other financial institution in the market, studied the ethnic composition in the territories and chose operating personnel who discourse the very language with the customer (Uzbek, Tajik, and many others.).did you know at least one bank, the spot even after 7 years there is a similar angle to the customer?
• good enough, so that you are for a gap enterprise?
- sure. Their 2nd of the main client companies is pensioners.These people crave realizing, empathy and solutions to their complications - which they offered in each office.personnel All the time welcomed purchasers with a kindly word and provided a cup of sizzling tea in the wintry weather or a tumbler of wintry water in the summertime.hence, those customer agencies that they concentrated on, cherished us, got here to their offices for All the functions, so the financial institution had a extremely decent profitability.on the equal time - if the client became the core kind from the city of a million individuals, the bank would absolutely enter the excellent one hundred banks of Russia. • lamentably, towards the historical past of mass revocation of licenses from banks, the Eurokommerz license was additionally revoked, Has it affected your career?
- They built an excellent financial institution, within the topple of 2014 an inventive assignment with suitable 5 sellers of the country became in plenary swing. however the pursuits of December 15/16, 2014 enjoy came about. The dollar and euro rose after the announcement of the significant bank of the Russian Federation to raise the discount rate to 17%. due to the fact the mission being launched concerned staid international capital involvement, it became frozen indefinitely. Then, in the spring of 2015, the shareholders decided to exit the banking enterprise, and i left the financial institution. and then, October 23, 2015 - the news in regards to the revocation of the license. Shock, emptiness, the emotion of dropping anything very shut, even though it did not labor there at that time, however 5 years of complicated work! it's one thing when he labored in a challenge and he lives and prospers, an additional issue when, youngsters for explanations beyond your handle, the commerce doesn't swirl into.neatly, as for my profession, i will articulate one issue: undergo is worthwhile!
• What initiatives are you operating now?
• In 2012, I headquartered the consulting group "BusinessInvitee" and after the completion of the banking challenge I began to expend considerable time on the structure of this company. among the many purchasers are renowned sportsmen, the greatest private holdings. somebody wants a restructuring of property, a person needs a company valuation before a transaction, and somebody wants an asset valuation. initiatives are several and fascinating, with their personal specifics. there enjoy been M & A deals, due diligence, auditing, theory progress and implementation of the primary Russian network of fiscal supermarkets and an terrible lot extra.
• What difficulties accomplish you encounter most frequently?
• The hindrance for the structure of the consulting company in Russia, oddly enough, are the businessmen themselves - there isn't any labor lifestyle. company is much less acquainted with auditing and rating agencies, but consulting for almost All is relish signing your personal lack of erudition and shortage of professionalism. even though it is consulting structures that accumulate the realm's best practices and the most a success applied sciences for enterprise structure and healing.
• What accomplish you feel are the main explanations in your success?
• Of direction, devoid of perseverance, professionalism and difficult work, nothing will Come out, no longer best in Consulting, but, possibly, in some other sphere. Of course, other characteristics are essential, however I accept as dependable with these to live essentially the most colossal. real, it is essential to live conscious what is conjectural by each of those words, and a lot of individuals call persistence and hard labor just the reality of being within the workplace for 12 hours.
• Does your family advocate you? still, the absence of a husband and father at domestic ...
- household helps. however, of route, i want to stare me greater regularly.americans who are not liable, leading positions, believe that the bosses only receives a commission extra, however labor less, or even prevaricate All day on the seaside. however's no longer relish that.existence example: Saturday evening, at about 11 pm and i am at a friend's wedding. The crash is in plenary swing. And what accomplish you feel I do? i'm attending the marriage - or not it's physically existing, as a result of at the present the assignment, which the crew and i had been engaged in for the ultimate six months, reached the ultimate stage, or not it's distinguished for Western companions to finish the deal particulars by using Sunday morning, that allows you to prepare press releases on Sunday Monday. in All probability this sounds fascinating should you accomplish this as soon as every 10 years, and for those who always, of course, glean drained.incidentally, in that night situation, as in the all task, they labored to the proper 5 with a plus and outplayed within the negotiation system one of the optimum law businesses and one of the most largest audit and consulting groups on this planet.
• How accomplish you check the latest economic circumstance?
- There are at All times aspects of growth, even within the most intricate situations. And as at All times, what's uncertain for one is first rate for others.In Russia, affordable labour. So exports should noiseless grow.based on the current economic circumstance, the structure of imports is altering. What changed into imported prior is not any longer low-priced for the extinct classification of buyers, so now the rate transformation of require is taking location, which in flip might live a lever for extend for importers who locate aggressive and low cost goods, and for exporters a haphazard to extend the degree of processing within the territory Russia and, accordingly, the margin, working with the exterior market.
• towards the heritage of the aggravation of alien financial relations, are you attracted to any overseas tasks, accomplish you survey in them a point of view?
• Of route! i would articulate that it isn't international financial relations which are exacerbated, but overseas policy members of the family, which, in flip, set power on overseas economic family members. prerogative here I consider the as soon as-heard evaluation: the legal guidelines of economics are just relish the laws of physics, that you would live able to are attempting to violate them, however this will require a titanic expenditure of power and money, so one can become warmth, with a purpose to dissipate and should not carry any benefit to any individual. • What would you are looking to their readers?
I exigency to thanks to your attention and exigency to preserve the means to sensibly investigate each your personal energy and the status of the encircling world. in my view, here's a very essential skill in the realities of brand current truth.
- thanks, Kovalev Andrey Sergeevich, challenge manager, troubleshooter, head supervisor, who effectively achieved a few initiatives titillating to Russia, became with us.
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In their exploration of algorithms, we’ve applied many techniques to supply results. Some ideas enjoy used iOS-particular patterns whereas others had been extra generalized. although it hasn’t been explicitly mentioned, a few of their options enjoy used a specific programming vogue referred to as dynamic programming. whereas facile in conception, its utility can now and again live nuanced. When utilized accurately, dynamic programming can enjoy an impressive impact on the way you to write code. during this essay, we’ll introduce the concept and implementation of dynamic programming.keep For Later
in case you’ve bought some thing via Amazon.com, you’ll live general with the web page term — “store For Later”. because the phrase implies, consumers are offered the preference so as to add objects to their cart or shop them to a “wish record” for later viewing. When writing algorithms, they often puss a similar alternative of completing actions (performing computations) as information is being interpreted or storing the results for later use. Examples encompass retrieving JSON records from a RESTful provider or using the Core statistics Framework:
In iOS, design patterns can advocate us time and coordinate how statistics is processed. selected thoughts comprise multi-threaded operations (e.g. magnificient imperative Dispatch), Notifications and Delegation. Dynamic programming (DP) having said that, isn’t always a solitary coding method, but quite how to contemplate about moves (e.g. subproblems) that occur as a role operates. The ensuing DP retort might ambit counting on the issue. In its least difficult kind, dynamic programming relies on statistics storage and reuse to raise algorithm efficiency. The system of data reuse is often known as memoization and can seize many kinds. As we’ll see, this trend of programming gives a lot of benefits.Fibonacci Revisited
in the essay on Recursion, they in comparison structure the traditional sequence of Array values using each iterative and recursive recommendations. As mentioned, these algorithms had been designed to supply an Array sequence, no longer to cipher a specific result. Taking this into account, they are able to create a current version of Fibonacci to recrudesce a solitary Int cost:func fibRecursive(n: Int) -> Int if n == 0 recrudesce 0
if n <= 2 recrudesce 1
return fibRecursive(n: n-1) + fibRecursive(n: n-2)
firstly look, it seems this seemingly miniature feature would furthermore live productive. youngsters, upon extra evaluation, they survey a great number of recursive calls exigency to live made for it to cipher any effect. As shown below, on account that fibRecursive cannot redeem up to now calculated values, its recursive calls raise exponentially:Fibonacci Memoized
Let’s are trying a different technique. Designed as a nested Swift feature, fibMemoized captures the Array recrudesce value from its fibSequence sub-characteristic to cipher a ultimate value:extension Int
//memoized versionmutating func fibMemoized() -> Int
//builds array sequencefunc fibSequence(_ sequence: Array<Int> = [0, 1]) -> Array<Int>
var final = Array<Int>()
//mutated copyvar output = sequence
let i: Int = output.count
//set groundwork situation - linear time O(n)if i == self recrudesce output
let outcomes: Int = output[i - 1] + output[i - 2]output.append(consequences)
//set iterationfinal = fibSequence(output)return final
//calculate closing product - consistent time O(1)let effects = fibSequence()let answer: Int = consequences[results.endIndex - 1] + results[results.endIndex - 2]return reply
notwithstanding fibSquence includes a recursive sequence, its groundwork case depends upon the number of requested Array positions (n). In efficiency terms, they are aphorism fibSequence runs in linear time or O(n). This performance progress is carried out by memoizing the Array sequence mandatory to cipher the ultimate product. subsequently, each and every sequence permutation is computed as soon as. The benefit of this routine is considered when evaluating both algorithms, shown under:Shortest Paths
Code memoization can additionally help a program’s effectivity to the factor of constructing reputedly intricate or virtually unsolvable questions answerable. An instance of this can live seen with Dijkstra’s Algorithm and Shortest Paths. To evaluate, they created a several statistics structure named direction with the purpose of storing selected traversal metadata://the direction kind maintains objects that contain the "frontier" class route
var total: Intvar destination: Vertexvar previous: direction?//object initializationinit()vacation spot = Vertex()complete = 0
What makes course constructive is its skill to hold facts on nodes in the past visited. comparable to their revised Fibonacci algorithm, route outlets the cumulative edge weights All traversed vertices (complete) in addition to a complete historical past of each visited Vertex. Used simply, this permits the programmer to reply questions such as the complexity of navigating to a particular destination Vertex, if the traversal become indeed successful (in discovering the vacation spot), as neatly as the record of nodes visited throughout. counting on the Graph size and complexity, no longer having this assistance obtainable might hint having the algorithm seize so lengthy to (re)compute facts that it turns into too gradual to live positive, or now not being in a position to remedy essential questions because of insufficient records.
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Considerable attention has been given to progressive neurodegenerative diseases affecting the basal ganglia such as Parkinson’s disease (PD) and Huntington’s disease (HD). Both PD and HD are terminal neurodegenerative diseases that elicit a variety of motor and non-motor manifestations, which significantly contribute to decreased trait of life (Jankovic, 2008; Walker, 2007). As PD and HD influence different regions of the basal ganglia, the manifestations disagree between both diseases. In PD, damage of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and related dopamine depletion lead to debilitating loss of movement due to muscle rigidity, bradykinesia and resting tremor. In HD, damage to the striatum primarily results in extensive semi-directed, non-rhythmic movements termed chorea, dementia and psychiatric manifestations encompassing behavioral difficulties connected with lower emotional control and fierce irritability (Jankovic, 2008; Walker, 2007).
The majority of both PD and HD patients manifest the motor speech disorder termed dysarthria (Hartelius et al., 2003; Logemann et al., 1978; Rusz et al., 2014), which is an impairment resulting from sensorimotor abnormalities that may influence All subsystems of speech including respiration, phonation, articulation, prosody, and resonance (Duffy, 2013). The dysarthrias are differentiated according to perceptual characteristics of speech and corroborated by the underlying neuropathology. In particular, PD is associated with hypokinetic dysarthria due to akinesia and bradykinetic-rigid syndromes, whereas HD shows hyperkinetic dysarthria resulting from chorea (Duffy, 2013). Despite the fact that both PD and HD are primarily disorders of the basal ganglia, the distinctive speech patterns connected with hypokinetic and hyperkinetic dysarthria are usually antagonistic. For instance, hypokinetic dysarthria in PD typically shows reduced vocal loudness and flattened loudness and pitch inflections, impecunious voice quality, variable and frequently increased speech rate, inappropriate silences and breathiness, while in contrast hyperkinetic dysarthria in HD demonstrates excess loudness and pitch variations, voice arrests, dilatory speech rate, inappropriate vocal noises and intermittent breathy segments (Darley, Aronson & Brown, 1975; Logemann et al., 1978; Rusz et al., 2014).
Interestingly, although hypokinetic and hyperkinetic dysarthria manifestations are often counteractive, hypernasality has been reported in both hypokinetic and hyperkinetic dysarthria (Duffy, 2013; Hoodin & Gilbert, 1989; Chenery, Murdoch & Ingram, 1988; Logemann et al., 1978; Theodoros, Murdoch & Thompson, 1995). In particular, investigation of both PD and HD provides us with the unique possibility to study the effect of basal ganglia dysfunction on the presence of hypernasality. Admittedly, hypernasality represents a distinctive manifestation of sure dysarthria subtypes, particularly of flaccid dysarthria, and thus its evaluation can provide useful information in the differential diagnosis of dysarthrias (Duffy, 2013).
Hypernasality is a result of velopharyngeal impairment and may live defined as the presence of inappropriate air leakage through the nasal cavity during phonation (Warren, Dalston & Mayo, 1993). This leakage may result from abnormal velopharyngeal structure, which is termed velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI), and is present in patients with cleft palate, palatal fistula, and patients that enjoy undergone maxillectomy. Other mechanisms of hypernasality are distorted neuromuscular control of the levator veli palatini muscle and velopharyngeal seal, termed velopharyngeal incompetence (VIC), which includes patients with neurodegenerative diseases (Folkins, 1988). While abnormal velopharyngeal structure primarily leads to hypernasality, impaired neuromuscular control leading to dysarthria results in multiple speech distortions in which the particular effect of hypernasality may live less patent to the listener due to the presence of other dysarthria manifestations. Thus, the majority of recent hypernasality research has been focused on VPI-induced hypernasality (Dickson, 1962; Kataoka et al., 1996; Lee, Ciocca & Whitehill, 2003; Maier et al., 2008; Yoshida et al., 2000), whereas only a few studies enjoy investigated VIC hypernasality (Hoodin & Gilbert, 1989; Chenery, Murdoch & Ingram, 1988; Poole et al., 2015).
Studies examining hypernasality in PD enjoy yielded controversial results. Logemann et al. (1978) perceptually detected hypernasality in only 10% of PD patients, whereas Chenery, Murdoch & Ingram (1988) and Theodoros, Murdoch & Thompson (1995) reported hypernasality in more than 30% of PD speakers. In addition, Ludlow & Basich (1983) included hypernasality among the 10 most distinctive perceptual features of PD, while Darley, Aronson & Brown (1975) did not find hypernasality to live a prominent feature of hypokinetic dysarthria. Considering HD speakers, to the best of their knowledge, no study has systematically examined hypernasality during hyperkinetic dysarthria, although Duffy (2013) reported intermittent hypernasality as one of the most deviant speech dimensions present in hyperkinetic dysarthria.
The etiology of hypernasality in PD and HD is unclear. Although the dysarthria is typically attributed to the disrupted motor control, microscopic correspondence between speech and limb manifestations has been found (Schulz & Grant, 2000). Nevertheless, recent evidence based upon longitudinal follow-up data has shown that speech disorders in PD are generally related to the dopaminergic responsiveness of bradykinesia (Rusz et al., 2016). They may thus hypothesize that bradykinetic disturbances in soft palate control in PD may influence articulation of the velopharyngeal seal and accordingly lead to equable air leakage and increased hypernasality. Moreover, distorted neuromuscular control of levator veli palatini in PD may lead to increased hypernasality with increased fatigue during speech tasks.
In HD, the relationship between speech and limb manifestations appears to live more prominent. Correlation between speech timing parameters and overall motor disability has been renowned previously (Rusz et al., 2014; Skodda et al., 2014). Furthermore, a relationship between laryngeal dysfunction and limb chorea has furthermore been observed, likely as a result of laryngeal chorea (Rusz et al., 2013). Therefore, they hypothesize that choreatic movements of the velopharyngeal seal and velum may lead to varying resonance distortion, which would live in agreement with reported intermittent hyperkinetic dysarthria (Duffy, 2013).
Currently the most common routine for hypernasality estimation is perceptual rating (Kuehn & Moller, 2000). In particular, perceptual assessment is considered the primary means to evaluate levels of nasality in children (Vogel et al., 2009). However, inter-rater and intra-rater reliability is questionable and perceptual rating requires a trained speech specialist (Kuehn & Moller, 2000). Consequently, more objective methods enjoy been developed to complement perceptual ratings. Invasive methods, such as x-ray tracing with a lead pellet attached to the velum, provide direct observation of velopharyngeal movements (Hirose et al., 1981). Other methods employ indirect estimation based on measurements of nasal airflow, nasal cavity sonography, nasometry comparing nasal and oral acoustic outputs, or the Horii Oral-Nasal Coupling Index (Dillenschneider, Zaleski & Greiner, 1973; Hardin et al., 1992; Horii, 1980). One of the least demanding methods with respect to patients and materiel is the 1/3-octave spectra, which is based on direct, non-invasive analysis of acoustic speech signal and was originally developed for the estimation of velopharyngeal insufficiency in cleft palate (Kataoka et al., 1996) and was later validated by Vogel et al. (2009).
The 1/3-octave spectra routine is a kind of spectral analysis focused on the examination of spectral changes caused by resonatory speech pathologies. This routine is based upon the linear source–filter theory of speech, which was first described by Fant (1960). According to this theory, speech is partly created by a transfer role of the vocal tract. The introduction of the nasal cavity to the vocal tract leads to significant changes in its transfer role by incorporating nasal resonance Fn at an belt around 1 kHz (Stevens, 2000). Several previous studies enjoy shown that nasal resonance is a reliable marker of hypernasality (Kataoka et al., 1996; Lee, Ciocca & Whitehill, 2003; Vogel et al., 2009; Yoshida et al., 2000). However, some vowels may mask nasal resonance by the presence of formant frequencies in the belt nearby to 1 kHz.
The vowel /i/ with the first formant frequency (F1) at approximately 240 Hz and the second formant frequency (F2) at approximately 2,400 Hz show to live the most sensitive to nasal resonance (Fant, 1960; Kataoka et al., 1996; Lee, Ciocca & Whitehill, 2003; Vogel et al., 2009). Being the most evident, nasal resonance in the vowel /i/ should live more robust to anatomical variation of the nasal cavity including asymmetrical shape and varying shape of the connected sinuses. Moreover, the vowel /i/ is considered to live the most sensitive to nasal coupling (Stevens, 2000), and thus previous studies enjoy focused on the quantitative evaluation of VPI hypernasality through the sustained vowel /i/ (Kataoka et al., 1996; Lee, Ciocca & Whitehill, 2003; Yoshida et al., 2000). Based on experiments with experienced listeners and the rating of nasality in artificially generated sounds in patients with cleft palate and those that underwent maxillectomy, previous studies enjoy confirmed the vowel /i/ as an pattern speech chore for hypernasality assessment (Kataoka et al., 1996; Vogel et al., 2009; Yoshida et al., 2000). Moreover, limited motion of the articulators including the jaw, tongue and lips in dysarthrias co-occur with velopharyngeal inadequacy and may play a more preeminent role in changing the measures related to nasality. From this perspective, prolongation of vowel /i/ is a particularly suitable chore to acoustically assess nasality in dysarthrias, as it represents relatively equable vocal role without the confounding effects of articulatory components of running speech.
Based upon these previous findings, the goal of the present study was to employ methods of objective hypernasality assessment and evaluate the presence and character of hypernasality in PD and HD speakers. A further train was to examine viable relationships between the severity of hypernasality and disease-specific motor manifestations, to provide more insight into the pathophysiology liable for progress of hypernasality in basal ganglia disorders.Methods Subjects
The participants in the present study were Part of a larger investigation examining speech characteristics of patients with PD and HD. Previous reports generally focused on phonatory, articulatory and prosodic abnormalities including medication effects (Rusz et al., 2013; Rusz et al., 2014; Rusz et al., 2016). A total of 111 Czech endemic speakers, including 37 PD patients, 37 HD patients and 37 robust participants were recorded.
The PD group consisted of 23 men and 14 women, beofvalue age 63.1 ± 14.0 touchstone aberration (SD) (range 41–80) years, beofvalue disease duration 8.0 ± 4.8 (1–24) years. All PD patients fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for PD (Hughes et al., 1992). All participants were on stable dopaminergic medication for at least 4 weeks before the examinations, which were conducted in the on-medication state. All PD patients underwent neurological examinations by an experienced neurologist and were rated according to the Hoehn & Yahr staging scale (H&Y, ranging from 1 to 5, where 1 indicates mild unilateral motor disorder and 5 indicates confinement to wheelchair or bed) and motor Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS III, ranging from 0 to 108, with 0 for no motor manifestation and 108 representing austere motor distortion) (Hoehn & Yahr, 1967; Stebbins & Goetz, 1998). In addition, the UPDRS composite subscore of bradykinesia (sum of UPDRS III items 23, 24, 25 and 26, ranging from 0 to 24, with 0 for no bradykinesia and 24 representing austere bradykinetic distortion) was estimated (Hughes et al., 1992; Jankovic, 2008). Perceptual speech evaluation was based upon UPDRS III speech item 18 (range 0–4, with 0 representing gardenvariety speech and 4 indicating unintelligible speech). The H&Y score was 2.1 ± 0.4 (1–3), UPDRS III score was 17.5 ± 8.2 (4–36), the UPDRS bradykinesia subscore was 7.8 ± 3.6 (2–17), and the UPDRS III speech item 18 score was 0.8 ± 0.6 (0–2).
The HD group consisted of 19 men and 18 women with genetically confirmed HD with beofvalue age 49.1 ± SD 12.7 (23–67) years, beofvalue disease duration 6.1 ± 3.4 (1–16) years, beofvalue number of CAG triplets 44.7 ± 3.3 (40–53). Most of the patients (32/37) were treated with monotherapy or a combination of benzodiazepines, antipsychotics, amantadine and antidepressants. All HD patients underwent extensive examination by an experienced neurologist and were rated according to the Unified Huntington’s Disease Rating Scale (UHDRS, ranging from 0 to 124, where 0 indicates no motor disability and 124 indicates austere motor disability) (Huntington-Study-Group, 1996). In addition, the UHDRS chorea subscore was estimated (ranging from 0 to 28, where 0 indicates no motor disability and 28 indicates austere motor disability) (Rusz et al., 2013; Walker, 2007). Perceptual speech evaluation was based upon the UHDRS speech item (ranging from 0 to 4, where 0 indicates no disability and 4 indicates austere dysarthria). The UHDRS motor score was 25.7 ± 12.2 (3–54), the UHDRS chorea subscore was 8.6 ± 3.7 (0–14), and the UHDRS speech item was 0.8 ± 0.5 (0–2).
The robust control (HC) group consisted of 23 men and 14 women, beofvalue age of 63.1 ± 8.7 (41–77) years. nooneatall of the HC participants had a history of neurological or speech disorder. nooneatall of the HD, PD or HC subjects suffered from confirmed obstructive pulmonary disease, respiratory tract infection, allergy, asthma, facial paresis, or other malady that could negatively influence participant speech performance.
The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the general University Hospital in Prague, Czech Republic, and All participants provided written, informed consent.Speech data
All recordings took spot in a reticent margin with a low ambient hubbub level using a head-mounted condenser microphone (Beyer-dynamic Opus 55, Heilbronn, Germany) positioned approximately 5 cm from each subject’s mouth. The utterances were sampled at 48 kHz with 16 bit quantization. All the voice signals were obtained during solitary session conducted by a speech specialist, who asked participants to seize a profound breath and execute sustained phonation of vowel /i/ at a snug loudness and pitch, as constant and long as possible. The measurement of sustained phonation was performed twice. The participants were furthermore asked to provide freely spoken monologue on a given topic including family, labor or interests, for at least two minutes. The both sustained phonation and monologue tasks were Part of a comprehensive dysarthria test battery. No time limits were imposed during recording. The inclusion criteria were determined as the aptitude to sustain prolonged phonation for at least three seconds.Perceptual analysis
As connected speech is more demanding for velopharyngeal control, it is considered the most cogent chore for perceptual nasality estimation (Kuehn & Moller, 2000). The rating of nasality was based on speech material where the patient produced a monologue and performed by 10 raters including one speech-language pathologist, three clinicians and six acoustic speech specialists using a graded scale (0 = gardenvariety nasality, 1 = mild hypernasality, 2 = moderate hypernasality, 3 = austere hypernasality), based on The Great Ormond Street Speech Assessment ’98 (GOS.SP.ASS.’98) (Sell, Harding & Grunwell, 1999). All the raters were trained by the speech-language pathologist prior to perceptual assessment. The perceptual assessment was performed blindly on randomized data consisting of All three participant groups. The presentation of samples was self-paced and performed by each rater separately, and each speech sample could live repeated at the discretion of the listener. The final score was obtained for overall perceptual rating across All raters by the median value computed from All perceptual assessments in the group. The inter-rater and intra-rater variability was estimated using a two way random middling intra-class correlation (ICC). Intra-rater reliability was based upon the second perceptual assessments performed by All raters with more than three months delay. During the second assessment, each rater scored 27 randomly selected phonations (24% of entire dataset) equally representing PD, HD and HC groups.Acoustic analysis
For the purposes of instrumental analysis, two recording parts equal to 10% of signal length were lop off from both the genesis and End of the vowel /i/ to avoid distortion by initial vocal fold adjustment and fatigue at the End of the utterance. The remaining signal was then resampled to 20 kHz, which lowered the computational complexity and preserved All useful information (Titze, 1994). The preprocessed signal was divided using a hamming 60 ms window with 55 ms overlap. Subsequently, each window was analyzed using a 1/3-octave spectra method.
The process of 1/3-octave spectra analysis based on the multirate filter bank presented by Couvreour (1998) is illustrated in Fig. 1. The three highest 1/3-octave frequency troupe filters were designed according to this method. For their purposes, the 3rd order IIR Butterworth filters were used and centered on octave frequencies of 2,500 Hz (passband from 2244.9 Hz to 2828.4 Hz), 3,150 Hz (passband from 2828.4 Hz to 3563.6 Hz), and 4,000 Hz (passband from 3563.6 Hz to 4489.8 Hz). After filtering, the highest components were removed from recording and the signal was then down-sampled by a factor of 2, i.e., sampling frequency (fs) to fs/2. Being defined in relation to the fs, the filter characteristics related to fs/2 yielded one octave lower for each down sampling. Based on this approach, the entire filter bank was achieved by the iterative expend of signal down sampling. In each 1/3-octave frequency band, the root-mean-square (RMS) energy was estimated and achieved energy was transformed into decibels. A sum of energy contained in the entire 1/3-octave spectra was used as a reference value for the transformation into decibels, as described by Eq. (1). (1) E i = 10log 10 E filtered i ∑ k = 1 18 E filtered k , where Efiltered is energy contained in the solitary troupe of 1/3-octave and E(i) is the decibel value of energy contained in the ith band.Figure 1: Principle of acoustic analysis based on the 1/3-octave spectra assessment presented in Couvreour (1998).
Considering the effect of spectral flattening, nasality in sustained phonation of the vowel /i/ was evaluated using the EFn parameter, which represented energy in a 1/3-octave troupe centered around 1 kHz (passband from 890.9 Hz to 1122.5 Hz). This parameter reflected the addition of nasal resonance and additive nasal pole to the transfer role at 1 kHz. The overall level of hypernasality was estimated by the beofvalue value of EFn parameter (EFn mean) across All windows in the entire utterance. The variability of nasality (EFn SD) in speech was evaluated as the touchstone aberration of each parameter across the entire utterance. Finally, the evolution of hypernasality in the course of the utterance (EFn trend) was described using a linear regression tangent for each parameter.Statistics
As the vowel /i/ was recorded twice for All speakers, middling values of estimated acoustic parameters EFn mean, EFn SD and EFn trend for each participant were used for All consecutive analyses.
The Kolmogorov–Smirnov test for independent samples was used to evaluate normality. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) with post-hoc Bonferroni adjustment was used for the estimation of group differences between PD, HD and HC groups across acoustic variables.
Relationships between variables were evaluated using Pearson’s correlation and Spearman’s correlation. Pearson’s correlation was applied to normally distributed data (acoustic speech metrics and disease severity scores), whereas Spearman’s correlation was used for non-normally distributed data (perceptual assessment of nasality and dysarthria severity). The Bonferroni adjustment for multiple comparisons was performed according to the four measures investigated (EFn mean, EFn SD, EFn trend, and perceptual assessment) and the level of significance was set at p < 0.0125.
Due to the lack of information necessary for the classification of hypernasality, the assessment of the percentage of affected participants from acoustic data was based on the Wald task, which enables setting the classification specificity and sensitivity and therefore allows a more conservative threshold. The Wald chore is a non-Bayesian statistical decision-making routine which assumes that the dataset consists of two statistical distributions representing positive and negative cases and enables predefining unfounded positive and unfounded negative classifications by extending two basic classes (i.e., robust and hypernasal), by an indecisive class (Schlesinger & Hlavac, 2002). expend of the indecisive class enables set boundaries where the possibility of a unfounded positive or unfounded negative result reaches a predefined value. Therefore, the indecisive class is used in cases where measured data accomplish not provide adequate information for clear-cut classification. In such cases, the user can resolve whether the indecisive results would live discarded, incorporated with positive results providing the classifier with greater sensitivity and smaller selectivity or labeled as negative producing a less sensitive and more selective classifier. As a result, the routine provides optimal cut-off values indicating if the topic already reached hypernasal speech performance or manifest gardenvariety nasality of wider norm of robust speakers. In other words, the approach based on the Wald chore avoids classifier overtraining and ensures sure self-confidence that cut-off values will live associated with hypernasal behavior. Comprehensive details on the Wald chore enjoy been published previously (Rusz et al., 2011).Results Perceptual analysis
According to UPDRS III speech item 18, 10 PD patients (27%) demonstrated no speech impairment (score of 0), 32 PD patients (62%) mildly affected speech (score of 1) and 4 PD patients (11%) moderately affected speech (score of 2). According to the UHDRS speech item, eight HD patients (22%) showed gardenvariety speech (score of 0) and 29 HD patients (78%) dysarthria without the necessity of repeating speech to live intelligible (score of 1). In summary, the speech of All PD and HD patients was noiseless fully understandable as indicated by UPDRS speech item 18 (ranging between 0 and 2) as well as the UHDRS speech item (ranging between 0 and 1).
The distribution of participants across four perceptual rating grades (no, mild, moderate, severe) are presented in Fig. 2. According to perceptual tests, 65% of PD and 89% of HD patients showed mild or moderate hypernasal speech performance, whereas mild hypernasality was observed in 22% of robust speakers. The estimated inter-rater reliability was 0.85 (p < 0.001) across All raters and the intra-rater reliability ranged between 0.77 (p < 0.05) and 0.85 (p < 0.001) between individual raters.Figure 2: Percentage happening of hypernasality across participants according to the four grades perceptual score (0, no; 1, mild; 2, moderate; 3, severe) based on GOS.SP.ASS.’98 (Sell, Harding & Grunwell, 1999). Acoustical analysis
Figure 3 illustrates the middling energy distributions in PD, HD and HC groups across 18 frequency bands. As can live seen, the HD group demonstrates spectral flattening in the belt between the F1 and F2 formant frequencies.Figure 3: Measured middling values of 1/3-octave spectra for 75–4,000 Hz bands with mistake bars indicating touchstone aberration for PD, HD and HC groups.
Analysis of test–retest reliability of the proposed parameter EFn showed tough correlation for beofvalue (r = 0.87, p < 0.001) and SD (r = 0.79, p < 0.001) parameters, whereas trend analyses showed only moderate correlation (r = 0.47, p < 0.001). Table 1 lists the results of acoustic analyses. Statistically significant differences between All groups were observed for EFn beofvalue and EFn SD (p < 0.001), particularly due to differences between HD and HC groups (p < 0.001).Table 1:
Results of hypernasality measures including beofvalue and SD values for EFn mean, EFn SD and EFn trend parameters across PD, HD and HC groups as well as results of ANOVA including F, p, and η2 values.Based upon post-hoc Bonferroni comparisons, an asterisk (∗) indicates statistically significant differences between HD and HC groups at the p < 0.001 level of significance. Measurement PD HD HC ANOVA Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD F(2, 108) p η2 EFn beofvalue (dB) −38.93 4.37 −34.85 4.59 −39.10 3.06 11.82 p < 0.001* 0.179 EFn SD (dB) 2.17 0.64 4.29 2.17 2.03 0.44 59.08 p < 0.001* 0.382 EFn trend (dB/s) −4.784 18.58 −2.22 82.32 −3.68 17.76 0.21 p = 0.81 0.000
Figures 4A–4C shows the percentage of affected participants according to Wald analysis. Using a cutoff value of −33 dB for EFn mean, they found increased nasality in 27% of PD, 54% of HD and 19% of HC speakers. In addition, based upon a cutoff value of 3 dB for EFn SD, they observed abnormal nasality variability in 27 % of PD, 78% of HD and 11 % of HC participants.Figure 4: Percentage of participants marked as hypernasal using (A) EFn mean, (B) EFn SD and (C) overall perceptual rating. Relationship between perceptual and acoustic analysis
Figure 4 shows comparisons related to the percentage of participants rated as hypernasal by acoustic methods and the overall perceptual score obtained across All raters for PD, HD, and HC groups. They observed significant correlation between overall perceptual rating and the acoustic EFn SD parameter (r = 0.51, p < 0.001) but not EFn beofvalue parameter (r = 0.09, p = 0.35) or EFn trend parameter (r = 0.08, p = 0.38).Relationship between hypernasality and clinical manifestations
Table 2 lists results of correlations between hypernasality measurements and clinical manifestations for PD and HD groups. In the PD group, they did not detect any relationship between acoustic assessment of hypernasality and clinical metrics. In the HD group, they observed only significant relationships between the UHDRS chorea subscore and EFn SD (r = 0.42, p = 0.01) and between UHDRS speech item and EFn SD (r = 0.46, p = 0.01). They did not detect correlation between perceptual assessment and clinical manifestations in either PD or HD groups.Table 2:
Results of correlations between acoustical and perceptual measures of hypernasality and clinical manifestations of PD and HD groups.r(p) EFn mean EFn SD EFn trend Perceptual assessment PD UPDRS III −0.10 (0.56) 0.14 (0.41) 0.04 (0.83) −0.06 (0.74) UPDRS III speech item 18 −0.06 (0.75) 0.26 (0.12) 0.23 (0.18) 0.27 (0.11) UPDRS III bradykinesia subscore −0.11 (0.50) 0.15 (0.36) 0.08 (0.62) −0.05 (0.75) Disease duration 0.20 (0.24) −0.32 (0.06) −0.16 (0.34) −0.06 (0.72) HD UHDRS −0.01 (0.96) 0.39 (0.02) 0.23 (0.19) 0.37 (0.03) UHDRS speech item −0.09 (0.59) 0.46 (0.01) −0.07 (0.70) 0.16 (0.35) UHDRS chorea subscore 0.27 (0.12) 0.42 (0.01) 0.05 (0.76) 0.08 (0.63) Disease duration 0.09 (0.60) 0.28 (0.10) 0.00 (0.99) −0.05 (0.80) Discussion
In the present study, they analyzed hypernasality in PD, HD and HC utterances using objective acoustic analyses as well as perceptual assessment, which represents current gold touchstone for hypernasality evaluation. Based upon the 1/3-octave spectra analysis presented by Kataoka et al. (1996) and the acoustic model of the vocal tract published by Fant (1960), they designed the parameter EFn to evaluate the presence and character of hypernasality in prolonged vowels. Using acoustic analysis, they revealed an happening of hypernasality in 27% of PD, 54% of HD and 19% of HC speakers. In addition, their results showed a elevated happening of intermittent hypernasality in 78% of HD patients. Perceptual analysis showed the happening of mild to moderate hypernasality in 65% of PD, 89% HD and 22% HC speakers. Significant correlation between the acoustic parameter representing nasality fluctuation and perceptual assessment was observed. Furthermore, they revealed significant correlation between acoustic metric representing nasality fluctuation and chorea in HD patients.Nasality in PD
Although using acoustic analysis they detected hypernasality in 27% of PD speakers, the non-significant dissimilarity between PD and HC groups suggests that hypernasality is a non-prominent speech manifestation. Previous studies focused on hypernasality in PD enjoy provided rather discrepant conclusions. Based on perceptual evaluation, Ludlow & Basich (1983) included hypernasality among the 10 most remarkable features connected with dysarthria, whereas Logemann et al. (1978) observed hypernasality in only 10% of participants based on a great sample of PD patients. Considering instrumental analyses, only Mueller (1971) failed to detect hypernasality in PD speakers, ornery to the majority of studies reporting an increased happening of hypernasality in PD participants (Hoodin & Gilbert, 1989; Netsell, Daniel & Celesia, 1975; Theodoros, Murdoch & Thompson, 1995). While the differences in perceptual assessments could live explained by the fact that listeners from various cultures may enjoy a different level of tolerance for perceived hypernasality, inconsistencies in the instrumental assessment are likely due to the differing sensitivity of particular methods. Moreover, both perceptual and instrumental assessment could live biased by differences in the sample data, as the majority of previous studies enjoy reported hypernasality in a minority of PD speakers. One further explanation for these discrepancies may live that the severity of hypernasality parallels overall disease progression to some extent (Hoodin & Gilbert, 1989). However, they did not observe any relation between hypernasality metrics and disease duration, speech severity, or motor severity scales in PD.Nasality in HD
The presence of hypernasality was observed both perceptually and acoustically in the majority of their HD speakers, which was mainly associated with the happening of abnormal nasality variability. Indeed, they observed correlation between acoustic nasality variability and the chorea UHDRS subscore, demonstrating the significant impact of chorea on velopharyngeal mechanism. Although their findings appear to live in accordance with Duffy (2013) that perceptually indicated intermittent hypernasality as a remarkable feature of patients manifesting chorea, there show to live no other empirical data to advocate the results of the present study. Additionally, they furthermore revealed relationship between acoustic nasality variability and overall dysarthria severity, indicating that the extent of abnormal nasality partially parallels increasing overall speech dysfunction in HD.Perceptual assessment of hypernasality
Previous studies enjoy reported perceptual assessment of hypernasality in dysarthria as rather unreliable as hypernasality is less patent to the listener due to the presence of more preeminent dysarthria manifestations (Brancewicz & Reich, 1989). Nevertheless, although perceptual assessment of nasality in dysarthrias is challenging, it is noiseless considered the gold standard, even in studies investigating acoustic techniques. Their results testify more HD and PD participants systematically rated as hypernasal by perceptual assessment than by an instrumental approach, likely due to difficulty in achieving accurate perception of hypernasality when other abnormal dysarthria characteristics are present. Furthermore, the dissimilarity between speech tasks used during perceptual and instrumental evaluation could live a source of discrepancy between acoustic and perceptual assessments.
There is a microscopic evidence for correlation between perceptual and instrumental measurements of hypernasality in dysarthrias (Poole et al., 2015; Theodoros, Murdoch & Thompson, 1995). In their HD sample, acoustic analyses identified only 50% of All HD speakers as hypernasal in comparison to the perceptual rating of nearly 90%. Yet, the abnormally intermittent character of nasality was furthermore acoustically observed in nearly 80% of All HD participants. As they observed significant correlation between acoustic parameters measuring intermittent hypernasality and perceptual ranking, they may hypothesize that fluctuation in the level of nasality makes resonatory disruptions more obvious to perceptual raters. Interestingly, these correlations were evident even if perceptual and acoustic assessment were performed using different speech material.
In agreement with their findings, previous studies enjoy perceptually rated the majority of PD participants as mildly hypernasal (Hoodin & Gilbert, 1989; Theodoros, Murdoch & Thompson, 1995). However, their raters tended to evaluate PD utterances with higher nasality scores in enigmatic cases. Indeed, some mild hypernasality is not rare even in robust subjects and was observed in up to 22% of their control speakers, which is in accordance with previous research (Poole et al., 2015). Given this evidence, they may suppose that the perceptual determination between gardenvariety and mildly hypernasal speech can live misleading, particularly in dysarthrias with other perceptually preeminent speech deviations.Acoustic assessment of hypernasality
In the present study, they applied an acoustic routine designed for the objective evaluation of velopharyngeal insufficiency, to determine the presence and nature of velopharyngeal incompetence in PD and HD. This methodology has been previously found to live superior to other acoustic measures of hypernasality (Vogel et al., 2009), and was later successfully applied to patients with Friedreich ataxia resulting in velopharyngeal incompetence (Poole et al., 2015). Based upon an acoustic model of the vowel /i/ published by Stevens (2000) and recommendations presented by Kent et al. (1999), they designed the EFn parameter to recount the presence of nasal resonance in speech due to properties of the nasal cavity present in the 1 kHz 1/3-octave troupe (Kataoka et al., 1996; Stevens, 2000). This assumption is cogent for All vowels; nevertheless, the wide plateau between F1 and F2 frequencies in the vowel /i/ makes the presence of nasal resonance more pronounced (Kataoka et al., 1996; Stevens, 2000). Compared to controls, the parameter EFn beofvalue showed significantly increased energy in HD patients, suggesting an abnormal presence of hypernasality in HD patients. Furthermore, using the parameter EFn SD, they revealed significant differences in fluctuations of nasality between HD and control speakers, suggesting intermittent hypernasality in HD patients. The parameter EFn trend was found to live unreliable, as it demonstrated no significant differences between groups and low test–retest reliability.Limitations of the current study
We did not execute aerodynamic measurements, which would provide direct information about nasal airflow. Nevertheless, a previous study by Vogel et al. (2009) provided exhaustive evaluation of the 1/3-octave routine and other studies enjoy successfully applied this routine to hypernasality assessment (Kataoka et al., 1996; Lee, Ciocca & Whitehill, 2003; Poole et al., 2015; Yoshida et al., 2000). The edge of the current approach is that it provides an easy-to-administer acoustic assessment, which would live viable to integrate into a larger battery of acoustic tests.
It is noteworthy that the preference of the vowel /i/ may serve to maximize the impact of nasality or at least the likelihood of an acoustic model finding nasality. Thus, previous research on nasality in children used not only the optimal /i/ but a greater variety of speech material (Vogel et al., 2009). Therefore, the higher incidence of hypernasality, particularly in HD patients, due to a maximized impact of nasality cannot live excluded. Conversely, the results of perceptual tests hint an even greater level of nasality across their participants than they were able to capture using acoustic assessment, indicating that level of nasality assessed using the 1/3-octave spectra routine was not necessarily overestimated. Furthermore, the effect of maximizing nasality may live profitable due to the fact that it emphasizes the presence of hypernasality among other dysarthria manifestations.
One limitation is that they used different speech tasks for the perceptual and acoustic evaluation of hypernasality, as accurate perceptual evaluation of hypernasality from sustained vowel phonation is not feasible. Indeed, the different speech tasks used likely design correlation analyses between perceptual and acoustic variables problematic. In future studies, it may therefore live profitable to comprise rating for consistency, as with the Consensus Auditory Perceptual Evaluation of Voice (Kempster et al., 2009).
We did not test the consistency and reliability of UPDRS and UHDRS metrics. Nevertheless, relationships between nasality and motor abnormalities were found only for the UHDRS chorea subscore, which showed elevated inter-rater reliability with an ICC of 0.82 (Huntington-Study-Group, 1996).
As the presence of chorea in HD is unlikely to live limited only to specific parts of the vocal tract such as the soft palate, they cannot exclude that EFn SD is also, to a sure extent, influenced by other manifestations of chorea, particularly laryngeal chorea (Rusz et al., 2013).
As HD generally has an earlier onset than PD, the PD and HD participant groups could not live age-matched. Therefore, they matched the age of the control group to the age of generally older PD group, as nasality is expected to remain stable throughout life or may slightly deteriorate as a consequence of aging (Hoit et al., 1994; Ramig & Ringel, 1983). This approach ensures that the results of the PD group were not favored in comparison with the HC group. Moreover, they did not match their groups according to gender. Nevertheless, previous studies did not find differences in nasality between masculine and female speakers (Joos et al., 2006; Litzaw & Dalston, 1992).Conclusion
Perceptual and acoustic data presented in the current study provide evidence of significantly increased and intermittent hypernasality in HD patients, presumably due to choreatic movements of the velopharyngeal mechanism. Although the presence of hypernasality was furthermore observed in several PD speakers, abnormal nasality is not a prominent feature of hypokinetic dysarthria. However, further research is warranted. The relationships between proposed acoustic metrics and aerodynamic measurements for evaluation of hypernasality in dysarthrias should live explored. Future longitudinal studies are needed to validate and further complicated their findings and to prove reliability of hypernasality measures as a viable marker of disease progression in basal ganglia disorders. ultimate but not least, as hypernasality is a prominent mark in several dysarthria subtypes (Duffy, 2013), sensitivity of methods proposed in the present study should live verified across various neurological disorders and measure of hypernasality may live useful in characterization of progressive neurological disorders as well as may enjoy potential to provide distinguished clues about the pathophysiology of underlying disease.Supplemental Information Raw data related to assessment of hypernasality
Dataset containing acoustic and perceptual hypernasality scores and clinical informations related to investigated subjects.Matlab code for nasality analysis
Dutch adolescents often start drinking alcohol at an early age. The life-time prevalence for drinking alcohol is 56% for twelve year olds and 93% for sixteen year olds. Also, 16% of twelve year olds and 78% of sixteen year olds drink alcohol regularly. In comparison with other adolescent people in Europe, Dutch adolescents drink more frequently and are more likely to live orgy drinkers (episodic immoderate alcohol consumption, defined as drinking 5 glasses or more on a solitary occasion in the ultimate four weeks) .
Despite a sharp decline in the immoderate consumption of alcohol (6 or more glasses at least once a week for the ultimate 6 months) among adolescents in the Netherlands, the alcohol consumption is noiseless elevated . Data from the Regional Health Services (RHS) in the province of North Brabant  furthermore prove this. Although the number of adolescent people who regularly consume alcohol (at least once in the past 4 weeks) declined from 54% in 2003 to 44% in 2007, 28% of the 12 to 17 year olds in the belt of the RHS “Hart voor Brabant” can live identified as orgy drinkers. Moreover, 25% of the under 16s are regular drinkers, and 13% are even orgy drinkers.
Alcohol consumption by adolescents under 16 causes austere health risks. Firstly, adolescent people's brains are particularly vulnerable because the brain is noiseless developing during their teenage years. Alcohol can damage parts of the brain, affecting deportment and the aptitude to learn and recall . Secondly, there is a link between alcohol consumption and violent and aggressive deportment [5–7] and violence-related injuries. Thirdly, adolescent people flee a greater risk of alcohol poisoning when they drink a great amount of alcohol in a short age of time . Finally, the earlier the onset of drinking, the greater is the haphazard of immoderate consumption and addiction in later life [9–11].
The policy of the Dutch Ministry of Health is aimed at preventing alcohol consumption among adolescents younger than 16, and at reducing harmful and immoderate drinking among 16–24 years extinct adolescent adults . Local Authorities are liable for the implementation of national alcohol policy at a local level. RHSs and regional organizations for the keeping and treatment of addicts carry out prevention activities at a regional and local level, often commissioned by Local Authorities.
Current policies and interventions are mainly directed at settings such as schools and sports clubs. However, it is unlikely that this approach will enjoy adequate impact on adolescents, because the groups in these settings are heterogeneous. Adolescents disagree in their drinking habits and enjoy different attitudes towards alcohol. This means that one intervention reaches only a Part of All adolescents, and doesn’t gain other adolescents, with a different drinking custom or a different attitude.
Market research has revealed the importance and effectiveness of tailoring messages and incentives to meet the needs of different population segments. Not every individual is a potential consumer of a given product, idea, or service; so tailoring messages to specific groups will live more efficient than broadcasting the very message to everyone [13, 14].
Audience segmentation is a routine for dividing a great and heterogeneous population into separate, relatively homogeneous segments on the basis of shared characteristics known or presumed to live associated with a given outcome of interest .
Audience segmentation is fairly common in the bailiwick of public health. However, such segmentation is usually based on socioeconomic and demographic variables, such as age, ethnicity, gender, education and income. Unfortunately, demographic segmentation lonely may live of limited expend for constructing meaningful messages . While psychographic and lifestyle analyses enjoy long been touchstone exercise in commerce marketing, their expend in public health communication efforts is noiseless much less common . Since health messages can live fine-tuned to the differences in lifestyle such as attitudes and values, segments based on aspects of lifestyle are expected to live more useful for health communication strategies [14, 16]. They assume that attitudes, values, and motives in relation to alcohol consumption among adolescents will vary, and may therefore offer a better starting point for segmentation than socio-demographic characteristics alone. For example, previous research has shown that motives for drinking give climb to a substantial Part of the variance in alcohol consumption [17, 18]. Moreover, personality traits, such as sensation seeking, are associated with quantity and frequency of alcohol expend .
Despite the promising characteristics of audience segmentation based on lifestyle aspects, it has never been used in the Netherlands in relation to the prevention of alcohol consumption. That is why the RHS “Hart voor Brabant”, in cooperation with market research office Motivaction®, conducted a study to find out whether it is viable to identify different segments on the basis of the motives, attitudes, and values of adolescents towards alcohol. The first results of this study were already published in a Dutch article .
Niels Röling and Jules N. Pretty
Niels Röling is Extra-ordinary Professor of agricultural erudition systems, Department of Communication and Innovation Studies, Wageningen Agricultural University, Wageningen, Netherlands. Jules N. Pretty is the Director of Sustainable Agriculture Programmes, International Institute for Environment and Development, London.
Emerging challenges for sustainable agricultureSustainability and levels of actionResource-conserving technology progress and transferIncorporating farmer experimentationFrom teaching to learning and a all current professionalismFrom directive to participatory extensionChallenges for supportive policy processesReferences
During the past fifty years, agricultural progress policies enjoy been remarkably successful at emphasizing external inputs as the means to extend food production. This has led to growth in global consumption of pesticides, inorganic fertilizer, animal feed-stuffs, and tractors and other machinery.
These external inputs have, however, substituted for natural processes and resources, rendering them less powerful. Pesticides enjoy replaced biological, cultural, and mechanical methods for controlling pests, weeds, and diseases; inorganic fertilizers enjoy substituted for livestock manures, composts, and nitrogen-fixing crops; information for management decisions comes from input suppliers, researchers, and extensionists rather than from local sources; and fossil fuels enjoy substituted for locally generated energy sources. The basic challenge for sustainable agriculture is to design better expend of these internal resources. This can live done by minimizing the external inputs used, by regenerating internal resources more effectively, or by combinations of both.
Evidence is now emerging that regenerative and resource-conserving technologies and practices can bring both environmental and economic benefits for farmers, communities, and nations. The best evidence comes from countries of Africa, Asia, and Latin America, where the concern is to extend food production in the areas where fanning has been largely untouched by the modem packages of externally supplied technologies. In these complicated and remote lands, some farmers and communities adopting regenerative technologies enjoy substantially improved agricultural yields, often using only few or no external inputs (Bunch, 1991; GTZ, 1992; UNDP, 1992; Lobo & Kochendörfer-Lucius, 1992; Krishna, 1993; Shah, 1994; SWCB, 1994; Pretty, 1995).
But these are not the only sites for successful sustainable agriculture. In the high-input and generally irrigated lands, farmers adopting regenerative technologies enjoy maintained yields whilst substantially reducing their expend of inputs (Kamp, Gregory, & Chowhan, 1993; UNDP, 1992; Kenmore, 1991; van der Werf & de Jager, 1992; Bagadion & Korten, 1991). And in the very high-input lands of the industrialized countries, farmers enjoy been able to maintain profitability even though input expend has been lop dramatically, such as in Europe (Vereijken, 1992; Vereijken, Wijnands, Stol, & Visser, 1994; Van Weeperen, Röling, Van Bon, & Mur, 1995; Pretty & Howes, 1993; Jordan, Hutcheon, & Glen, 1993; El Titi & Landes, 1990) and in the United States (Liebhart et al., 1989; NRC, 1989; Hanson, Johnson, Peters, & Janke, 1990; Dobbs, Becker, & Taylor, 1991; Faeth, 1993).
All of these successes enjoy three elements in common. They enjoy made expend of resource-conserving technologies such as integrated pest management, soil and water conservation, nutrient recycling, multiple cropping, water harvesting, and consume recycling. In all, there has been action by groups and communities at the local level, with farmers becoming experts at managing farms as ecosystems and at collectively managing the watersheds or other resource units of which their farms shape a part. And there enjoy furthermore been supportive and enabling external government and nongovernment institutions, which enjoy reoriented their activities to focus on local needs and capabilities.
Most successes, though, are noiseless localized. They are simply islands of success. This is because an overarching element, a favourable policy environment, is missing. Most policies noiseless actively cheer fanning that is subject on external inputs and technologies. It is these policy frameworks that are one of the principal barriers to a more sustainable agriculture (Pretty, 1994a). figure 1 illustrates this chapter's belt of discourse and its focus on the interfaces between natural resources, local stakeholders, supportive institutions, and the policy context.
A necessary condition for sustainable agriculture is that great numbers of farming households must live motivated to expend coordinated resource management. This could live for pest and predator management, nutrient management, controlling the contamination of aquifers and surface water courses, coordinated livestock management, conserving soil and water resources, and seed stock management. The problem is that, in most places, platforms for collective determination making enjoy not been established to manage such resources (Röling, 1994a, 1994b). The success of sustainable agriculture therefore depends not just on the motivations, skills, and erudition of individual farmers, but on action taken by groups or communities as a whole. This makes the chore more challenging. Simple extension of the message that sustainable agriculture can match conventional agriculture for profits, as well as bear extra benefits for society as a whole, will not suffice.
Sustainability is commonly seen as a property of an ecosystem. But Sustainability can live seen from other perspectives, which are more germane for extension. Environmental issues emerge from the human expend of natural resources. Sustainability can therefore live defined in terms of human reasons, activities, and agreements. The definition of Sustainability then becomes Part of the problem because people exigency to accord on how they define Sustainability and what priority they will give it (Pretty, 1994b).
In this approach, Sustainability is not a scientific, "hard" property which can live measured according to some objective scale, or a set of practices to live fixed in time and space. Rather, Sustainability is a trait that emerges when people individually or collectively apply their intelligence to maintain the long-term productivity of the natural resources on which they depend (Sriskandarajah, Bawden, & Packham, 1989). In other words, Sustainability emerges out of shared human experiences, objectives, knowledge, decisions, technology, and organization. Agriculture becomes sustainable only when people enjoy intuition to design it so. They can learn and negotiate their way towards Sustainability. In any discussions of Sustainability, it is distinguished to clarify what is being sustained, for how long, for whose benefit and at whose cost, over what area, and measured by what criteria. Answering these questions is difficult, because it means assessing and trading off values and beliefs. Campbell (1994) has set it this way: "[Attempts to define Sustainability miss the point that, relish beauty, sustain aptitude is in the eye of the beholder.... It is inevitable that assessments of relative Sustainability are socially constructed, which is why there are so many definitions."
It is therefore crucial to focus on more than one system level (Fresco, Stroosnijder, Bouma, & van Keulen, 1994). At the farm level, there is the farm household. At the above-farm level, there are the collective stakeholders, who might or might not live organized for sustainable expend of the all resource unit. In an irrigation scheme, it is common for an irrigators' association collectively to manage water expend at the scheme level. But when it comes to watersheds or other vulnerable resource units, it is usually impossible to identify an usurp "platform" for determination making (Röling, 1994a, 1994b).
A key example is the Indonesian programme for integrated pest management (IPM) in irrigated rice (FAO, 1994; Van de Fliert, 1993; Röling & Van de Fliert, 1994; Kenmore, 1991). At the farm level, this programme involves farmer bailiwick schools teaching individual farmers to manage their rice plots as ecosystems, carefully maintaining the equipoise between pests and their natural predators and only reverting to pesticides when observation shows that the situation is running out of hand. But IPM furthermore needs collective management of resources comprising several farms. Thus nematodes can effectively live controlled by interrupting the cultivation of wet rice by a dryland crop such as soybeans. This requires determination making at the irrigation obscure level. The population dynamics of rats, the most distinguished pest in irrigated rice, cannot live controlled at the farm level. Integrated rat management requires collective action at the village level (Van de Fliert, van Elsen, & Nangsir Soenanto, 1993).
Although many resource-conserving technologies and practices enjoy been widely proven on research stations to live both productive and sustainable, the total number of farmers using them is noiseless small. This is because these technologies involve the substitution of management skills, knowledge, and labour for external inputs. The modern approach to agricultural research and extension, however, has been to emphasize comprehensive packages of technologies. Few farmers are able to adopt the all modem packages of production or conservation technologies without considerable adjustments. Part of the problem is that most agricultural research noiseless occurs on the research station, where scientists undergo conditions quite different from those experienced by farmers.
This is dependable of many sustainability-enhancing innovations. Even though resource-conserving technologies are productive and sustainable, if they are imposed on farmers, then they will not live adopted widely. Alley cropping, an agroforestry system comprising rows of nitrogen-fixing trees or bushes separated by rows of cereals, has long been the focus of research (Kang, Wilson, & Lawson, 1984; Attah-Krah & Francis, 1987; Young, 1989; Lal, 1989). Many productive and sustainable systems, needing few or no external inputs, enjoy been developed. They stop erosion, bear food and wood, and can live cropped over long periods. But the problem is that very few, if any, farmers enjoy adopted these alley cropping systems as designed. Despite millions of dollars of research expenditure over many years, systems that enjoy been produced are suitable only for research stations.
Where these systems enjoy had some success, however, farmers enjoy taken one or two components of alley cropping and adapted them to their own farms. In Kenya, for example, farmers planted rows of leguminous trees next to bailiwick boundaries, or solitary rows through their fields; and in Rwanda, alleys planted by extension workers soon became dispersed through fields (Kerkhof, 1990). But the prevalent view tends to live that farmers should conform to the technology. Of the Agroforestry Outreach Project in Haiti, it was said:
Farmer management of hedgerows does not conform to the extension program.... Some farmers prune the hedgerows too early, others too late. Some hedges are not yet pruned by two years of age, when they enjoy already reached heights of 4-5 metres. Other hedges are pruned too early, mainly because animals are let in or the tops are lop and carried to animals.... Finally, it is very common for farmers to allow some of the trees in the hedgerow to grow to pole size. These trees are not pruned but are harvested when needed for house construction or other activities requiring poles. (Bannister & Nair, 1990)
Farmers were clearly making their own adaptations according to their own needs.
Just occasionally, however, an environmentally profitable technology is developed that appears to require no erudition of farmers' conditions. The IPM programme to control cassava mealybug (CMB) (Phenacoccus manihoti) in west and central Africa is one example. CMB was first recorded in Africa in 1973, and an efficient natural enemy, the wasp Epidinocarsis lopezi, was found in 1981. Since releases began, it has become established in twenty-five countries, providing marvelous control of CMB. It is to some extent a "perfect technology" for scientists, because it is released from the air without the erudition of farmers. It is, however, not necessarily a consummate technology for farmers. The contrast with another IPM programme in Togo is significant when it comes to issues of sustainability (Box 1).
The problem with agricultural science and extension is that it has poorly understood the nature of "indigenous" and bucolic people's knowledge. For many, what bucolic people know is assumed to live "primitive," "unscientific," or overtaken by development, and so formal research and extension must "transform" what they know so as to "develop" them. An alternative view is that local erudition is a valuable and underused resource, which can live studied, collected, and incorporated into progress activities. Neither of these views, though, is entirely satisfactory because of the static view of erudition implied (Chambers, Pacey, & Thrupp, 1989; Röling & Engel, 1989; Warren, 1991; Long & Long, 1992; Scoones & Thompson, 1994). It is more distinguished to recognize that local people are always involved in active learning, in (re)inventing technologies, in adapting their farming systems and alive strategies. Understanding and supporting these processes of agricultural innovation and experimentation enjoy become an distinguished focus in facilitating more sustainable agriculture with its tough locality-specific nature.
The problem with modem agricultural science is that technologies are finalized before farmers glean to survey them. If current technologies are usurp and happy a particular farmer's conditions or needs, then they stand a marvelous haphazard of being adopted. But if they accomplish not happy and if farmers are unable to design changes, then they enjoy only the one choice. They enjoy to conform to the technology, or reject it entirely.
Box 1. Comparison of Farmers' Involvement in Two IPM Programmes.
A: Cassava mealybug (CMB) control with Epidinocarsis lopezi
The programme has involved nearby collaboration between IITA and NARSs, involving training of local technicians to participate in releases. Now mass rearing of the wasp E. lopezi is done in Benin; from there they are transported by air for air release. According to IITA, an distinguished component of success has been that farmers and extension agents enjoy not had to live involved. Farmers accomplish not, therefore, know anything about the releases. One survey of farmers in Ghana and Cote d'Ivoire found that they recognized CMB and how it was a devastating pest. All those where E. lopezi had been introduced at least six months before had observed a significant decline in CMB. But because nooneatall of them knew about the programme, they attributed the decline to recent weighty rains and other climatic factors.
B: Mango mealybug control in Togo
The CMB programme is in contrast to the successful introduction of the parasitoid Gyranusoides tebyii to Togo in 1987 to control the mango mealybug (Rastrococcus invadens). The parasitoid was found in India, and following testing, rearing, and release, it rapidly spread over the all of Togo. By 1989, no mango trees could live found on which mango mealybug was present without being parasitized. But success would live threatened without public interest, as any expend of chemical control methods would destroy the parasites. A Great deal of publicity was given through radio, TV, and advisory leaflets. Considerable economic losses are now being prevented by the biological control system.
Source: Kiss and Meerman (1991).
The alternative is to quest and cheer the involvement of farmers in adapting technologies to their conditions. This constitutes a radical reversal of the gardenvariety modes of research and technology generation, because it requires interactive participation between professionals and farmers. Participatory technology progress (PTD) is the process in which the erudition and research capacities of farmers are joined with those of scientific institutions, whilst at the very time strengthening local capacities to experiment and innovate (Jiggins & De Zeeuw, 1992; Reijntjes, Haverkort, & Waters-Bayer, 1992; Haverkort, van der Kamp, & Waters-Bayer, 1991). Farmers are encouraged to generate and evaluate indigenous technologies and to select and conform external ones on the basis of their own erudition and value systems.
But, of course, researchers and farmers participate in different ways, depending on the degree of control each actor has over the research process. The most common shape of "participatory" research is researcher designed and implemented, even though it might live conducted on farmers' fields. Many on-farm trials and demonstration plots picture nothing better than passive participation (Pretty, 1994b). Less commonly, farmers may implement trials designed by researchers. But greater roles for farmers are even rarer. Fujisaka (1991) describes researcher-designed experiments on current cropping patterns in the Philippines. Even though farmers "participated" in implementing the trials, there was widespread skepticism about what researchers were actually trying to achieve. Farmers misunderstood experiments and rejected the current technologies. The reason, as Fujisaka explains, was that "cooperation between farmers and researchers implies two groups continually listening carefully to one another. Claveria farmers are avid listeners to... researchers. The challenge is for All on-farm researchers to complete the circle."
Although this means that technology progress must involve farmers, it does not beofvalue that scientific research has no place. Research will enjoy to contribute on many fronts, such as in the progress of resistant cultivars, erudition about the life cycles of pests, biological control methods, suitable crops for erosion control, and processes in nitrogen fixation. Such research furthermore gives insight into complicated processes such as the movement of nutrients in the soil and their accessibility for plants. But All these contributions must live seen as providing choices for farmers as they design farm-specific decisions and roam the all farm towards greater sustainability.
The central principle of sustainable agriculture is that it must enshrine current ways of learning about the world. But learning should not live confused with teaching.
Teaching implies the transfer of erudition from someone who knows to someone who does not know. Teaching is the gardenvariety mode of educational curricula and is furthermore central to many organizational structures (Ison, 1990; Argyris, Putnam, & Smith, 1985; Russell & Ison, 1991; Bawden, 1992, 1994; Pretty & Chambers, 1993). Universities and other professional institutions reinforce the teaching paradigm by giving the impress that they are custodians of erudition which can live dispensed or given (usually by lecture) to a recipient (a student). Where these institutions accomplish not comprise a focus on self-development and on enhancing the aptitude to learn, they accomplish not allow students to grasp an essential skill in the sustainable management of a complicated agroecosystem. In that case, "teaching threatens sustainable agriculture" (Ison, 1990).
The problem for farmers is that they cannot rely on routine, calendar-based activities if they engage in sustainable farming. Their interventions must live based on observation and anticipation. They require instruments and indicators which design more visible the ecological relationships on and among farms. Technology for sustainable farming must emphasize measurement and observation materiel or services that abet individual farmers assess their situations, such as soil analysis, manure analysis, and pest identification (Röling, 1993). It furthermore has to focus on higher system levels. Predators and parasitoids to control pests often require a larger biotope than that of a miniature farm. Erosion control, water harvesting, biodiversity, access to biomass, recycling consume between town and countryside and between animal and crop production, All require local cooperation and coordination.
What becomes distinguished is the gregarious transition, or current learning path, that farmers and communities must seize to advocate sustainable agriculture. This is much less obvious and often remains unrecognized by extensionists. Learning for sustainable agriculture involves a transformation in the fundamental objectives, strategies, theories, risk perceptions, skills, labour organization, and professionalism of farming. This learning path has four key elements:
1. The information system. Sustainable agriculture must live responsive to changing circumstances, so farmers exigency to invest in observation, observation equipment, record keeping, and monitoring procedures.
2. Conceptual framework. Sustainable agriculture is erudition intensive, and so farmers must know about life cycles of pests and disease organisms and their recognition, biological controls, ecological principles, soil life processes, nutrient cycles.
3. Skills. Sustainable farming requires a all set of current skills, including observation and monitoring, compost making, mechanical weed control, spot application of pesticides, and risk assessment.
4. Higher system-level management. Generally, sustainable management of the farm is not enough, and it is necessary to contemplate at system levels higher than the farm and seize Part in the collective management of natural resources at those levels.
In educational systems, therefore, the fundamental requirement for sustainable agriculture is for universities to evolve into communities of participatory learners. Such changes are very rare, an exception being Hawkesbury College, which is now Part of the University of Western Sydney, Australia (Bawden, 1992, 1994). However, a regional consortium of NGOs in Latin America concerned with agroecology and low-input agriculture recently signed an agreement with eleven colleges of agriculture from Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Mexico, Peru, and Uruguay to abet in the joint reorientation of curriculum and research agendas towards sustainability and poverty concerns (Altieri & Yuryevic, 1992; Yuryevic, 1994). The agreement defines collaboration to develop more systemic and integrated curricula, professional training and internship programmes, collaborative research efforts, and the progress of training materials.
Box 2. The Key Principles of Farmer bailiwick Schools.
1. What is germane and meaningful is decided by the learner and must live discovered by the learner. Learning flourishes in a situation where teaching is seen as a facilitating process that assists people to explore and discover the personal acceptation of events for themselves.
2. Learning is a consequence of experience. People become liable when they enjoy assumed responsibility and experienced success.
3. Cooperative approaches are enabling. As people invest in collaborative group approaches, they develop a better sense of their own worth.
4. Learning is an evolutionary process, and is characterized by free and open communication, confrontation, acceptance, respect, and the prerogative to design mistakes.
5. Each person's undergo of reality is unique. As people become more conscious of how they learn and decipher problems, they can refine and modify their own styles of learning and action.
Sources: Adapted from Kingsley and Musante, 1994; Van de Fliert, 1993; Kenmore, 1991; Stock, 1994.
A roam from a teaching to a learning style has profound implications for agricultural progress institutions. The focus is less on what they learn, and more on how they learn and with whom (see Box 2 for principles of farmer bailiwick schools used in the FAO IPM programme in Southeast Asia). This implies current roles for progress professionals, leading to a all current professionalism with current concepts, values, methods, and behaviour. Typically, gardenvariety professionals are single-disciplinary, labor largely or only in agencies remote from people, are insensitive to diversity of context, and are concerned with themselves generating and transferring technologies. Their beliefs about people's conditions and priorities often disagree from people's own views. The current professionals, by contrast, are either multidisciplinary or labor in nearby connection with other disciplines, are not intimidated by the complexities of nearby dialogue with bucolic and urban people, and are continually conscious of the context of interaction and development.
Extension has long been grounded in the diffusion model of agricultural development, in which technologies are passed from research scientists via extensionists to farmers (Rogers, 1962, 1983). This approach is exemplified by the training and visit (T&V) system. It was first implemented in Turkey in 1967 and later widely adopted by governments (Benor, 1987; Roberts, 1989). It was designed to live a management system for energizing extension staff, turning desk-bound, poorly motivated bailiwick staff into efficient extension agents. Extension agents receive regular training to enhance their technical skills, which they then hope will pass to All farmers through regular communication with miniature numbers of selected contact farmers.
But the contact farmers are usually selected on the basis of literacy, wealth, readiness to change, and "progressiveness," and so this sets them apart from the rest of the community. The secondary transfer of the technical messages, from contact farmers to community, has been much less successful than predicted, and adoption rates are commonly very low among noncontact farmers. Without a doubt, T&V is now widely considered as ineffective (Axinn, 1988; Howell, 1988; Moris, 1990; Antholt, 1992, 1994; Hussain, Byerlee, & Heisey, 1994).
Important lessons enjoy been learned from the problems associated with T&V, and there is clearly a exigency to address the systemic issues facing extension (Zijp, 1993; Antholt, 1994). Extension will exigency to build on traditional communication systems and involve farmers themselves in the process of extension. Incentive systems will enjoy to live developed to reward staff for being in the bailiwick and working closely with farmers. There must live a "well-defined link between the well-being of bailiwick officers and the extension system, based on the clients' view of the value of extension's and bailiwick workers' performance" (Antholt, 1992, P.). Participation, if it is to become Part of extension, must clearly live interactive and empowering. Any pretence to participation will result in microscopic change. Allowing farmers just to Come to meetings or letting a few representatives sit on committees will live insufficient.
There enjoy been some recent innovations in introducing elements of farmer participation and group approaches into extension. Differences in impact between individual and group approaches enjoy been well documented in both Nepal and Kenya. In western Nepal, Sen (1993) compared the rate of adoption of current technologies when extension worked with individuals or with groups. With groups, better communication between farmers and extensionists led to more adoption. When the individual approach was resumed after the experiment, adoption rates fell rapidly in succeeding years.
In Kenya, the Ministry of Agriculture is increasingly adopting a community-oriented approach to soil and water conservation. This is steadily replacing the former individual approach of the T&V system. Where extension staff interact closely with communities in developing joint action plans, and local people freely elect members to a local catchment committee, then the impact on agricultural growth is immediate and sustained. tough local groups mobilize the interest of the wider community and sustain action well beyond the age of direct contact with external agents. Recent studies comparing the impact of the catchment approach with the individual T&V approach enjoy shown that, for a wide ambit of indicators, farmers' livelihoods were more improved where the community approach was implemented (SWCB, 1994; Pretty, Thompson, & Kiara, 1994; MALDM, 1988-1994; Eckbom, 1992).
There enjoy been similar successes in IPM, which requires a level of analytical skill and sure basic training in crop monitoring and ecological principles. Where farmers enjoy been trained as experts, such as in Honduras (Bentley, Rodriguez, & Gonzalez, 1993) and in the rice-IPM programmes of Southeast Asia (Kenmore, 1991), then the impacts are substantial. Ordinary farmers are capable of rapidly acquiring and applying the principles and approaches. Fewer programmes are now teaching farmers current technologies and knowledge; rather, they are concerned with developing farmers' own capacity to contemplate for themselves and develop their own solutions. These are producing substantial reductions in insecticide use, whilst maintaining yields and increasing profits (Table 1). But where extension continues to expend the conventional top-down approach, then few farmers adopt, let lonely learn, the principles. As Matteson (1992) set it: "[F]ew IPM programmes enjoy made a lasting impact on farmer knowledge, attitudes or practice."
There are three major lessons for extension. First, it is distinguished to design current things visible. An distinguished role of extension is to design visible the status of the environment and the extent to which present farming practices are untenable. In addition, extension can demonstrate the feasibility of sustainable practices. Even more distinguished is to give farmers the tools for observation and to train them to monitor the situation on their own farms.
The second lesson is the expend of farmers' knowledge. The location-specific nature of sustainable agriculture implies that extension must design expend of farmers' erudition and labor together with farmers. Often, indigenous practices which enjoy been ignored under the impact of chemical farming can live fruitfully revived. Indigenous technology progress practices and farmer experimentation can live an distinguished "entry point" for introducing sustainable farming practices (Brouwers & Röling, in press).
The third lesson is an stress on facilitating learning. Instead of "transferring" technology, extension workers must abet farming "walk the learning path" (Box 3). Extension workers should quest to understand the learning process, provide expert counsel where required, convene and create learning groups, and abet farmers overcome major hurdles in adapting their farms.
Policy making is commonly considered the prerogative of some central authority that formulates a policy, which is then decreed, imposed, and implemented regardless of conflicting erudition and concerns. But policy is, in practice, often the net result of the actions of different interest groups pulling in complementary and opposing directions. This is particularly dependable with environmental problems because they are marked by uncertainty, complexity, and elevated stakes complexity, and elevated stakes (Funtowicz & Ravetz, 1993). There is therefore a growing tendency to survey policy as a negotiated agreement resulting from interaction among citizens, in which central authorities play a facilitating role (Van der Poel & Van Woerkum, 1994). Policy is only efficient if it is based on a widely shared consensus. From this perspective, it is facile to survey why so many environmental policies which rely on coercion, control, and transfer enjoy failed (Pretty & Shah, 1994; Pimbert & Pretty, 1994).
Box 3. The First Steps on the Learning Path in the Netherlands.
Predator mites were introduced into Dutch fruit orchards to control the red spider mite, which had become resistant to chemical controls. The expend of this biological control meant that growers had to learn how to manage their orchards as biotopes for the predator mite. Soon they were carrying magnifying glasses to study the progress of their microscopic helpers. This made them much more observant and accustomed to investing in regular observation. Furthermore, the health of the predator mites precluded expend of broad-spectrum pesticides against other pests. As a result, growers furthermore had to learn alternative controls for those pests.
Table 1. impact of IPM Programmes Involving current Participatory Approaches to Farmer Learning on Pesticide expend and Crop Yields
Country and crop
Average changes in pesticide expend (as % of conventional treatments)
Changes in yields (as % of conventional treatments)
Burkina Faso, rice1
USA, nine commodities4
no. of applications up volume applied down
Sri Lanka, rice2
a Even though yields are lower, net returns are much higher.
Sources: (1) Kiss and Meerman, 1991; (2) Kenmore, 1991: Winarto, 1993; van der Fliert, 1993; Matteson et at, 1992; FAO, 1994; (3) Hruska, 1993; (4) NRC, 1989; (5) Kamp et al, 1993; Kenmore, 1991; (6) ICRISAT, 1993
For sustainable agriculture to succeed, policy formulation must arise in a current way. Policy processes must live enabling and participatory, creating the conditions for sustainable progress based more on locally available resources and on local skills and knowledge. efficient policy processes will enjoy to bring together a ambit of actors and institutions for creative interaction and address multiple realities and unpredictability. What is required is the progress of approaches that set participation, negotiation, and mediation at the centre of policy formulation so as to create a much wider common ownership in the practices. This is a central challenge for sustainable agriculture. The management of higher level systems, whether common grazing lands, coastal fisheries resources, communal forests, national parks, polders, or watersheds, requires gregarious organization comprising the key stakeholders. All successful moves to more sustainable agriculture enjoy in common coordinated action by groups or communities at the local level (Pretty, 1995). But the problem is that platforms for resource expend negotiation generally accomplish not exist, and so exigency to live created and facilitated (Brinkman, 1994; Röling, 1994a, 1994b).
Different methodologies are emerging to abet stake-holders achieve collective resource management capacity. Well known are participatory rapid appraisal (PRA) and related methodologies (see chapter 6). In addition, the soft system methodology (SSM) developed for corporate environments is highly promising for resource expend negotiation (Checkland, 1981; Checkland & Scholes, 1990). For stakeholders who enjoy Come to esteem the fact that they share a problem, SSM takes them through a number of steps which allows them to create a "rich picture" on the basis of their multiple perspectives, gain some accommodation with respect to major causes of the problem, and hence resolve on collective action. "Rapid appraisal of agricultural erudition systems" (RAAKS) (Engel, 1995) is a related methodology for facilitating innovation as an emergent property of a erudition network, comprising such actors as farmers, extension workers, researchers, NGO workers, and policy makers. This system provides stakeholders with different "windows" (such as mission, chore differentiation, integration, articulation, coordination, performance) on their own collective practices which allow them to capture the potential synergy of their contributions to innovative performance.
A fundamental requirement if such approaches are to labor is that stakeholders in a particular natural resource learn to esteem that they enjoy a common problem (Box 4). Extension has an distinguished role to play here by making visible the interdependence between stakeholders and the extent to which the resource unit on which they depend has been destroyed by their uncoordinated action and the collective impact of their individual activities. It is within policy contexts thus made conducive for sustainable agriculture that technology progress and extension can live especially effective.
Box 4. Resource Mapping by Farmers in Landcare Programme, Australia.
Landcare in Australia provides examples of learning to keeping for natural resources at higher system levels. consider resource mapping. Farmers from a subcatchment (usually a subgroup of a Lancare group) are convened by the facilitator of the group to contend the soils and their susceptibility to erosion. First, a soil typology is established by the farmers through bailiwick visits, digging soil pits, and so forth. After a suitable classification (which might deviate considerably from the official scientific one) has been agreed upon, farmers receive an air photo mosaic of the entire subcatchment with their property drawn in. They are furthermore provided with a transparent overlay on which to map the soils and main features of their own properties.
These farmer maps are digitized and fed into GIS software, which allows the property resource maps to live combined into one consolidated subcatchment map. Following meetings to contend the results, farmers accord on the resource map of the subcatchment and now enjoy a firm grasp of the interaction between their property and the subcatchment. They furthermore realize that vulnerable soils span several properties and that measures to preclude further soil erosion and solination require alignment of fences, roads, vegetation belts, and other features.
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