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300-100 LPIC-3 Exam 300: Mixed Environments, version 1.0

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LPI LPIC-3 Exam 300: Mixed

Six tart Linux Certifications for 2019 | true Questions and Pass4sure dumps

Written via Reena Ghosh posted: 17 December 2018

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Get one of these tart certs in 2019 to hold your Linux game to the next level!red Hat licensed Engineer (RHCE)

The RHCE certification is designed for RHCSA credential holders who aspire to develop into senior system directors of purple Hat commercial enterprise Linux (RHEL) programs in addition to skilled device administrators who want to certify or whose job or a mandate requires them to rate this credential.

The RHCE certification validates the capacity to configure and manage systems, together with file beginning, to automate outfit renovation the usage of shell scripts, configure network services for HTTP/HTTPS, DNS, NFS, SMB, SMTP, SSH, and NTP, and installation, configure and administer database features besides RHCSA competencies.

Candidates can rate a selection from more than a few training alternatives. crimson Hat recommends the red Hat system Administration I (RH124), crimson Hat device Administration II (RH134), and red Hat gadget Administration III (RH254) lessons for windows administrators with constrained Linux experience. For Linux/UNIX administrators with 1-to-three years of experience, purple Hat suggests the RHCSA rapid music route (RH199) and red Hat outfit Administration III (RH254). The RHCE Lab is relevant for RHCEs who are seeking recertification.

To rate the RHCE credential, you must circulate the RHCSA (EX 200) and the 3.5-hour fingers-on RHCE (EX 300) checks. prerequisites: RHCSA.

more information

pink Hat certified Architect (RHCA)

The traumatic and time-consuming RHCA certification is a positive credential for experts who travail with pink Hat Linux programs and wish to profit each breadth and depth of handicap and expertise in this environment. The prerequisite for the RHCA is either the RHCE or the purple Hat licensed JBoss Developer (RHCJD).

The RHCA program is designed to accommodate the different wants of enterprises that disburse red Hat Linux and the interests of IT experts. groups and people believe a number of alternate options to rate a selection from. RHCJDs can elect any combination within the commercial enterprise applications music and rate at the least 5 certifications from the Developer list on the purple Hat web page to qualify as a RHCA in enterprise applications.

RHCEs believe the option of deciding upon any combination from the RHCA in Infrastructure song. They believe to rate at the least 5 certifications from the outfit Administrator listing to obtain the RHCA in Infrastructure.

in order to preserve their credentials, RHCAs in trade purposes and Infrastructure must retain forex of their certifications. crimson Hat offers a brace of working towards alternate options and advises candidates to elect one in keeping with the certification combinations they are looking to pursue. crimson Hat recommends the pink Hat getting to know Subscription.

extra information

LPI (Linux professional Institute) Certifications

The Linux knowledgeable Institute (LPI) is a trusted Linux certification company. Their non-seller-, non-distribution-specific credentials cover Linux tools, technologies and handicap and might subsist advantageous for professionals who are searching for an figuring out of a wide array of Linux topic matters and technologies as well as those that handle distributions for which credentials aren't available.

essentially the most in-demand LPI certifications are Linux Administrator (LPIC-1), Linux Engineer (LPIC-2), and Linux trade expert (LPIC-three).

LPIC-1 validates fundamental Linux potential. Aspirants must circulate 2 tests, one zero one-400 and 102-four hundred, to rate this certification. specialists with a legitimate CompTIA Linux+ (Powered with the aid of LPI) qualify for this certification.

LPIC-2 demonstrates expertise and potential in managing little and medium-sized blended networks. Candidates must believe a existing LPIC-1 and flow 2 assessments, 201-450 and 202-450, to rate this credential.

LPIC-three is designed for senior Linux execs that grasp a legitimate LPIC-2. This credential validates superior Linux enterprise-degree talents. LPIC-2 holders should circulate one of the crucial 300 checks either in mixed environment, security, or Virtualization and lofty Availability.

All three certifications are valid for five years. exams are managed with the aid of Pearson VUE. For self-examine substances, candidates can browse the LPI market, as well as Amazon.

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other everyday certifications consist of Oracle Linux OCA and OCP. hold into account that certifications can add cost to your résumé, but that the majority managers will want to recognize even if you’ve deployed and maintained Linux in an commercial enterprise environment. It never hurts to elect on up some useful undergo along the way!

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Linux expert Institute to alternate Linux Certification courses | true Questions and Pass4sure dumps

Feb 28, 2013

The Linux professional Institute (LPI), a Linux certification organization, is making changes to its LPIC-2 and LPIC-3 certification courses. the original goals for these certifications are birthright now under construction. original checks will subsist available in English on October 1, 2013 with local translations and pricing to subsist introduced.

The Linux expert Institute is globally supported by artery of the IT trade, enterprise customers, group professionals, govt entities and the tutorial group. LPI's primary monetary sponsors are platinum sponsors IBM, Linux Journal, Linux journal, Novell, SGI, and TurboLinux as well as gold sponsors, HP and IDG.

in line with the LPI, it's concentrating on elementary and advanced gadget administration skills in LPIC-2, whereas additional focusing the LPIC-3 program on selected specialties such as blended environments, security, and lofty availability/virtualization. The upcoming changes additionally replicate LPI's travail with the higher open supply neighborhood in to corroborate the aptitude sets integral for a lot of really expert job roles for Linux specialists.

A revised program roadmap and a description of proposed alterations to the LPIC-2 and LPIC-3 certification software can subsist discovered birthright here.

exact 5 | Linux Certifications in 2018 | true Questions and Pass4sure dumps

1. LPIC (Linux expert Institute Certification)

began lower back in 1999 by Linus Torvalds, these Linux certifications today has develop into critical for any Linux knowledgeable. This program is available in four distinct tiers, which can be:

LPI : Linux essentials Certification

The Linux essentials professional structure certificate (PDC) besides serves as a terrific stepping-stone to the extra superior LPIC expert Certification track for Linux programs directors.

present edition: 1.5 (exam code 010–150)

must haves: There are no prerequisites for this certification

necessities: Passing the Linux necessities 010 exam

Validity duration: Lifetime

Languages: English, German. The exam may well subsist written in birthright here languages only at paper-based mostly examination hobbies: Portuguese (Brazilian), Italian, Spanish (modern), chinese (Simplified), chinese language (average)

To derive hold of the Linux essentials certificate the candidate ought to:

  • have an knowing of the Linux and open supply trade and expertise of the most universal open supply functions;
  • understand the primary components of the Linux operating equipment, and believe the technical proficiency to travail on the Linux command line; and
  • have a simple figuring out of safety and administration linked themes such as person/group administration, working on the command line, and permissions.
  • LPIC- 1: Linux Administrator Certification

    LPIC-1 is the primary certification in LPI’s multi-stage Linux professional certification application. The LPIC-1 will validate the candidate’s capability to operate renovation projects on the command line, installation and configure a pc operating Linux and configure simple networking.

    The LPIC-1 is designed to mirror existing analysis and validate a candidate’s proficiency in true world device administration. The objectives are tied to precise-world job skills, which they assess via job project evaluation surveying complete through exam building.

    present edition: four.0 (examination codes 101–four hundred and 102–four hundred)

    prerequisites: There aren't any necessities for this certification

    requirements: Passing assessments one hundred and one and 102

    Validity duration: 5 years

    Languages: English, German, Italian, Portuguese (Brazilian), Spanish (up to date), chinese (Simplified), chinese (normal) and eastern

    To develop into LPIC-1 licensed the candidate must subsist capable of:

  • have in intelligence the structure of a Linux system;
  • install and sustain a Linux notebook, including X11 and setup it up as a community client;
  • work at the Linux command line, including typical GNU and Unix instructions;
  • address information and access permissions as well as device security; and
  • function smooth preservation initiatives: embolden users, add users to a larger system, backup and restore, shutdown and reboot.
  • LPIC- 2: Linux Engineer Certification

    here's an superior even Linux Certification, which requires an lively LPIC-1 certification. It has two assessments- First covers the file outfit and instruments, kernel, outfit startup, network configuration, outfit preservation, storage administration, and even capacity planning and the 2d examination covers email functions, community customer administration, locality cognomen servers, outfit protection and troubleshooting.

    LPIC-2 is the 2d certification in LPI’s multi-level expert certification software. The LPIC-2 will validate the candidate’s aptitude to manage little to medium–sized blended networks. The candidate exigency to believe an energetic LPIC-1 certification to acquire LPIC-2 certification, however the LPIC-1 and LPIC-2 exams can subsist taken in any order.

    latest edition: 4.5 (exam codes 201–450 and 202–450).

    prerequisites: The candidate ought to believe an energetic LPIC-1 certification to receive LPIC-2 certification, but the LPIC-1 and LPIC-2 tests may subsist taken in any order

    requirements: Passing assessments 201 and 202

    Validity duration: 5 years

    Languages: English, German, eastern

    To become LPIC-2 licensed the candidate must subsist able to:

  • operate superior system administration, including common projects related to the Linux kernel, gadget startup and preservation;
  • operate superior management of obscure storage and file systems as well as advanced networking and authentication and gadget security, together with firewall and VPN;
  • installation and configure primary network functions, together with DHCP, DNS, SSH, internet servers, file servers the usage of FTP, NFS and Samba, e mail delivery; and
  • supervise assistants and recommend management on automation and purchases.
  • LPIC- three: Linux enterprise knowledgeable Certification

    it's a senior-degree Linux certification, which needs an lively LPIC-2 besides passing any solitary examination within the 300 sequence. This certification comprises exam IDs, which are:

  • 300: mixed atmosphere
  • 303: safety
  • 304: Virtualization and lofty Availability
  • 300: blended atmosphere covers Samba, travail with Linux & windows customer, and even plus OpenLDAP.

    303: security covers operations, software protection, and the community are lined below the protection exam anyway cryptography and entry controls.

    304: Virtualization and extreme Availability covers virtualization and lofty availability cluster storage and engagement.

    present edition: 1.0 (examination code 300–one hundred)

    prerequisites: The candidate should believe an energetic LPIC-2 certification to acquire LPIC-three certification, however the LPIC-2 and LPIC-three tests may well subsist taken in any order

    requirements: Passing the 300 exam

    Validity length: 5 years

    Languages: English, jap

    2. CompTIA Linux+

    CompTIA Linux+ covers regular initiatives in predominant distributions of Linux, including the Linux command line, fundamental preservation, setting up and configuring workstations, and networking.

    Let’s recognize greater about these two Linux certifications here:

  • CompTIA Linux Certification (LX0–103) — defined
  • This test covers these few domains, which can be:

  • GNU and UNIX commands
  • gadget structure
  • Linux installation and kit management
  • contraptions, Linux Filesystems, Filesystem Hierarchy general
  • 2. CompTIA Linux Certification (LX0–104) — explained

    This test covers these few domains, which are:

  • protection
  • Shells, Scripting, and statistics management
  • person Interfaces and computers
  • Administrative projects
  • essential system capabilities
  • Networking Fundamentals
  • examination particulars

    examination Description: Linux+ is constructed from two checks — LX0–103 and LX0–104. Candidates ought to creep LX0–103 before taking LX0–104. each verify Have:-

    number of Questions: 60 questions

    class of Questions: assorted selection (Single Response), dissimilar Response and Fill-in-the-blank

    length of view at various: ninety Minutes

    Passing ranking: 500 (on a scale of 200 to 800)

    informed experience: CompTIA A+, CompTIA network+ and twelve months of Linux admin adventure

    Languages: English, German, Portuguese, Spanish

    expense: $206 USD (See complete pricing)

    3. RHCE (red Hat certified Engineer)

    The pink Hat certified Engineer (RHCE) is a certification which you could rate to develop into a pink Hat certified system Administrator (RHCSA). The RHCE certification indicates that you've proven the competencies, skill and skill required of senior device administrator accountable for pink Hat commercial enterprise Linux techniques.

    In case, you believe got earned RHCE, you gyrate into eligible for RHCA (purple Hat certified Architect) credentials including:

  • RHCA: application building
  • RHCA: Datacenter
  • RHCA: Cloud
  • RHCA: DevOps
  • RHCA: application platform
  • 4. Oracle Linux

    Certifications incorporate of two assessments, which are:

  • OCA- 1Z0–one hundred Oracle Linux 5 and 6 gadget Administration, wants sixty one% to flow, and 80 inquiries to effort
  • OCP- 1Z0–one zero five Oracle Linux 6 advanced gadget Administrator, requires sixty one% to circulate, and has a complete of ninety seven questions.
  • 5. GIAC certified UNIX protection Administrator (GCUX) Description

    GIAC licensed UNIX outfit administrators (GCUXs) believe the knowledge, competencies and competencies to comfy and audit UNIX and Linux methods.


    individuals chargeable for installation, configuring, and monitoring UNIX and/or Linux systems.

    *No selected working towards is required for any GIAC certification. there are many sources of assistance accessible regarding the certification pursuits’ skills areas. practical event is an choice; there are besides numerous books on the market covering computer suggestions security. a different option is any imperative lessons from practising suppliers, including SANS.*

  • 1 proctored exam
  • 75 questions
  • deadline of 2 hours
  • minimal Passing rating of 68%
  • Renew

    Certifications ought to subsist renewed every 4 years. click on here for particulars.


    word: complete GIAC exams are delivered through proctored view at various centers and believe to subsist scheduled in advance.GIAC certification makes an attempt should subsist activated on your GIAC account after your application has been accredited and in line with the terms of your purchase. details on delivery should subsist supplied along with your registration affirmation upon charge. you will obtain an e mail notification when your certification application has been activated for your account. You could believe a hundred and twenty days from the date of activation to complete your certification effort. GIAC exams believe to subsist proctored through Pearson VUE. please click on here link for guidelines on a artery to schedule Your GIAC Proctored exam GIAC checks are delivered on-line through a common internet browser.


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    Ingesting little doses of peanut products guards against allergic reactions—but an undercurrent of worry persists.

    Jacob Kingsley, 12, visits a bakery that was off-limits before he began oral immunotherapy for a peanut allergy.


    Jacob Kingsley was 9 years archaic when he was handed the poison he'd shunned since before he could walk and told to swallow it as medicine. Obediently, he gulped down a few micrograms of peanut flour—less than 1/1000 of a peanut—diluted in grape Kool-Aid. His mother and a nurse hovered, ready to inject him with epinephrine if an itchy throat and wheezing struck.

    Jacob's mother, Jennifer Kingsley, had driven him 2 hours from their home in Columbus to this doctor's office in Cincinnati, Ohio, for the first of dozens of sessions of peanut immunotherapy. Giving Jacob gradually increasing doses of peanuts, she hoped, would desensitize his immune system.

    It's a strategy Kingsley hadn't pursued until she reached her breaking point. A year earlier, Jacob had swallowed a handful of popcorn that, unbeknownst to him, was laced with peanut product. He suffered a particularly frightening reaction: two bouts of violent symptoms about 6 hours apart. The incident marked his second peanut-related trip to the emergency room, and Kingsley was terrified that the next encounter could subsist fatal. “I decided, ‘I can't live enjoy this,’” she says. “I was desperate.”

    As Jacob sat through the hourslong appointment in Cincinnati, playing video games and swigging increasing doses of peanut-spiked Kool-Aid, he joined legions of children writing food allergy's next chapter. Today, more than 3000 people worldwide, most of them children, believe undergone peanut immunotherapy, with the goal of protecting them if they accidentally encounter the food. Other children are trying immunotherapy for allergies to milk, eggs, and tree nuts. Some, enjoy Jacob, derive treatment in allergists' offices, where doctors participate protocols informally and in published papers. Other children believe enrolled in clinical trials, including those bustle by two companies racing to introduce a peanut-based capsule or skin patch. Both contrivance to apply for approval from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) this year. The agency's blessing would dramatically boost immunotherapy's credibility and reach.

    In a domain that for decades has had nothing to present patients beyond avoidance, immunotherapy marks a seismic shift. As it edges closer to mainstream, “There's mixed feelings, with a whole sweep of enthusiasm,” says Corinne Keet, a pediatric allergist-immunologist at Johns Hopkins Medicine in Baltimore, Maryland. panic that it might cause harm is mingling with euphoria that children alive constrained lives could subsist set free. Doctors who present immunotherapy picture families eating in Chinese restaurants for the first time and home-schooled children rejoining their peers.

    Like many medical firsts, the therapy is not perfect. “This is version 1.0,” says Brian Vickery, a pediatric allergist-immunologist at Emory University in Atlanta. He has conducted peanut immunotherapy trials and worked for 2 years at Aimmune Therapeutics, headquartered in Brisbane, California, one of the companies whose products are nearing approval. Physicians fret about oral immunotherapy's rigors—treatment must continue indefinitely—and its risks, which involve the selfsame allergic reactions it aims to prevent. last year in Japan, a child suffered brain damage during a affliction of immunotherapy for milk allergies.

    Meanwhile, physicians on the front lines are navigating hazy science. No one knows exactly how immunotherapy works or who's most likely to subsist helped or wound by it. “For me,” Keet says, “it's really not limpid for an medium child with peanut allergy whether it will rate sense to execute oral immunotherapy or not.”

    LIKE MANY WHO STUDY food allergies, Keet was enticed by their mystery. Animal models are poor. The intensity of allergic reactions varies unpredictably, even in the selfsame person over time. Why one child outgrows an allergy and another doesn't is unknown.

    “This was something they didn't cover much in medical school” in the 1990s, says Matthew Greenhawt, a pediatric allergist-immunologist at Children's Hospital Colorado in Denver. Greenhawt's career trajectory tracks with a surge in food allergies, and these days, he can barely sustain up with the stream of affected children who visit his hospital. Today, between 1% and 2% of people in the United States, the United Kingdom, and several other countries are allergic to peanuts—a rate that has roughly tripled since the mid-1990s. Other food allergies, such as those to tree nuts, are besides on the rise. What's causing the multiply is not well understood.

    Despite rising caseloads, deaths from food allergies remain rare. Precise numbers are hard to approach by, and estimates sweep from fewer than 10 to more than 150 a year in the United States. But even though an affected child is more likely to subsist struck by lightning than to die of a food allergy, the risk can feel ever-present. Parents never know when their children will occur upon culprit foods and how they'll subsist affected if they do. “We live in a complex world—people creep food complete over the place,” says David Bunning, a businessman whose two sons, now adults, believe multiple food allergies. “The impact on children in terms of their assurance to explore their environment can subsist extreme.” Bunning's family almost never traveled or ate out. At their grandparents' house, the boys were usually confined to one margin where food wasn't allowed.

    Bunning now chairs the board of directors at Food Allergy Research & Education (FARE), an advocacy group in McLean, Virginia. Families enjoy his, and the doctors who cared for their children, began to convulse for original treatments about a decade ago. Immunotherapy was the obvious candidate: Injections that desensitize the immune system to pollen, grass, pet dander, and bee venom believe been around for decades.

    Whether for an allergy to cats or pistachios, immunotherapy aims to disrupt the cells that sway out of control when faced with an allergen. When a child who is allergic to a food eats it, food proteins cross from the digestive tract into the bloodstream. An antibody called immunoglobulin E (IgE), which is bound to white blood cells called mast cells in tissues, recognizes the culprits. IgE activates the mast cells, which release histamine and other chemicals. In the skin, that response can lead to hives; in the respiratory tract, wheezing; and in the gut, vomiting. The most serious symptoms, such as a swollen throat or a reaction throughout the body, imprint anaphylaxis, which is what families panic the most. Allergy shots blunt production of IgE, in part, researchers believe, by boosting levels of inescapable T cells that prompt a cascade of immune changes.

    Fighting fire with fire

    Eating gradually increasing doses of a food allergen seems to desensitize the immune system over time. Thousands of children believe tried oral immunotherapy, and a capsule to treat peanut allergies might subsist approved by regulators next year. But there's worry about the strategy's risks and unknowns.


    Brief testing decades ago indicated that shots for food allergies weren't safe. So around the mid-2000s, scientists began to feed children the allergen instead. One watershed second came in 2005, when the National Institutes of Health formed a consortium for food allergy clinical trials. A second was in 2011, when advocates sponsored a symposium at Harvard Medical School in Boston to standardize goals and strategy for the pioneering immunotherapy efforts. About 60 people attended. “The patients were very clear,” says Carla McGuire Davis, a pediatric allergist-immunologist at Texas Children's Hospital in Houston. They didn't supervision about eating a peanut butter sandwich; they wanted protection if they accidentally encountered one. Trialists set their halt dose at a brace of peanuts and pressed ahead.

    The results of early clinical trials were promising, says Hugh Sampson, a pediatric allergist-immunologist at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai in original York City, who has studied immunotherapy in food allergies for many years. After 6 to 12 months of treatment, he says, about 70% to 80% of patients could handle higher doses of the food than before. Lab data were encouraging, too: Ingesting allergens over time seems to rate mast cells less reactive, inhibiting their release of harmful chemicals. The therapy besides produces other immunoglobulins: IgG4, which further inhibits mast cell activity, and IgA, which helps sustain food allergens from escaping the gut (see graphic, p. 280).

    The 2011 conference inspired the founding of the company now called Aimmune, fueled by more than $3.5 million from FARE. A second company, DBV Technologies, based in Montrouge, France, and original York City, expanded a few years later. Aimmune began to develop an oral product, essentially a capsule of powder derived from peanut flour with proteins held to consistent levels. In February, the company announced in a press release the results of a side III affliction involving 496 children and teenagers, with a regimen stepping up every 2 weeks through 11 dose levels. Among the 372 people in the treatment group, about 20% dropped out for various reasons, including side effects. After about a year, 96% of people who completed treatment could consume one peanut with no more than mild symptoms, 84% could tolerate two, and 63% could tolerate at least three.

    DBV's skin patch represents a more conservative strategy: It delivers tiny amounts of peanut protein, the equivalent of one peanut over 3 years. last year, DBV announced that in its side III affliction of almost 400 patients, after a year, those using the patch could, on average, consume three peanuts over the course of several hours before experiencing clinical symptoms such as vomiting or hives; before the trial, the medium was just under one peanut. Outcomes varied substantially from person to person.

    If one or both products are approved by FDA in the coming months, expectations are lofty that they'll subsist welcomed: Aimmune is now worth about $1.5 billion on the U.S. stock exchange. In 2016, FARE sold its participate in Aimmune for $47 million.

    MEANWHILE, SOME DOCTORS embrace another route: offering peanut immunotherapy in their practices. “I can treat 20 patients with $5.95 of peanut flour,” says Richard L. Wasserman, a pediatric allergist-immunologist in Dallas, Texas.

    Wasserman ventured into food allergy immunotherapy 11 years ago. He developed a protocol based partly on published case reports and protocols for allergy shots, and he achieve IVs into his first five peanut allergy patients in case he had only seconds to rescue them from stern anaphylaxis. “When they complete sailed through the first day, they stopped doing IVs,” he says. “But that's a measure of how concerned I was.”

    Wasserman has since treated more than 300 children with peanut allergies and more than 400 with other food allergies. Other practitioners are joining in, among them the Cincinnati allergist whom the Kingsley family sought out: Justin Greiwe at Bernstein Allergy Group. Greiwe joined the practice in 2014, straight out of medical training. “It was a minute nerve-wracking at the beginning,” he says, because no officially sanctioned oral immunotherapy protocol existed. He took precautionary measures, such as lung testing before every treatment, to embolden ensure patient safety.

    Some clinicians—and executives at the companies developing products—aren't pleased about the doctor's office treatments. “That gives a lot of us pause,” says Sampson, who in addition to his academic post is chief scientific officer of DBV. “We're very fearful that if this goes on enough, somebody is going to believe an accident or a fatal reaction, and that's really going to change the FDA's viewpoint” about the products in development, he says.

    Wasserman agrees about the exigency for caution. “Not every practicing allergist should subsist doing oral immunotherapy,” he says. Greiwe suggests the treatment requires a dedicated staff, and he gives every immunotherapy family his cellphone number.

    Jacob was one of Greiwe's first immunotherapy patients. His mother remembers Jacob's ears burning—a minor reaction that subsided on its own. “Or he said he hated peanuts and wanted to quit,” she says. Worst was about 6 months in, when Kingsley discovered that for 2 weeks, Jacob had hidden his dose to avoid eating it. That was “the only time they ever felt danger,” she says. Stopping treatment can quickly alter the immune system, says Cecilia Berin, an immunologist at Mount Sinai, because immunotherapy requires constant exposure. When Jacob squirreled away his daily dose, the changes induced in his immune system almost certainly started to fade out, putting him at risk. Greiwe restarted him on a lower dose and, his mother says, “We got through it.”

    EVEN CHILDREN WHO faithfully supervene instructions physiognomy risks. The immune system can react to even subtle pressures, and the list of what can stimulate a reaction to treatment is long. Exercising within a brace of hours of the dose can execute it; so can a cold, a stomach virus, menstruation, or a tart shower. An asthma assail can trigger a reaction—many children with allergies believe asthma as well—and so can stress. “We had a patient who had just played the violin on a stage, came down, and about 15 minutes later … took the dose and had a reaction,” Davis says.

    Berin posits that external pressures such as physical activity or illness rate the gut more permeable, pushing more of the immunotherapy dose into the bloodstream. But that remains hypothesis. Regardless, it's becoming limpid that “there are people who react years down the road to a maintenance dose,” Keet says. For Jacob, such a second came 9 months in. One evening while watching a movie, he downed his peanut M&M's and later ran outside with his cousins to dance in a rainstorm. He broke out in hives head to toe. Kingsley dialed Greiwe's number, and Jacob got a double dose of an allergy medication.

    Food allergies are becoming more common, and a handful of foods accounts for the vast majority of allergies. But little doses of the foods can blunt allergic reactions.


    The most tragic data point to date is the case in Japan. A child had enrolled in a affliction of immunotherapy for milk allergies at the Kanagawa Children's Medical hub in Yokohama. He'd raised what he could ingest from less than 8 milliliters to 135 milliliters—about half a glass of milk. After 3 months on that maintenance dose, he swallowed it and soon complained of pain. Within minutes, he had stopped breathing. His heartbeat was later restored in the emergency room, but he'd gone too long without it and sustained stern brain damage, according to a statement from the hospital's president, Sumimasa Yamashita, in November 2017. Kanagawa Children's Medical hub declined to comment, saying only that the incident remains under investigation.

    In its statement, the hospital notable the boy had suffered an asthma assail the day before the catastrophic dose. He besides was on a protocol that aimed to rapidly escalate the volume of milk he could drink over less than 3 weeks. But why the child reacted so disastrously to that glass of milk is unknown.

    “What people don't understand is this even of protection fluctuates,” says Mimi Tang, a pediatric allergist-immunologist at Murdoch Children's Research Institute in Melbourne, Australia. “It is not guaranteed, nor is it constant.”

    One of the few long-term analyses was published in 2013 in The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. Keet, pediatric allergist-immunologist Robert Wood at Johns Hopkins Medicine, and their colleagues sought out 32 children who'd been in a milk immunotherapy trial. Three to 5 years later, “The results were surprising in a sobering kindly of way,” Wood says. Only about a quarter “were doing remarkable … tolerating unlimited quantities of milk without side effects.” Another quarter had abandoned the protocol and returned to strict avoidance. The rest were eating dairy products inconsistently, with intermittent or even frequent allergic reactions. “It's hard to know which comes first, whether they got complacent” about ingesting it “or backed off because [they were] having too many symptoms,” Wood says.

    MORE AND MORE families are willing to live with those uncertainties because the alternative is greater anxiety. “We were insecure senseless,” says Divya Balachandar, whose daughter Leena Wong, now 7 years old, had her first episode of anaphylaxis at age 4 after being touched by a cashew. Testing revealed Leena besides was allergic to sesame, eggs, milk, other tree nuts, and peanuts. Balachandar, a pediatric pulmonologist in original York City, and her husband enrolled Leena in a federally funded oral immunotherapy affliction for peanut allergy in 2015. “It made me nervous, really nervous, to achieve something in my daughter's mouth that she was allergic to,” Balachandar says. She gravitated toward a affliction over treatment with a local allergist because, she says, “there were no rules” about how to treat in private practice. By this spring, Leena could consume two spoonfuls of peanut butter—about 25 peanuts—without a problem. She started second grade sitting with her classmates at lunchtime, liberated from a divorce nut-free table.

    Both companies developing peanut-based treatments dispute they had more volunteers for their trials than they could accommodate. Private practitioners usually believe a waiting list; Greiwe's runs more than 4 months. At Stanford University in Palo Alto, California, which has a large food allergy research program, more than 2000 patients are waitlisted to enroll in the university's clinical trials, says Sharon Chinthrajah, an allergist-immunologist there.

    More treatments are on the horizon. In Australia, Tang is working with a company that's testing an approach she pioneered, a combination of a probiotic and oral peanut immunotherapy. The probiotic should tilt the body toward producing the subset of T cells that tolerate the allergen and away from making cells that assail it, she says. Chinthrajah and others are enthusiastic about combining oral immunotherapy with a monoclonal antibody called omalizumab, which is FDA approved to treat allergic asthma. Clinical trials are besides gearing up to test other monoclonal antibodies that target molecules involved in allergic inflammation.

    Jacob's and Leena's families are avid to perceive what comes next. Jacob is besides allergic to pistachios and cashews, but because he finds those foods easier to avoid than peanuts, the family has rejected immunotherapy that targets them. Leena's family is the opposite. With her older sister and her parents, Leena attends Indian functions regularly, where tree nuts are a common ingredient in sauces. In August, another episode of anaphylaxis landed her in the emergency room: She began to vomit and suffered chest tightness and eye swelling after eating Indian food her parents suspect contained cashews—despite having triple-checked with the restaurant that it did not. “I would worship to execute tree nuts,” Balachandar says, once immunotherapy “becomes more available and better understood.”

    Physicians with profound roots in food allergy immunotherapy hope those original to it tread carefully. Doctors who present such treatments “have to know the data cold,” including published results and side effects that may crop up, Greenhawt says. Still, he's thrilled that peanut immunotherapy treatments may soon subsist approved. The other day, talking with a peanut-allergic 4-year-old and his mother, Greenhawt shared what the next year might bring. “I said, ‘I'm going to perceive you a year from now; hopefully, they will believe two products that are approved, and they can talk about which one might subsist best for you.’” The mother looked startled and delighted, Greenhawt says. “I've never seen somebody grin as brightly as that.”

    JetBlue Airways (JBLU) Q4 2018 Earnings Conference summon Transcript | true questions and Pass4sure dumps

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    JetBlue Airways (NASDAQ: JBLU)Q4 2018 Earnings Conference CallJan. 24, 2019 10:00 a.m. ET

    Good morning. My cognomen is Felicia, and I would enjoy to welcome everyone to the JetBlue Airways fourth-quarter 2018 earnings conference call. As a reminder, today's summon is being recorded. [Operator instructions] I will now enjoy to gyrate the summon over to JetBlue's Director of Investor Relations David Fintzen.

    Please Go ahead.

    Thanks, Felicia. honorable morning, everyone, and thanks for joining us for their fourth-quarter 2018 earnings call. This morning, they issued their earnings release, their investor update and a presentation that they will reference during this call. complete of those documents are available on their website at and believe been filed with the SEC.

    Joining me here in original York to debate their results are Robin Hayes, their chief executive officer; Marty St. George, EVP, commercial and planning; Steve Priest, their EVP, chief fiscal officer; and Joanna Geraghty, their president and chief operating officer. This morning's summon includes forward-looking statements about future events. Actual results may differ materially from those expressed in the forward-looking statements due to many factors and, therefore, investors should not plot undue reliance on these statements.

    For additional information concerning factors that could cause results to differ from the forward-looking statements, please refer to their press release, 10-Q and other reports filed with the SEC. besides during the course of their call, they may debate several non-GAAP fiscal measures. For a reconciliation of these non-GAAP measures to GAAP measures, please refer to the tables at the halt of their earnings release, a copy of which is available on their website. And now, I would enjoy to gyrate the summon over to Robin Hayes, JetBlue's CEO.

    Good morning, everyone, and thank you for joining us. I'd enjoy to start with my thanks to their 22,000 crew members across their network for complete their hard travail through 2018. I'd besides enjoy to congratulate their crew members for operating at the airline at a 100% completion from December 10 through January 11th. This is an impressive achievement as they safely delivered their customers to their destinations during one of the busiest times of the year.

    We besides want to concede the hard travail of their federal government partners, especially their partners at the TSA, Customs and brink Protection, and their partners at the FAA and air traffic control for their continued champion and professionalism during the shutdown. At this point, we've not seen a significant impact to their operations nor their bookings. However, they are increasingly concerned about the shutdown's consequences for convenient and efficient air travel and for the economy overall. They are close to a tipping point as many of these employees are about to miss a second paycheck.

    Our crew members and customers are likely to physiognomy extended security delays -- extended security lines, flight delays and even cancellations. And the longer this goes on, the longer it will hold for the air travel infrastructure to rebound. Their nation believes they must find a resolution to this stalemate today. They will subsist closely monitoring the events and will provide any updates if needed.

    During 2018, they continued to travail on their contrivance to strengthen the foundation of JetBlue and position the company to thrive. In bringing this very assiduous year to a close, I could not subsist supercilious of their accomplishments. Just to mention some of them. They executed on their cost guidance, taking a strong step toward their zero to 1% CASM CAGR goal, even as they invested to better their operations.

    We completed the negotiation of their first major labor contract. In fleet, they grew both their all-core and their award winning mint A321 fleets, kicked off their 320 restyling program and announced their plans to replace their E190 fleet with the A220 aircraft. They made significant progress ensuring they believe the gates and infrastructure they exigency to continue to grow relevance in their three largest focus cities. They continued investing in their crew members and customer experience, completing 23 self-service lobbies, employing technology to better customer service and enhancing their digital platform.

    We invested in their subsidiaries, JetBlue Tech Ventures and JetBlue Travel Products, and positioned travel products for growth with original leadership. Finally at their investor day in early October, they announced their comprehensive fiscal contrivance comprised of five structure blocks to create long-term value for their owners. 2018 was a year of significant fuel volatility. They cannot directly control the cost of oil or economic growth, but they can focus on executing the contrivance they laid out at Investor Day.

    We believe that their network pricing, fleet and cost initiatives will drive higher margins and returns and bear significant EPS growth going forward. They remain confident in their aptitude to execute on their structure blocks, and they believe they will subsist able to achieve their $2.50 to $3 EPS target for 2020. They await to hold a strong step toward their 2020 fiscal goals in 2019. They will, of course, subsist spry and respond to any short-term pressures should they emerge.

    Our team remains relentlessly focused on executing their plan, and they are pleased with the progress we've made to date on their structure blocks. Over the past two quarters, they took actions to recapture higher fuel costs with ancillary revenue initiatives and believe implemented their announced network reallocations. They are already seeing the positive impacts of these actions flowing through revenue. We're besides seeing the results of their structural cost program and believe secured approximately $200 million in 2020 cost savings to the pool earnings.

    We remain on track to hit their three-year cost commitment and are delighted that they reported better-than-expected unit cost results from the fourth quarter and full year even after three reductions in capacity. They recognize that managing cost is perhaps the most principal of complete the areas they can directly control. They await 2019 will subsist a stepping stone year to deliver on their 2020 goals, and to drive further improvements beyond 2020. Fuel prices believe gone down since their last earnings call, but they continue to travail toward improved margins even if jet fuel prices creep back higher.

    In 2019, they await to perceive the full-revenue profit of ancillary and network reallocation efforts. They besides contrivance to continue strengthening their customer value proposition, maturing their loyalty program and ancillary revenue are making the IT upgrades required to roll out fare option 2.0 later this year. They are mindful of the external environment, but remain focused and committed on executing the initiatives they control, which they believe will create value and drive returns for their owners. Thanks, again, to their crew members for helping us execute their contrivance and putting JetBlue on the path of drive.

    Marty, over to you.

    Marty St. George -- Executive Vice President, Commercial and Planning

    Thank you, Robin. Let me start with the capacity outlook on slip 6. During the fourth quarter, their flown capacity growth was 9.3%, which is above the midpoint of their guidance sweep of 7.5% to 9.5% due to strong completion in the quarter. They summon it in the fourth quarter of 2017, flown capacity was 2.5 points above scheduled growth due to the impact of hurricane in 2017.

    For the first-quarter 2019, they await capacity growth between 7.5% and 9.5%, and continue to contrivance for 5% to 7% growth in 2019. Their sweet spot for growth remains in the mid to lofty single-digit range. And their target in 2019 remains to subsist on the low half of that range. To subsist clear, they continue to manage their trade out of the assumption of higher fuel prices.

    We believe that the at a mid to lofty single-digit growth rate, they can continue to build and strengthen relevance in their focus cities, while still growing their margins. They aim to sustain a solid revenue trends and metamorphose capacity growth to EPS as they better their CASM ex-fuel performance. poignant to their network. Early this month, they implemented the second side of their network reallocation structure obscure as discussed at investor day and redeployed underperforming routes.

    We await this structure obscure will champion their RASM and further better margins in their focus cities. As a reminder, the January network changes followed redeployments from Long Beach to transcon markets which took result during the third and fourth quarter of 2018. During the fourth quarter, they besides continued up-gauge routes from their two largest focus cities, original York and Boston, with a margin accretive A321 all-core aircraft and their newly restyled A320s. They are delighted that once again and for the seventh consecutive quarter, Fort Lauderdale RASM growth outpaced system average.

    Our transcon franchise remained strong in both mint and non-mint markets, with the best year-over-year improvements in the mint besides coming in Fort Lauderdale. Turning to slip 7 and the revenue outlooks. We're very pleased with their fourth-quarter RASM performance of 2.4%, which was largely driven by strong close-in demand trends across the network. They ended the quarter above the midpoint of their initial guidance range, excluding a 0.3 point impact from higher completion factor.

    Our RASM showed a sequential improvement quarter over quarter. Then in the fourth quarter, it performed very much in line with expectations, with strong peaks especially close-in and continued improvement in trough periods. original York and Fort Lauderdale continue to pointto RASM strengths, and they were encouraged by sequential improvement in Boston. They were pleased with their RASM performance in the Caribbean, although looking forward they execute perceive capacity growth in parts of the region in respond to strong demand.

    Turning to their fourth-quarter outlook. They await RASM growth to subsist between minus 2% and positive 1% year over year. Up your modeling, their first-quarter RASM guidance translates to an underlying pilot of 0.75% to 3.75%, which added back the impact of calendar shift and weather. This year, the Easter passover calendar placement shifts roughly two points of RASM between the first and second quarters.

    Also recall that in the first quarter of 2018, RASM was positively impacted by a more energetic winter that impacted trough weeks. With regards to the government shutdown, to date they believe seen very modest impact on demand. At this point, they believe not seen material impact in first-quarter RASM. They are modeling demand carefully, but their focus remains on strengthening their RASM by executing their ancillary plan.

    In 2019, they are going to focus around their ancillary initiatives and ensuring they deploy their aircraft to the best and highest uses in the network. We've been pleased with the changes we've made to their ancillary pricing last August and await to realize the full $50 million in annualized bustle rate benefits in the first quarter. They continue to await revenue initiatives will add 1 point to 1.5 points of RASM profit for calendar 2019. I would enjoy to add my thanks to the crew members across JetBlue for the champion and executing their plan, and for their hard travail and taking supervision of their customers.

    And with that, I'll gyrate the summon over to Steve.

    Steve Priest -- Executive Vice President, Chief fiscal Officer

    Thank you, Marty. honorable morning, everyone. I'll start on slip 9 with some highlights from the fourth quarter. Revenue was $2 billion, up 12% year over year.

    Adjusted pre-tax margin was 10.4%, up 0.7 points from the fourth quarter of last year, mainly due to non-fuel cost control and strong revenue performance through the quarter. They reported a $0.55 GAAP EPS. Adjusted EPS was $0.50 per diluted share. This includes onetime costs related to the E190 fleet transition and the recently signed pilot contract, as well as an $18 million profit principally related to the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act that was signed into law at the halt of 2017.

    Our adjusted effectual tax rate this quarter was 24%. They await their effectual tax rate to subsist approximately 26% for 2019. poignant to slip 10. Executing on their cost initiatives remains my No.

    1 trade priority. Exactly one year ago, they laid their 2018 cost guidance, including the second-half inflection in their underlying CASM ex-fuel growth. I'm delighted to say, they exceeded their contrivance and reported underlying CASM ex-fuel growth below the midpoint of their full-year guidance. They successfully mitigated, added unit cost pressures from lower capacity, executing their cost-reduction efforts according to contrivance in both the first and second half of 2018.

    I'm pleased they ended their fourth quarter below their initial guidance. The team did a phenomenal job managing through a very energetic 2018 winter, mitigating capacity adjustments to manage ATC risks and higher fuel prices, and continuing to execute their structural cost program. I want to thank complete teams within JetBlue for their hard travail and finding additional opportunities to mitigate these pressures and deliver their budgets. poignant on to slip 11.

    During the fourth quarter, CASM ex-fuel decreased 3.6% year over year, below the low halt of their guidance of minus 3.5% to minus 1.5%. This includes a little profit of approximately 30 basis points from improved completion factor during the quarter. Their reported annual CASM ex-growth for 2018 was 1.1%. Looking into the first quarter, they await CASM ex-fuel growth to sweep between 1.5% and 3.5%.

    As a reminder, this guidance includes approximately 3-point impact from their pilot condense signed last August. poignant to slip 12. In 2019, they continue to await their unit cost to sweep between 0% and 2%. They anticipate CASM ex-fuel growth to subsist higher in the first half than the second half, largely result of the pilot condense signed on August 1, 2018.

    In the second half of 2019, they await to perceive further benefits from the ramp of the structural cost program and the greater impact of their A320 fleet restyling efforts as they travail to halt the year with 70 modified A320s. poignant on to slip 13, and their progress report on their structural cost program. They believe now achieved $199 million in bustle rate savings by 2020, from $173 million they called out in late October. They continue to await that their three efforts will result in bustle rate savings between $250 million and $300 million.

    The progress we're seeing as a result of nearly 160 individual initiatives, which are helping us reset their cost groundwork throughout JetBlue. These initiatives encompass renegotiated more cost-effective agreements with their trade partners, integrating technology into their processes and increasing productivity of their crew members on their assets. To give some examples on the sourcing side, they recently signed parts and components agreements for their current A321co fleet, and future NEO fleets and a long-term condense for weighty maintenance on their E190 airplanes. Turning to technology.

    We've decreased customer champion costs while improving service levels and making customer communications more efficient. Finally on productivity gains. They completed 23 self-service lobbies, improving their customer experience, while reducing cost and reinforcing scale benefits of up-gauging aircraft. We're besides thrilled with the early results of their biometrics efforts, which includes multi-proof-of-concept projects currently within their network.

    Turning to slip 14. They ended 2018 with 253 aircraft in their fleet. We've officially been notified by Airbus of widely known delays in NEO deliveries. They await a minimum of six A321neo deliveries in 2019 shifting as many as seven aircraft to 2020.

    There is no impact on their 2019 or 2020 capacity and their CASM guidance given that they anticipated there will subsist changes to their order reserve when they gave the guidance accordingly. They recently executed the purchase agreement with Airbus for their 60 A220 aircraft, a transaction they announced in July last year to replace their fleet of E190s. Two A320 delivers besides shift from 2020 to 2021, and two deliveries from 2020 to 2025. They continue to retain flexibility in their order book.

    For reference, they believe included their anticipated order reserve in the appendix section of their earnings desk and in their investor update. They believe restyled 10 A320 aircraft and anticipate additional an 60 restyled aircraft in 2019, with the poise of the fleet during 2020. They continue to perceive improved NPS scores and reduced unit costs on the restyled aircraft. This year, they besides await to hold their first A321neo, which includes the latest technology in fuel efficiency.

    Given the recent and anticipated changes in their order book, they are lowering their CAPEX guidance for 2019 to sweep of $1.2 billion to $1.4 billion, and increasing their 2020 guidance to a sweep of $1.5 billion to $1.7 billion. Their CAPEX is focused on purchasing aircraft engines and their restyling efforts. Turning to slip 15. This quarter, they repaid $44 million in debt and raised nearly $147 million in secured aircraft debt.

    We closed the quarter with an adjusted debt-to-cap ratio of 33%, and their cash and investments was 11.6% of trailing 12-month revenue. Their strong poise sheet continues to allow us to invest in the trade and to opportunistically recur excess capital to their owners. They currently believe a remaining poise of $375 million under authorization to repurchase shares. Before they gyrate to true questions mp;A, I would enjoy to thank their crew members for their hard travail in helping further create value for their customers and their owners.

    We are thrilled to perceive the emerging benefits of resetting their unit cost trajectory to grow their margins and earnings. They will now hold your questions. 

    Questions and Answers:

    David Fintzen -- Director of Investor Relations

    Thanks, everyone. Felicia, they are now ready for the question-and-answer session with the analysts. please Go ahead with the instructions.


    [Operator instructions] Their first question comes from Jamie Baker of JP Morgan.

    Jamie Baker -- J.P. Morgan -- Analyst

    [Inaudible] lottery. honorable morning, everybody. Can you embolden us better understand the degree to which your assumptions on IROPs influence the ex-fuel CASM outcome? So if I assume about the 1.5% to 3.5% ex-fuel CASM pilot for the first quarter, is it a foregone conclusion that if they don't perceive another flake of snow in the northeast, then capacity will approach in at the lofty halt and the 1.5% is achieved. I'm just never really understood the degree, if any, that how much influence the weather really has on that cost sweep and how they assume about that as they live through the weather ourselves as the quarter moves on.

    Any color?

    Steve Priest -- Executive Vice President, Chief fiscal Officer

    Hi, Jamie. Steve here. honorable morning. I'll pick this one up.

    Jamie, we're very used to inclement weather during the winter in the Northeast based on their focus cities and the network that they fly, and they generally budget for a typical winter in the northeast. So when you assume about a everyday winter with a number of seasonal storms, that's what they contrivance for and that's what they budget for. The only time you would perceive us pilot anything differently and change capacity guidance, if they saw a prolonged challenging winter and then you would perceive us summon out a specific item. But I assume what you should assume about is, it is a pretty gauge winter.

    We believe everyday weather patterns that we'd expect. That's complete included in their capacity pilot and their CASM pilot that they achieve out for quarter one of 2019.

    Jamie Baker -- J.P. Morgan -- Analyst

    So that would imply sort of a midrange outcome if they believe one of those typical winters, more or less?

    Steve Priest -- Executive Vice President, Chief fiscal Officer

    Yes, that's absolutely correct. Absolutely correct.

    Jamie Baker -- J.P. Morgan -- Analyst

    OK, that helps. And second question, On Fare Options 2.0, how should they subsist thinking about execution risk? I mean, 1.0 went smoothly, but it didn't introduce any lower cost points. 2.0 specifically does identify lower cost offerings. I realize you may believe some of those fares out there and ultra low-cost carrier overlap markets already.

    I realize basic economy has been accretive for others. I'm just trying to assess how likely it is that 2.0 for JetBlue is similarly accretive. besides does it Go live systemwide complete at once, or does it roll out in phases?

    Marty St. George -- Executive Vice President, Commercial and Planning

    Hi, Jamie, it's Marty. Thanks for the question.

    Jamie Baker -- J.P. Morgan -- Analyst

    Hi, Marty.

    Marty St. George -- Executive Vice President, Commercial and Planning

    You know, we've looked at the execution of these different cost points by other carriers, and we're very comfortable with their pilot that they gave at Investor Day as far as the benefits of Fare Options 2.0. From an execution risk perspective, I'll discourse from the economic side, which is, I just worship having more cost points with the better aptitude segment, the customer base. I was very successful in Fare Options 1.0 as far as how they created the bundles that would embolden customers derive the most value. And I'm looking forward for a different combination in 2.0.

    Joanna Geraghty -- President and Chief Operating Officer

    If I could...

    Jamie Baker -- J.P. Morgan -- Analyst

    And did you roll out complete at once?

    Marty St. George -- Executive Vice President, Commercial and Planning

    Well, again. I assume going back to what they had said earlier, it's really a fourth-quarter '19 event going forward. And if it's enjoy most initiatives at JetBlue, we'll test and learn in individual markets, just enjoy they execute with pricing today. It's sort of everyday course of trade for us, just with different bundles.


    Your next question comes from Duane Pfennigwerth with Evercore.

    Duane Pfennigwerth -- Evercor ISI -- Analyst

    Hey, thanks. Just on your JetBlue vacations that you've split off. Can you give us an update on where you are in ramping that revenue backup? And what the longer-term opportunity you perceive with respect to attach rates, etc.?

    Robin Hayes -- Chief Executive Officer

    Yes, you know. Thanks, Duane. It's Robin. I'll hold that.

    I assume as they highlighted previously, they were challenged in 2018 with a cutover that they had in the middle of the year. They definitely had some issues with that, they were transparent. The honorable intelligence is that we've now cycled against that and they are sort of back as they view at, sort of, Q1, 2019. They are back where they were and can view to build forward.

    Andres, who is their president of their tech -- travel products has now hired his team, they've taken some space. There is a number of different sort of original businesses that we're working on, and we're very comfortable that we're in a trajectory to hit the numbers that they shared as Part of their 2020 EPS goal.

    Duane Pfennigwerth -- Evercor ISI -- Analyst

    And then, sorry, could you update us on where attach rates are today and where you assume you can derive them to?

    Robin Hayes -- Chief Executive Officer

    Yes. So we've talked before about sort of their attach rate in very low single-digits. Of course, the 1.5%. I think, they said 1.4% at Investor Day.

    So you should hold 1.5% as rounding, Duane, and not sort of me signaling a incremental improvement already. But I execute assume that -- now that's an average, and so on inescapable Caribbean markets the attach rate is higher than that. But that's where they perceive the opportunity and certainly the focus of the team in the first year or two is to multiply those attach rate. It's very low hanging fruit.

    We know the customers. They believe the customers. They're buying this product today. They just believe to execute a better job converting them over to JetBlue product other than the flight.

    And so that's what the focus is on, and we've seen upside to that attach rate.

    Duane Pfennigwerth -- Evercor ISI -- Analyst

    And then just for my follow-up, and I apologize if you said it already. But how many A320s are restyled currently? And how execute you perceive that progressing over the course of the year? So what's that number by the fourth quarter of this year? Thanks for taking the questions.

    Steve Priest -- Executive Vice President, Chief fiscal Officer

    No problem. Hi, Duane, honorable morning. It's Steve here. As of the halt of the year, we've completed 10 restyled aircraft.

    We now believe 11 done. They got four lines running. And by the halt of 2019, they will believe completed an additional 60 aircraft. So you can await 17 total by the year-end.

    Duane Pfennigwerth -- Evercor ISI -- Analyst

    Thank you.

    Steve Priest -- Executive Vice President, Chief fiscal Officer

    Thank you very much.


    Your next question comes from Catherine O'Brien with Goldman Sachs.

    Catherine OBrien -- Goldman Sachs -- Analyst

    Good morning, everyone. Thanks for the time. Maybe a question just on the complexion of your capacity growth for this year. What's really driving that? Is it gauge, destination, the combination of both? And then maybe some color on how to assume about that on domestic versus international would subsist helpful? Thank you.

    Marty St. George -- Executive Vice President, Commercial and Planning

    Hi, Cate, it's Marty. Thanks for the question. So I assume if you view at their 2019 growth and especially in light of some of the fleet contrivance changes that Steve announced minute bit earlier on the call, their growth this year is definitely focused on gauge and to a lesser extent stage. And from a direction geographically, still very much focused on Caribbean, Florida and transcon.

    I will mention that they took their last mint configured 321 at the halt of last year for a while. This year, the planes they are getting will subsist the all-core configuration. I think, as Steve had said earlier, both of those plans are their highest margin airplanes and very pleased with how mint has grown. I assume we're going to hold some of the all-core planes for a while before they switch back to more mint at some unannounced point in the future.

    Catherine OBrien -- Goldman Sachs -- Analyst

    OK, got it. And then maybe one for Steve. So what are the biggest buckets left on your cost program to derive from $199 million bustle rate you've locked in now to the full $250 million to $300 million? And when should they await to update on these remaining items?

    Steve Priest -- Executive Vice President, Chief fiscal Officer

    Good morning, Catherine. Thanks very much for the question. I firstly wanted to dispute I've been delighted with the progress that we've made. And I just refer back to my prepared comments where they basically had $200 million in terms of bustle rate for 2020.

    And there's a 160 initiatives that we've completed complete are under way. They continue to execute against those significant items. And if you refer to Page 13 of their deck, you can perceive a minute bit of color on those. I assume the two -- a brace of the bigger areas that they continue to progress forward with, one is, I suppose, one of the final pillars of technical operations, which are the RFP that we've got out on the V2500 engines that power their 193 Airbus aircraft, and besides around components where they will subsist doing more travail as they progress through 2019.

    The other locality continues to subsist excited about is in distribution. We've told you before on their earnings calls and with investors about the CSS RFP that we've got going forward, so that's well under way. And then from the core pillar, we've invested heavily in their outsourcing -- their strategic sourcing team and the leadership, and they've made tremendous progress over 2017 and 2018, and there's more to approach in 2019 as they Go through that. So I am confident in the glide path that they believe to derive to the $250 million to $300 million.

    There's plenty of initiatives to go, and we're well on track in terms of going forward.

    Catherine OBrien -- Goldman Sachs -- Analyst

    Understood. Thank you.


    Your next question comes from Michael Linenberg of Deutsche Bank.

    Michael Linenberg -- Deutsche Bank -- Analyst

    Yes, hey. Two questions here. I guess, first to Robin. Robin, as you assume about launching transatlantic, and I assume 2019 is maybe the determination year for that or at least as it pertains to, I guess, the longer haul version of the Airbus narrow body.

    As you assume about that and you sort of perceive some of the commentary coming up from some of the other carriers talking about may subsist some softness that we're seeing in transatlantic and then some of the data points that we're hearing from there as well, as well as the geopolitical issues. Does that give you pause? And I'm besides sort of asking this within the context of hitting that $2.50 to $3 EPS target for 2020. You sort of achieve complete that together. Does that give you pause? And if you execute regard the Atlantic, it's something that's going to subsist a 2022, 2023 phenomenon? How execute you assume about it given just complete those poignant parts?

    Robin Hayes -- Chief Executive Officer

    No, thanks. And honorable morning, Mike. Thanks for the question. As I said before, ultimately what will pilot us is margin.

    And when they talked about their transatlantic thoughts, it's very much geared around how they assume about Boston and original York, how they build out relevance. And some of these the European markets enjoy London and now some of the largest markets in Boston that they don't serve. And so that is the context. But they really hold that determination in the selfsame artery they view at any other original route that they may add at any principal time.

    What is the selection that's going to drive the most margin. Obviously, if they execute hold a determination to flit to Europe, there are number of other issues that they exigency to travail through in terms of airport access and ETOPS certification, those things hold time. Now I await that during the course of the year, they will sort of communicate a determination on most of these, not ready to dispute anything now. Clearly, we're mindful of sort of economic factors that come.

    And but these things execute watch to subsist cyclical. And I assume if they were to flit transatlantic, the opportunity they believe is to present a very strong premium offering and at a much lower fare than people are paying -- a significant number those customers are paying today. And as they saw on the mint -- when they launched mint on the transcon in 2014, that in itself has a stimulation result on the market. So complete of those things that will achieve into a immense part, we're constantly evaluating them.

    But even if they were to go, it would still remain a relatively little Part of their overall ASM and cost structure.

    Michael Linenberg -- Deutsche Bank -- Analyst

    OK, great. Thanks for that. And just my second question to either Robin or maybe even Joanna as it relates to ops. I assume over this past week, they had storms approach through in northeast.

    And I noticed, I think, JetBlue basically canceled complete of its Boston on one of the days and the others did not. I mean, I assume most other carriers tried to maintain some semblance of a schedule, but I know it was still bit of a challenge. The fact that your -- for complete intents and purposes, the North Eastern centric carrier, execute you -- when weather comes through, execute you believe to hold a more conservative approach given that a lot of your traffic, a lot of your assets flow through Boston and original York. And is that what drove Boston, the shutdown that day or was it just somebody moved maybe a minute bit more quickly and maybe afterwards they realized they probably were too conservative in dealing with it? Thank you, Joanna.

    Joanna Geraghty -- President and Chief Operating Officer

    Yes, sure. Thanks so much for the question. So they contrivance their cancellation strategy based upon the forecast known at the time. And that's what guides us in those decisions.

    And based on the forecast for the Boston area, they believe the determination to cancel their Boston plane on Sunday was the amend decision. And I assume if you actually view at some of the challenges other carriers faced when trying to operate portions of their schedule, you saw delays that exceeded eight, nine, 10, 11 hours. And from a customer perspective, that's a rather unpleasant experience. So they contrivance their operation based on the forecast.

    We contrivance their operation based upon the resources that they have. Robin and I were actually up in Boston over the weekend and into Monday, so they saw firsthand. And I assume if you view Boston, the Boston struggled with the recovery given the weather conditions that continue in terms of some of the icing challenges. So other carriers cancel a lot on Sunday as well.

    Unfortunately, a lot of those ended up being true time, which is not optimal for anybody.

    Robin Hayes -- Chief Executive Officer

    Good morning, Michael. Just to bit on Joanna's point, because they were up there. Monday was actually the biggest challenge, because it was late to derive the domain open and back to running. And during the day, they had seven hours ground delay programs.

    And so this does become a judgment summon as to whether you should cancel in advance, and they protect customers into other flights or whether you want them to approach to the airport and undergo long delay. So they believe a very experienced team looking at that. I assume we've been through this more than anybody else because of their geography, and their team overall did a very, very honorable job balancing complete of these factors.

    Michael Linenberg -- Deutsche Bank -- Analyst

    Great. Thanks. Thanks, Robin. Thanks, Joanna.


    Your next question comes from Brandon Oglenski with Barclays.

    Brandon Oglenski -- Barclays -- Analyst

    Hey, thanks for taking my question. I guess, Robin, when they view at the outlook here through 2020, there is a lot of positive aspects to the tale here on the revenue side, the cost side. But -- and I don't want to focus on the solitary quarter. But the metrics here, with RASM potentially down, CASM up, maybe a minute bit higher than they initially thought.

    I standfor it just feels enjoy the initial step here is in the wrong direction. So how execute they reconcile this? And execute they assume they derive a lot of this revenue back in second quarter, and so should just view this more as timing than anything?

    Robin Hayes -- Chief Executive Officer

    Yes. I'm going to hurl that over to Steve because he hasn't answered a question in a few, and he's thinking to retort it. Steve?

    Steve Priest -- Executive Vice President, Chief fiscal Officer

    Thank you, Robin. honorable morning, Brandon. i hope you're well. A brace of things.

    From the RASM standpoint, let's not forget about the Easter and passover shift that moves 2 points from quarter 1 to quarter 2. So the Q1 RASM side of the house is purely timing. And Marty, soft of -- you heard Marty's prepared comments earlier about the current environment. I assume it's probably worth spending a minute bit of time explaining the CASM trajectory for the full year on what's happening in the quarter because candidly, it is a minute bit of choppiness.

    The first thing I execute want to dispute is that I believe been very pleased with the impact of structural cost program has had on their underlying cost performance. And when I execute view at Q1, it is in line with where they exigency to subsist to hit that 2019 plan, which delivers underlying negative CASM and keeps us on the path to their zero to one CAGR commitment that we've laid out. The choppiness is really around the time and materials elements for their Airbus engines and that maintenance CASM does creep around from quarter to quarter. And so the savings that you perceive on a quarter-to-quarter basis are not equally shown.

    I would embolden you to hold a view at their 2018 unit maintenance costs on a quarter-by-quarter basis and perceive how they progressed as a reference point. And that's why they laid out both Q1, H1 and a H2 pilot for both 2018 and 2019. As they showed in slip 10 of the deck, which really clarifies that sort of choppiness. So I would embolden you to view at H1 versus H2 from that standpoint for each quarter.

    It's exactly the process they laid out in 2018, and it's exactly how they delivered. And you view at 2019, and we're doing exactly the same. So I'm very, very pleased with what they delivered in '18. I'm very pleased with the cost trajectory for '19 and the pilot outlines exactly the progression that we're going to rate as they Go through the year.

    Brandon Oglenski -- Barclays -- Analyst

    I cherish that, Steve. And I guess, maintenance was a immense portion of that tech ops savings that you guys highlighted even two years ago and recently at the analyst meeting. execute you believe that you believe the contrast in plot to deliver on those 2020 goals and to derive CASM lower?

    Steve Priest -- Executive Vice President, Chief fiscal Officer

    We have, I would say, disproportionately focused over the last 18 months on maintenance, firstly because it's a significant cost for the business. And as they laid out at investor day, they believe seen significant percentages of CASM multiply over a number of years. The journey is not over yet, Brandon. Again, they made significant progress both through the initiatives we've done with the NEO's and the A320s.

    And when they strategically been looking at those, they believe been manner in intelligence their existing fleet subsist it with their CF34 engines on the E190s and their V2500 engines on the Airbus fleet. The honorable intelligence on the Airbus fleet and actually on the GE fleet as they Go forward. They believe not only been using some leverage from those bigger deals, but we're more been using a proportion of used materials and some generic parts, which they summon them PMA. In addition to looking at both scope optimization with the MRO's who are servicing those engines.

    So there is more to come. And they are, as I mentioned earlier, in a large RFP for the V2500 engines going forward, which is nicely on track. As I've said before, we're not going to rush it for their quarter-to-quarter CASM savings because they are resetting the cost trajectory for the long-term. But view at 2018 maintenance CASM.

    Look at what we're laying out for maintenance CASM for 2019. I'm confident in the path, and I'm confident in the team to execute what they exigency to deliver.

    Brandon Oglenski -- Barclays -- Analyst

    Thank you.


    Your next question comes from Kevin Crissey with Citi Group.

    Kevin Crissey -- Citi -- Analyst

    Hey, thanks for the time. My line cleave out, so I apologize. I doubt this one's a repeat. Maybe it's for Marty or Dave Clark, if he's in the room.

    Talking about revenue management evolution, I perceive you believe hiring for a position with next gen revenue management tools as Part of the, kindly of the essential responsibilities, as well as something called revenue integrity robotics. Would you subsist able to talk about kindly of the things that you're doing in the revenue management, obviously, without giving away any competitive information?

    Marty St. George -- Executive Vice President, Commercial and Planning

    No. Hi, Thanks for the question. Listen, I assume from a JetBlue perspective, when it comes to things enjoy pricing and revenue management, they believe a different model than most of their competitors. We're primarily a point-to-point airline, they carry very minute number of connecting customers.

    We've spent a lot of years working with relatively simplistic models. They started a application last year -- earlier last year, about trying to motif out what the future would subsist of pricing. And again, I think, the one thing I'd dispute is, my view of revenue management is, it's complete encompassing. It's pricing, it's inventory, it's the sizing of what's in their individual customer bundles, and they perceive a lot of opportunities there.

    I assume that because we're not sort of a follower enjoy a lot of their competitors are, and they execute their own things, they assume is a remarkable opportunity here. I don't really believe any details to announce. I mean, but they are very optimistic about it. I assume it's going to subsist an terrible lot of upside.

    We realize that the world of machine learning and AI is much, much bigger than they would even imagine. They made a lot of progress in that, but they believe nothing to declar birthright now.

    Kevin Crissey -- Citi -- Analyst

    OK. Thank you. I know it was a difficult question to answer. execute I bethink an RFP for reservation system or something enjoy that or maybe I missed an update on that or maybe I'm just totally wrong.

    Steve Priest -- Executive Vice President, Chief fiscal Officer

    Good morning, Kevin. Steve here. As I -- unfortunately, you dropped off. Catherine had asked a similar question about what the opportunities are.

    So they don't know RFP at the moment, and when they believe anything to announce, they certainly will.

    Kevin Crissey -- Citi -- Analyst

    Thank you. Sorry about that.

    Steve Priest -- Executive Vice President, Chief fiscal Officer

    No problem.


    Your next question comes from Savi Syth with Raymond James.

    Savi Syth -- Raymond James & Associates -- Analyst

    Hey, honorable morning. I just wanted to clarify minute bit on the core RASM trends. You are seeing it Go from 2.4% to 1.75%, even though you believe the kindly of network and ancillary contribution. Is that really driven by kindly of higher capacity growth because I assume last quarter, there was some of the capacity was not true capacity growth, but schedule-to-schedule issues.

    Just kindly of inquisitive about the sequential trend there on the core side?

    Marty St. George -- Executive Vice President, Commercial and Planning

    Hi, Savi, it's Marty. I assume if you view at the guidance we've laid out and view at their performance across 2018, I assume it was actually very consistent with sort of that two handle on their RASM growth. We're basically complete cleaned in the midpoint of their first-quarter guidance is 2.25%, which is more or less where we've been for the entire year other than in blip in the third -- fourth quarter. We're really not seeing material slowing in their view.

    This is sort of chugging along just enjoy they thought it would.

    Savi Syth -- Raymond James & Associates -- Analyst

    Thanks. That's helpful. Thank you, Marty. And then just on the kindly of the focus city breakout, I was just kindly of inquisitive on the transcon.

    Mint now is probably kindly of fully in there. And I know you called out kindly of the trends are strong. Are you seeing kindly of unit revenue is that trend accelerating, just similar, consistent or is it decelerating because of the mint contribution is kindly of lapping itself?

    Marty St. George -- Executive Vice President, Commercial and Planning

    Yes. With respect to their regional performance, the transcon is doing well both in mint and non-mint markets. One thing -- the one thing I'll give you about mint, specifically about mint premium travel. Their mint RASM is up 6% and the capacity growth is in the mid-to high-teens.

    We continue to perceive extraordinary demand for this product for any of you who believe flown it, I assume you've recognized why. You believe a combination of the best product in the industry and everyday low pricing and no upgrades. It has absolutely been really remarkable margin builder for us. And frankly, with the service delivery that their crew members provide both on the ground and in the air, we've had no inconvenience maximizing and using that as an opportunity to derive RASM up.


    Your next question comes from Hunter Keay with Wolfe Research.

    Hunter Keay -- Wolfe Research, LLC -- Analyst

    Thanks, honorable morning. Hey, Robin. You guys believe been pretty vocal in your opposition to U.S. airlines forming JVs with foreign airlines.

    And I'm kindly of inquisitive if that's going to dovetail with your own International plans. Obviously, I know, the distinction in a JV and a codeshare, but does the opposition to International JV, sort of, preclude you guys from pursuing that path down the road when you elect to execute it?

    Robin Hayes -- Chief Executive Officer

    Hi, Hunter. honorable morning and thanks for the question. Actually, just to clarify, we've actually -- and I'm on my record -- my comments are public in a number of talks I've given. What they said is we're not necessarily opposed to JVs, but they exigency to believe better conditions to promote and allow original entrant competition around it.

    So if you look, for example, their Delta Aeromexico filing, there were three remedies that they proposed that landed up being in the final order. The first was to remove the exclusivity provisions because they believe that those act as a barrier to competition. Now they believe other airlines approach us, who are in JVs, who want to travail with us, but they were unable to execute so. Secondly, to achieve a time line around it because these things derive approved and they are forever.

    Other regulatory authorities don't execute that and so, again, they proposed a three to five-year time line, five year was actually adopted in the Delta Aeromexico joint venture. And the third thing is, when these joint ventures flit into congested airports, that slot needs to subsist divested to promote competition. And so, again, they are very clearly with their language. It wasn't sort of a no per se.

    It was a -- if they continue, there needs to subsist better protection so that original entrants and other airlines can compete against the JVs and believe a random of being successful. I hope it's helped in clarifying comments on that.

    Hunter Keay -- Wolfe Research, LLC -- Analyst

    Yes. No, that's good. I cherish it. And then question for Steve.

    On slip 13, I'm kindly of inquisitive to know why you dropped in this multiyear condense with an IFE system for original aircraft into the distribution bucket. I mean, it's a mistake, and I don't really perceive it is related unless there is some angle that I'm missing and something unique you guys are doing, maybe something NDC related. But can you embolden me understand why that is there?

    Steve Priest -- Executive Vice President, Chief fiscal Officer

    Yes, Hunter. Thank you very much and honorable morning. remarkable question. We're not being cute at all, Hunter.

    The key thing for us is that they laid out four pillars of the structural cost program back in December 2016. And not complete initiatives fits perfectly into each of those pillars. And so you're going to perceive a brace of outliers in terms of the descriptions. So the last thing they want to execute is to quit confusing their investors, and you guys believe noticed as analysts.

    So it is what you would await it to be. It's an IFE system, RFP that they went out with. We're pleased with the results of it. So nothing to perceive here.

    It's just a initiative that happens to subsist under that specific pillar.

    Hunter Keay -- Wolfe Research, LLC -- Analyst

    I got you. OK. Thank you.

    Steve Priest -- Executive Vice President, Chief fiscal Officer

    Thank you. Thanks, Hunter.


    Your next question comes from Helane Becker with Cowen.

    Helane Becker -- Cowen and Company -- Analyst

    Hi, everybody. Thank you, operator. Thanks for the time to request a question. So if I view at page -- slip 15 on your poise sheet, and as they assume about 2019 and the CAPEX you believe for this year, as well as natural, I guess, debt repayment.

    So two questions. One, are you thinking of financing aircraft deliveries in the market or are you thinking of paying cash? And two, how should they assume about the slide, a year from now, after your CAPEX decisions and your other priority investments?

    Steve Priest -- Executive Vice President, Chief fiscal Officer

    Good morning, Helane. It's very nice to discourse to you. The first thing I would dispute is how pleased and supercilious I am of the shape of the poise sheet. I mean, when I view at the peer set across the U.S., first to believe a poise sheet with the 33% adjusted debt-to-cap and sort of between the 10 to 12 liquidity level, it's certainly a plot of force that I would enjoy to perceive JetBlue in.

    To subsist honest, when they assume about aircraft purchases, it's their everyday course of business. I'm pleased to dispute in 2018, they delivered free cash flow as you'll start to perceive in their results when they close the K. They continue to forecast and await continued free cash flow generation during 2019 and 2020. They will, as they hurl cash of the business, we're thinking about the best deployments of that.

    So really as ever they continue with the balanced approach to capital allocation. You could continue to await a blend of cash and sort of debt raises to purchase aircraft going forward. But again, I'm very, very pleased and confident with the trajectory of JetBlue's poise sheet. And as things progress going forward, we'll continue to sustain the markets updated.

    Helane Becker -- Cowen and Company -- Analyst

    OK, great. Actually, that was really my only question. Thank you.

    Steve Priest -- Executive Vice President, Chief fiscal Officer

    Thanks, Helane. remarkable to discourse to you this morning.


    Your next question comes from Joseph DeNardi from Stifel.

    Joseph DeNardi -- Stifel fiscal Corp. -- Analyst

    Yes, thank you very much. Marty, it seems enjoy we've heard some positive commentary from other airlines about Latin, South America RASM trends. Just given your exposure there, can you comment on kindly of what your expectations from that piece of your trade are going forward. I know the exposure you guys believe in Puerto Rico, makes it a minute bit unique, but just maybe talk about what you're seeing there and what your expectations are?

    Marty St. George -- Executive Vice President, Commercial and Planning

    Sure. Well, I assume when they view at Latin overall, you know, I assume the only true tale for 2019 is, they believe seen some capacity approach into the region. It's really -- it's sort of spotty in different places. It's non-hurricane markets or not hurricane-impacted markets, some hurricane markets.

    Certainly the lofty point of their performance for several years has been Caribbean. We're very optimistic on their position there. It's a bit of a mixed bag now. But again, capacity ebbs and flows.

    So I don't assume they view at any of this as a longer-term trend.

    Joseph DeNardi -- Stifel fiscal Corp. -- Analyst

    OK. And then, Steve, just on the CAPEX profile. Can you give us, just based on your current order book, when and what peak CAPEX is just given that book?

    Steve Priest -- Executive Vice President, Chief fiscal Officer

    Yes. It's a very, very honorable question. And honorable morning. Obviously, we're poignant through that.

    We're sort of -- I assume what you should assume about is how the order reserve progresses as they navigate through the replacement of the E190 fleet in addition to their organic growth. That delivery schedule is laid out in appendix C of their presentation this morning. I assume you can start to perceive in 2023 and 2024, where that peaks as they transition from the E190 to the incredibly accretive from both the margin and revenue standpoint of the A320s. So it will ramp a minute bit.

    And I assume you're probably thinking about peak in '23, 2024. The other thing that we've looked at and we've presented in the deck is, and I alluded to in my prepared comments, was the shift in the NEO aircraft that we're seeing in 2019, 2020. And we've given sort of CAPEX guide, which is directional with a minimum of six aircraft. So as they continue to travail with Airbus as they progress through '19, you'll derive a sense of that.

    But it should in some artery peak in '23, '24 as they Go forward.

    Joseph DeNardi -- Stifel fiscal Corp. -- Analyst

    Steve, is the expectation that the trade is going to subsist -- the trade environment and the just performance of JetBlue is going to subsist -- believe to subsist honorable enough to generate enough cash to champion that CAPEX or are you willing to disburse the poise sheet to finance that order book?

    Steve Priest -- Executive Vice President, Chief fiscal Officer

    As I've mentioned in a previous question that sort of came today, I assume it was from Helane, about the foundation of the poise sheet for JetBlue is incredibly important. And we're absolutely focused on that. They laid out a very compelling contrivance through to 2020, and I would embolden you to view at macro associated with that. I was even talking about a fuel environment with 233 jet in it.

    So we're confident about the path. We'll obviously continue to sustain a close eye on the macro environment. The other thing, I would say, they believe a significant even of flexibility in their order book. So we'll continue to view at that.

    And then finally, the key thing that JetBlue is going to drive is margin. And so they will rate the birthright CAPEX investments and the birthright fleet investments to rate sure that we're driving both relative and absolute margins going forward. So that plays into the decisions that we'll navigate as they progress through the next few years.

    Joseph DeNardi -- Stifel fiscal Corp. -- Analyst

    Thanks, Steve. That's helpful.

    Steve Priest -- Executive Vice President, Chief fiscal Officer

    Thank you.


    [Operator instructions] Your next question comes from Joe Caiado with Credit Suisse.

    Jose Caiado -- Credit Suisse -- Analyst

    Hey, honorable morning, everyone. Thanks for taking my questions. First question I believe is a follow-up on something Kevin was asking about earlier. At investor day, you said you're working on original revenue management tools to embolden with merchandising, but besides to enable some of these original product offerings, the Fare Options, basic economy.

    And you're besides investing in a original distribution capability. Marty, I recognize you've got nothing original to declar birthright now, but should they assume about the timing of the launch of basic economy in Q4 as tied to the successful progress and implementation of those original tools?

    Marty St. George -- Executive Vice President, Commercial and Planning

    Hi, Joe, thanks for the question. I would not tie those things together explicitly. I would say, we're already doing some dynamic travail with some of the modeling that we're doing. So there's not going to subsist a immense bang launch of everything.

    I would summon this an evolution rather than revolution, but we're very optimistic about the opportunities they perceive out there. And again, I think, I'd Go back to the opportunity that they believe as primarily direct business, primarily leisure business. They don't really necessarily believe to supervene some of the selfsame orthodoxy that their competitors do. So they assume there's a remarkable opportunity for us here.

    Jose Caiado -- Credit Suisse -- Analyst

    Got it. Thanks. And then my second question is a immense picture, kindly of long-term, besides focused on a potential expansion into the transatlantic. So you've got the A220s coming genesis next year, and that's obviously going to replace the E190 fleet.

    Your comments around potential transatlantic expansion complete focused on the A321LR platform, if you elect to Go ahead and tow the trigger, I know you're not ready to declar anything. But I was just wondering, given the recent ETOP certification for the A220 and its aptitude to flit transatlantic, could you regard deploying that platform into the transatlantic market? execute you regard that kindly of fleet flexibility as you evaluate the potential for European service, or am I just artery off here?

    Robin Hayes -- Chief Executive Officer

    No. No. Thanks for the question. Robin.

    I'll hold that. As they said the primary role of the A220 is to replace the 190. And so that is the focus. Most of their thinking around a potential European expansion from their focus cities of Boston and JFK believe really been around the 321LR platform.

    I assume in the -- beyond that there may subsist lots of different opportunities that emerge, but that's so far out into the future that it's not something we're spending a lot of energetic time considering.

    Jose Caiado -- Credit Suisse -- Analyst

    Appreciate the color. Thanks, Robin.

    David Fintzen -- Director of Investor Relations

    And that concludes their fourth-quarter 2018 conference call. Thanks for joining us. believe a remarkable day.


    [Operator signoff]

    Duration: 66 minutes

    Call Participants:

    David Fintzen -- Director of Investor Relations

    Robin Hayes -- Chief Executive Officer

    Marty St. George -- Executive Vice President, Commercial and Planning

    Steve Priest -- Executive Vice President, Chief fiscal Officer

    Jamie Baker -- J.P. Morgan -- Analyst

    Joanna Geraghty -- President and Chief Operating Officer

    Duane Pfennigwerth -- Evercor ISI -- Analyst

    Catherine OBrien -- Goldman Sachs -- Analyst

    Michael Linenberg -- Deutsche Bank -- Analyst

    Brandon Oglenski -- Barclays -- Analyst

    Kevin Crissey -- Citi -- Analyst

    Savi Syth -- Raymond James & Associates -- Analyst

    Hunter Keay -- Wolfe Research, LLC -- Analyst

    Helane Becker -- Cowen and Company -- Analyst

    Joseph DeNardi -- Stifel fiscal Corp. -- Analyst

    Jose Caiado -- Credit Suisse -- Analyst

    More JBLU analysis

    This article is a transcript of this conference summon produced for The Motley Fool. While they strive for their ridiculous Best, there may subsist errors, omissions, or inaccuracies in this transcript. As with complete their articles, The Motley Fool does not assume any responsibility for your disburse of this content, and they strongly embolden you to execute your own research, including listening to the summon yourself and reading the company's SEC filings. please perceive their Terms and Conditions for additional details, including their Obligatory Capitalized Disclaimers of Liability.

    More From The Motley Fool

    Motley Fool Transcribing has no position in any of the stocks mentioned. The Motley Fool recommends JetBlue Airways. The Motley Fool has a disclosure policy.

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