310-091 exam Dumps Source : Sun Certified Bus. Component Developer java EE Platform 5
Test Code : 310-091
Test name : Sun Certified Bus. Component Developer java EE Platform 5
Vendor name : SUN
real questions : 305 true Questions
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Utilities were gradual to undertake IoT networking due to long improve cycles and interoperability complexities across distinct functions with differing network needs. Yet, more and more, they hear their utility customers emphasize the requisite to simplify and assist tremendous-scale out of doors networks that deal with an array of solutions from smart metering and distribution automation, to demand response and renewable power integration.
At DistribuTECH, they shared how Cisco’s carrying on with innovation is meeting this challenge. They showcased their plenary portfolio of utility industry solutions that involve Cisco Resilient Mesh and their FAN routers, goal-developed to improve interoperability. And they introduced that Cisco is the primary to achieve Wi-solar box area network (FAN) 1.0 interoperability certification for their IR509 Cisco Resilient Mesh industrial router.
Why is interoperability so important? Let’s rob a look.
The challenge of interoperability
typically, utilities and smart cities ought to fulfill various networking consume cases, with solutions from numerous providers, managed via diverse operations organizations and even conclude shoppers. as an instance, an influence utility might besides consume sensible grid, advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) and Distribution Automation (DA) networks. Interoperability becomes even more vital in the event that they requisite to combine distributed power resources (DER), which might consist of solutions the station they don’t possess direct control, corresponding to domestic photo voltaic, electric vehicle charging stations, or sensible highway lights.
First technology smart grid AMI and DA networks frequently used proprietary mesh networking technologies, partly IP-enabled and the consume of proprietary security protocols. but that usually meant safety become much less scrutinized, much less potent, and can possess had unknown vulnerabilities. without enough interoperability, utilities had been compelled to first opt for a network infrastructure vendor, after which require everysingle of their grid device carriers (e.g., for line sensors, meters, cap bank controllers) to integrate/certify communication modules from that community vendor.
The result is an extremely inefficient, time- and price-intensive procedure for everybody concerned. A utility customarily has to wait a long time until the combination and container compliance is done for everysingle of the grid gadgets earlier than they can deploy and consume the network simply. in the meantime, they could continue to flee distinctive networks each with distinctive communication technologies for diverse functions (e.g., line sensor vs. volt-var handle) and proceed to deal with lofty preservation cost, complexity, and fragility of their systems.
Cisco IoT options purpose to reduce interoperability complexities with intent-based networking, and assist velocity implementation by bringing partners collectively through their IoT DevNet software.
building relaxed and professional interoperability
whereas security and reliability are commandeer of intellect for their utility valued clientele, interoperability tends to rob a lower back seat in conversations. Yet interoperability is vital for persisted enlarge in IoT – and that’s where they are available. Cisco is leading the pack with their IR509 router, the first with Wi-sun FAN 1.0 interoperability certification.
Wi-sun FAN 1.0 gives for primary interoperability of instruments for community discovery, affiliation, authentication, key trade and rotation, encryption, RPL routing, and IPv6 wield assignment. Wi-sun compliance is gaining consideration, and that has both network carriers and device providers scrambling to glean licensed. With utilities enabling sensible metropolis infrastructures affection street lighting fixtures, EV charging, and sensible parking, a great number of vendors and functions are converging on the selfsame community, making wider adoption of Wi-solar inevitable.
meanwhile, as Wi-sun is evolving towards FAN 2.0 requisites, Cisco is conserving tempo to breathe equipped. We’re continuing to work on advanced elements such as time distribution, adaptive information fee and modulation, peer-to-peer verbal exchange, QoS and comfortable certificates re-enrollment.
Interoperability is a vital component in achieving IoT success – and we’ll glean you there.
traditionally, VERITAS extent manager (VxVM) has been the extent manager of alternative for shared storage in commercial enterprise-stage configurations. listed here, a free and easy-to-use alternative, Solaris volume manager application, which is a component of the Solaris 9 operating atmosphere (Solaris 9 OE) is explored. This ripen product offers identical functionality to VxVM. additionally, it is tightly integrated into the solar Cluster three.0 software framework and, hence, should breathe considered to breathe the quantity manager of choice for shared storage in this environment.
this text turned into up to date on may besides 23, 2003.Like this article? They recommend
With sun™ Cluster three.0 utility, you could consume two quantity managers: VERITAS volume manager (VxVM) software, and sun's Solaris™ extent manager utility, which turned into up to now referred to as Solstice DiskSuite™ software.
traditionally, VxVM has been the volume supervisor of alternative for shared storage in enterprise-degree configurations. during this solar BluePrints™ on-line article, they picture a free and simple-to-use alternative, Solaris extent supervisor software, which is a piece of the Solaris™ 9 operating ambiance (Solaris 9 OE). This ripen product offers similar functionality to VxVM. in addition, it's tightly built-in into the solar Cluster three.0 software framework and, therefore, may quiet breathe regarded to breathe the extent manager of option for shared storage during this environment. it would breathe preeminent that Solaris quantity manager software can't breathe used to supply volume administration for Oracle RAC/OPS clusters.
To assist their recommendation to fabricate consume of Solaris extent supervisor software, they existing right here theme matters:
"using Solaris volume supervisor utility With solar Cluster 3.0 Framework" on web page 2 explains how Solaris volume supervisor software functions in a solar Cluster three.0 atmosphere.
"Configuring Solaris volume supervisor application in the solar Cluster three.0 ambiance" on web page 10 offers a flee booklet and a reference implementation for creating disksets and volumes (metadevices)1 in a solar Cluster three.0 framework.
"advantages of the usage of Solaris extent manager utility in a sun Cluster 3.0 atmosphere" on page 15 summarizes the merits of using Solaris volume supervisor utility for shared storage in a sun Cluster three.0 environment.
The techniques offered listed here are in keeping with using the Solaris 9 OE and sun Cluster 3.0 supplant three utility.
earlier than they present their reference configuration, they picture some ideas to advocate you recall how Solaris quantity manager utility features in a sun Cluster three.0 ambiance. chiefly, they heart of attention on here topics:
sun Cluster application's consume of DID (disk id) devices to supply a special and consistent outfit tree on everysingle cluster nodes.
Solaris volume manager utility's consume of disksets, which enable disks and volumes to breathe shared amongst different nodes, and the diskset's illustration in the cluster called a device community.
the consume of mediators to enlarge the tense reproduction quorum (which is different from the cluster quorum) rule of Solaris quantity supervisor software, and to allow clusters to function in the adventure of specific dissimilar disasters.
The consume of schmaltzy partitions and the mdmonitord daemon with Solaris quantity supervisor application. whereas these accessories are not concerning the software's consume in a sun Cluster ambiance, they should quiet breathe regarded a piece of any decent configuration.
With sun Cluster 3.0 software, it is not integral to possess an identical hardware configuration on everysingle nodes. however, distinct configurations may additionally lead to distinctive rational Solaris OE names on each node. accept as fair with a cluster the station one node has a storage array connected on a host bus adapter (HBA) in the first peripheral piece interconnect (PCI) slot. On the different node, the array is connected to an HBA within the 2nd slot. A shared disk not off course 30 might besides whirl out to breathe being called /dev/rdsk/c1t30d0 on the first node and as /dev/rdsk/c2t30d0 on the different node. in this case, the actual Solaris OE gadget route is distinct on each node and it is probably going that the main-minor quantity admixture is different, as neatly.
In a non-clustered environment, Solaris quantity supervisor software makes consume of the rational Solaris OE names as constructing blocks for volumes. besides the fact that children, in a clustered ambiance, the extent definitions are accessible on the entire nodes and will, hence, breathe constant; the name and the essential/minor numbers should quiet breathe constant across the entire nodes. sun Cluster utility offers a framework of consistent and absorbing disk names and foremost/minor number combos. Such names are created in case you set up the cluster and they are referred to as DID names. They can breathe present in /dev/did/rdsk and /dev/did/dsk and are instantly synchronized on the cluster nodes such that the names and the principal/minor numbers are consistent between nodes. solar Cluster three.0 uses the device identification of the disks to guarantee that the selfsame identify exists for a given disk in the cluster.
all the time consume DID names when referring to disk drives to create disksets and volumes with Solaris volume supervisor software in a solar Cluster 3.0 ambiance.using Disksets to share Disks and Volumes among Nodes
Disksets, which might breathe a component of Solaris volume manager, are used to rescue the facts within a solar Cluster ambiance.
On everysingle nodes, aboriginal status database replicas possess to breathe created. These local status database replicas involve configuration counsel for in the neighborhood created volumes. as an example, volumes that are a piece of the mirrors on the boot disk. local status database replicas besides involve tips about disksets that are created in the cluster: The identify of the set, the names2 of the hosts that can personal the set, the disks in it and even if they possess got a replica on them and, if configured, the mediator hosts. here is an vital inequity between Solaris quantity manager utility and VxVM, because in VxVM, each diskgroup is self-contained: every disk in the community contains the group to which it belongs and the host that at the flash owns the community. If the final disk in a VxVM diskgroup is deleted, the neighborhood is deleted through definition.
At anybody time, a diskset has a sole host that has entry to it. The node that has entry is deemed to breathe the owner of the diskset and the action of getting ownership is known as "take" and the action of relinquishing ownership is called "unlock." In VxVM phrases, the take/release of a diskset are the import/export of a diskgroup. The proprietor of a diskset is called the present basic of that diskset. This capacity that although more nodes may besides breathe connected to the diskset and may potentially rob the diskset upon failure of the primary node, just one node can simply conclude input/output (I/O) to the volumes in the diskset. The time term shared storage merits further rationalization. They don't look to breathe shared within the sustain that each one nodes entry the disks simultaneously, however in the sustain that distinctive nodes are potential primaries for the set.
The advent of disksets involves three steps. First, a diskset receives a name and a first-rate host. This motion creates an entry for the diskset in the aboriginal status database of that host. whereas Solaris volume supervisor makes it viable for for a maximum of eight hosts, solar Cluster (at this time) handiest supports as much as four hosts. The rpc.metad daemon on the first node contacts the rpc.metad daemon on the second host, instructing it to create an entry for the diskset in the 2d host's aboriginal status database.
Now, disks can breathe introduced to the diskset. once again, the fundamental hosts rpc.metad daemon will contact the 2nd host in order that the local status databases on both nodes involve the selfsame guidance.
notice that you can add disks to any node that may potentially personal the diskset and the request is forwarded (proxied) to the fundamental node. here is carried out throughout the rpc.metacld daemon, which permits you to administer disksets from any cluster node. Neither rpc.metad and rpc.metacld may quiet breathe hardened out of a cluster that's using Solaris quantity supervisor application as a result of they are both measure to the operation of the Solaris quantity manager software components.
for those who add a brand current disk to a disk set, Solaris extent manager utility tests the disk layout and, if necessary, repartitions the disk to fabricate inescapable that the disk has an appropriately configured slice 7 with satisfactory house for a status database duplicate. The specific dimension of slice 7 is relative upon the disk geometry, however it could breathe a minimum of four Mbytes, and probably nearer to six Mbytes (counting on the station the cylinder boundaries lie).
The minimal size for slice seven will viable change in the future, in accordance with a entire lot of factors, together with the dimension of the status database duplicate and tips to breathe stored within the status database duplicate.
for consume in disk units, disks ought to possess a slice seven that meets specific criteria:
starts at sector 0
contains adequate house for disk label and status database replicas
can't breathe mounted
doesn't overlap with some other slices, including slice two
If the present partition desk doesn't meet these standards, Solaris volume supervisor application will repartition the disk. A diminutive component of every oblige is reserved in slice 7 to breathe used by Solaris quantity manager utility. The the leisure of the space on every power is positioned into slice 0. Any current statistics on the disks is lost with the aid of repartitioning.
After you add a drive to a disk set, you can besides repartition it as necessary, with the exception that slice 7 isn't altered in any manner.the usage of device companies to maneuver Disks and Volumes
sun Cluster three.0 software provides automatic exporting and taking of Solaris extent manager disksets and VxVM diskgroups. to accomplish this, you requisite to establish the diskset or diskgroup to the cluster. For each outfit (disk, tape, Solaris quantity supervisor diskset, or VxVM diskgroup) that may quiet breathe managed through the cluster, fabricate inescapable that there is an entry in the cluster configuration repository.
When a diskset or diskgroup is favorite to the cluster, it's referred to as a instrument community. a device neighborhood is an entry in the cluster repository that defines extra homes for the diskgroup or diskset. a instrument neighborhood can possess right here traits:
A node record that corresponds to the node record defined in the diskset.
A favorite node the station the cluster attempts to convey the device group online when the cluster boots. This with no wretchedness competence that after everysingle cluster nodes are booted at the equal time, the diskset is taken by its favourite node.
A failback policy, that if set to real, migrates the disk set to the favored node if the node is online. If the preferred node joins the cluster later, it'll whirl into the owner of the diskset (that is, the diskset will change from the node that presently owns it to the preferred node).
solar Cluster software besides provides huge failure fencing mechanisms to tarry away from facts entry via unauthorized nodes during gadget neighborhood transitions.
one of the most essential advantages of the consume of Solaris extent manager software in a solar Cluster three.0 environment is that the introduction and deletion of gadget agencies does not involve extra administration. if you create or delete a diskset with Solaris quantity supervisor utility commands, the cluster framework is immediately notified that it should create or delete a corresponding entry in the Cluster Configuration repository. which you can additionally manually trade the preferred node and failback policy with indifferent cluster interfaces.the consume of Mediators to control replica Quorum Votes
Disksets possess their personal replicas, that are added to a disk when the disk is establish into the diskset, given that the highest variety of replicas has now not been handed (50). it's viable to manually administer these replicas in the course of the metadb command, but commonly this is no longer required. The should conclude so is mentioned within the subsequent section. Replicas should breathe evenly dispensed throughout the storage enclosures that comprise the disks, and they should quiet breathe evenly dispensed across the disks on a per-disk-controller basis. In an wonderful ambiance, this distribution potential that anybody failure in the storage (disk, controller, or storage enclosure) does not impact the operation of Solaris extent supervisor application.
In a actual configuration that has an excellent number of storage enclosures, the want of half of the storage enclosures (as an example, due to power loss) leaves most efficacious 50 p.c of the diskset replicas obtainable. while the diskset is owned with the aid of a node, this will now not create a problem. youngsters, if the diskset is released, on a subsequent take, the replicas will breathe marked as being stale since the reproduction quorum of enhanced than 50 p.c shouldn't possess been reached. This capability that everysingle the information on the diskset will breathe study-most effective, and operator intervention may breathe required. If, at any element, the number of accessible replicas for either a diskset or the aboriginal ones falls below 50 %, the node will abort itself to maintain records integrity.
To boost this function, that you may configure a group to possess mediators. Mediators are hosts that may import [take] a diskset, and, when required, they deliver an further vote when a quorum vote is required (for instance, on a diskset import [take]). To assist the duplicate quorum requirement, mediators even possess a quorum requirement that both more suitable than 50 percent of them can breathe found, or the obtainable mediators are marked as being up to this point, this skill the mediator is golden and is marked as such. Mediators, whether they are golden or not, are handiest used when a diskset is taken. If the mediators are golden, and one of the vital nodes is rebooted, when it begins up, the mediators on it'll glean the current status from the node that remains in the cluster. youngsters, if everysingle nodes in the cluster are rebooted when the mediators are golden, on startup, the mediators are usually not golden and operator intervention should breathe required to rob possession of the diskset. The specific mediator counsel is held in the rpc.metamedd(1M) daemon.
as an instance, if there are two hosts (node1 and node2) and two storage enclosures (pack1 and pack2), diskset replicas are allotted evenly between pack1 and pack2, and node1 owns the diskset. If pack1 dies, simplest 50 percent of diskset replicas are available and the mediators on both hosts are marked as golden. If node1 now dies, node2 can import [take] the diskset as a result of 50 % of the diskset replicas are available and the mediator on node2 is golden. If mediators were not configured, node2 won't possess been capable of import [take] the diskset with out operator intervention.
Mediators conclude not, despite the fact, protect towards simultaneous disasters. If both pack1 and node1 fail on the identical time, the mediator on node2 conclude not requisite been marked as golden and there are not an additional vote for the diskset duplicate quorum, making operator intervention essential. since the nodes should breathe on an uninterrupted vigour provide (UPS), which competence the mediators should possess enough time to breathe marked as golden, this class of failure is not going.explanations to Manually alternate the reproduction Allocation within a Diskset
As alluded to in the outdated paragraph, it's feasible, even with mediators configured, to require administrator intervention below inescapable failure eventualities. One such status of affairs is that of a two play cluster. that is, each and every play has one node and one storage device. If a play fails, then any diskset that became owned by course of the node in that play will require lead intervention. On the surviving node, the administrator will deserve to rob the set using the metaset or scswitch command and remove the replicas that are marked as errored. When here's carried out, the diskset must breathe released and retaken so it may well profit write entry to the configured metadevices.
it is viable, through manually piteous the replicas about, that using lead intervention will besides breathe minimized. This will besides breathe finished by means of "weighting" one play over the different, such that if the non-weighted play fails, then the last play can breathe in a position to rob the diskset. If the "weighted" play fails, lead intervention is required. To "weight" a room, add extra replicas to the disks that dwell within the room, or delete replicas on the disks that conclude not tarry in that room.the usage of smooth Partitions as a basis for File programs
After adding a disk to a diskset, that you can adjust the partition design, it truly is spoil up the default slice 0 and spread the house between the slices (together with slice 0). If slice 7 contains a duplicate, leave it by myself to preclude corrupting the replica on it. as a result of Solaris extent supervisor software supports elegant partitioning, they intimate that you leave slice 0 untouched.
believe a gentle partition as a subdivision of a physical Solaris OE slice or as a subdivision of a replicate, redundant array of unbiased disks (RAID) 5, or striped extent. The variety of elegant partitions that you would breathe able to create is proscribed by course of the dimension of the underlying machine and by the number of viable volumes (nmd, as described in /kernel/drv/md.conf). The default variety of viable volumes is 128. word that everysingle elegant partitions created on a sole diskset are piece of one diskset and cannot breathe independently primaried to diverse nodes.
soft partitions are composed of a sequence of extents that are located at arbitrary places on the underlying media. The locations are immediately decided by the utility at initialization time. it is viable to manually set these areas, but it surely is not informed for universal every day administration. places should quiet breathe manually set only during recovery situations where the metarecover (1M) command is insufficient.
that you could create and consume smooth partitions in two methods:
Create them on commandeer of a actual disk slice and consume them as pile blocks for mirrors or RAID 5 volumes, just as you would consume a physical slice.
Create them on suitable of a replicate or RAID 5 volume.
In their illustration, they consume the 2nd method. They believe this the foremost solution for two reasons:
Sizing and resizing gentle partitions is proscribed simplest through the measurement of the underlying device. If the underlying device is a Solaris OE slice, it isn't always viable to enlarge the size of the elegant partition while retaining the file gadget on the slice intact. although, it is tons simpler to grow a Solaris volume supervisor application extent, and then grow the elegant partition on precise of it.
growing distinctive gentle partitions on accurate of a great mirrored extent means that you can consume the Solaris quantity supervisor utility namespace greater effectively and consistently. accept as fair with the following example: You create one giant mirror (d2) on desirable of two submirrors (d0 and d1). On accurate of d2, you create gentle partitions d10, d11, d12, and so on. On these soft partitions, you create file programs. if you did it the wrong course round, you may requisite to create soft partitions d10, d11, d12, and so forth, in addition to corresponding smooth partitions on the other disks d20, d21, d22, and so on. Then, you could possess to create the stripes to fabricate consume of as submirrors on fair of the tender partitions and finally create the mirrors. during this status of affairs, you may possess used twice as many smooth partitions names and, hence, greater of the Solaris extent manager application namespace.
whereas they intimate the 2nd method, endure in reason that an bar of this system is that you will should operate a complete disk resync if the disk fails, while the first strategy would handiest require a resync of the defined smooth partitions.
The mdmonitord daemon without delay fails volumes that possess faulty disk components. It does this by using probing configured volumes, together with volumes in disksets that are at present owned with the aid of the node where the daemon runs (word that the daemon runs on everysingle of the nodes in a cluster). The probe is an simple open(2) of the desirable degree extent that motives the Solaris volume supervisor software kernel components to open underlying instruments. The probe at last factors the actual disk device to open. If the disk has failed, the probe will fail everysingle the approach again up the chain, and the daemon can rob the acceptable motion.
If the extent is a mirror, the reflect should breathe in consume for the submirror's component to breathe marked as errored. (that is, a different application ought to possess it open, for example, if it has a established file device on it). If the reflect isn't open, the daemon experiences an error and performs no other action to preclude unrequired resyncs for unused mirrors.
within the case of a RAID5 device, the device fails commandeer away as a result of there is not as a lot redundancy as there's in a mirror (a 2nd failure within the RAID5 gadget makes the gadget inoperable), and it is better to possess the can saturate of the failure instantly.
The mdmonitord daemon has two modes of operation: interrupt mode and fitful probing mode.
In interrupt mode, the daemon waits for disk failure events. If the daemon detects a failure, it probes the configured volumes as up to now described. here is the default conduct.
In fitful probing mode, which you could specify inescapable time intervals for the daemon to operate probes by giving the daemon the -t option, followed by the number of seconds between each probe. The daemon besides waits for disk failure events.
The mdmonitord daemon is helpful in case your outfit consists of volumes that are accessed infrequently. devoid of the daemon, a disk failure can vanish ignored for rather a while, except you manually check the configuration with the metastat -i command. This might not breathe a problem at the start sight, but can breathe catastrophic if the failed disk is the cluster's quorum disk, or if an entire storage array has failed. These eventualities are described as follows:
If a quorum disk fails and, consequently, a node fails, cluster operation is critically impaired. They intimate that you just establish the quorum disk in a diskset and fabricate it piece of a submirror so it's monitored by the mdmonitord daemon. counting on the usage of the replicate, you could want to faith configuring the mdmonitord daemon to conclude timed probes. If the reflect is well used, it truly is, if it has plenty of I/O going to it, you might now not want this.
If mediators are configured, they give added votes to guarantee duplicate quorum. in addition, if, after an array fails, the final replicas are up to date, the mediators are set to golden. Now, if a node is misplaced, the golden status on the remaining node permits Solaris extent manager software to proceed updating the replicas with out intervention. the consume of the mdmonitord daemon to consistently determine the reputation of volumes increases the occasion of duplicate updates after a storage array fails.
If a number and disk fail on the selfsame time then the mediators don't look to breathe going to breathe golden and you may endure an outage. youngsters if the host is u.s.covered (such that it's up for a duration of time earlier than vim fails) then the mdmonitord could occasions an supplant to the replicas to rob station which potential a mediator update and if the node then can fail (united states of americahas gone away) but the mediator will now breathe golden and they continue to exist the failure, which they may now possess achieved earlier than. here's reasonably a nook case however does betray that the mdmonitord can breathe used to deliver a stronger uptime.
Eclipse GlassFish 5.1 has been released, and in contrast to the modest boost in version quantity might indicate, this definitely marks a major milestone — no longer only for the GlassFish mission itself, but for Java EE and relocating Jakarta EE ahead much more.a glance on the tradition of GlassFish
GlassFish goes back a protracted means. It began with the Kiva commercial enterprise Server, a Java application server that was launched in January 1996 (for comparison, Java 1.0 itself was besides released in that month!)
A 12 months later, Netscape received Kiva, and the Kiva commercial enterprise Server grew to breathe referred to as Netscape software Server (NAS), which had its personal pre-J2EE proprietary Java net APIs (such as the AppLogic framework, which turned into affection Servlets and DAE for DB access). NAS 2.1, which became obtainable from early 1998, become a very prevalent version. utility servers possess been reasonably costly back then, as Netscape software Server became around $35,000 per CPU.
In 1999, solar and Netscape (later AOL) formed an alliance, and Netscape utility Server 4, which turned into released later that yr, blanketed assist for an early version of J2EE (Servlets, EJBs, JSPs, and JDBC). for instance, JSP assist became for the early version 0.ninety two.
Netscape application Server 4 changed into chosen by course of the alliance to continue evolution on as a substitute of merging it with the NetDynamics 5.01 application server solar had received previous. The name turned into as soon as again modified, this time into iPlanet utility Server (iAS). It changed into piece of the iPlanet suite of products jointly developed via sun and AOL (Netscape).
iAS edition 6, from across the year 2000, become a J2EE 1.2-appropriate server, aiding things comparable to Servlets 2.2, EJB 1.1, JSP 1.1 (in accordance with Jasper), and JTA 1.0 (in keeping with the Encina transaction video display).
For edition 7, the identify become once once more changed, now in plenary to "Stanford college network Open net atmosphere utility Server," aka sun ONE software Server (S1AS, or SOAS). S1AS 7 turned into made attainable for no cost when it turned into launched in late 2002, even though it became nonetheless closed supply. It included a modified Tomcat four, which has a long history as neatly. version 8 as soon as once more noticed a reputation alternate, when it grew to breathe sun Java outfit utility Server (SJSAS) eight, which become J2EE 1.four appropriate. around this time period, sun had additionally split off a derived edition known as the J2EE SDK (Reference Implementation, or RI), which was very nearly the core of the entire software server, but afterward, this became the Platform version of SJSAS and the absolute RI changed into only made attainable for TCK testing.Open-source GlassFish project
In 2005, the open-supply GlassFish challenge became everysingle started, which become essentially shaped by using the donation of the supply code for SJSAS 9 through solar and the TopLink persistence supply code by using Oracle (for the current JPA implementation in EE 5). In may additionally 2006, the Java EE 5-compatible and entirely open-supply GlassFish 1.0 turned into released. After some intermediate versions, an gigantic re-architectured edition of GlassFish become launched in December 2009, GlassFish 3.0. within the GlassFish supply code internally, there are nevertheless many references to "V3," which refers to this foremost milestone.Payara Server Is Born
After Oracle bought solar, it nonetheless launched a edition three.1 of GlassFish in early 2011 with production points reminiscent of clustering and cargo balancing, however after that release, it acquired relatively silent. In November 2013, Oracle announced they might nonetheless advocate the open source GlassFish but ended commercial assist. In fair open-source vogue, this led to the Payara Server, which begun as a fork of GlassFish and delivered commercial help, measure computer virus fixes, and indifferent component updates. GlassFish four became launched to lead Java EE 7, but from a server architecture aspect of view, it turned into a comparatively minor update, with broadly speaking the components being up-to-date to their EE 7 models.GlassFish Is Transferred to the Eclipse basis
Late 2015/early 2016, it becomes quieter on the GlassFish entrance, and several articles regarded questioning Oracle's hobby in Java EE, principally GlassFish. In August 2017, Oracle certainly announced that they did not requisite to breathe basically accountable for Java EE and GlassFish anymore. a microscopic later, Oracle announced that Java EE and everysingle of the GlassFish code (GlassFish itself and everysingle its constituent components) can breathe transferred to the Eclipse foundation. The name of the assignment would become "EE4J," and in early 2018, the source code starts transferring to the "eclipse-ee4j" repo on GitHub.
As a piece of the deal between Oracle and Eclipse, it has determined to release GlassFish 5.1, which is absolutely developed by the Eclipse organization from the transferred and relicensed accessories that is fully Java EE 8 certified.Payara functions Involvement
Altogether, this transfer has taken lots of work. Payara functions (the industry as well as people working for Payara) possess supported this system from its early ranges. It included aid from the prefatory cleaning of a brace of projects for the vetting of the switch. for example, within the Mojarra venture, there become reasonably a bit of of historic code and different artifacts that were eliminated one after the other, as they would had been complicated to vet. After the naked supply code switch, several alterations possess been vital to fabricate the tasks cleanly build and later on to fabricate them work on the Eclipse Jenkins instances (https://jenkins.eclipse.org). For this to happen, a huge variety of jobs needed to breathe created, for each undertaking to build, stage, and at last to liberate them to Maven principal. The piece tracker at https://wiki.eclipse.org/Eclipse_GlassFish_5.1_Components_Release_Tracker offers some thought of which initiatives possess been involved.
Payara certainly contributed to the switch of the following API projects and their linked implementations:
Altogether, it changed into a very satisfactory journey engaged on this switch, however now and then, it become besides rather slightly of labor, primarily when, within the beginning, it wasn't lucid in any respect how to proceed with inescapable issues.
Now, besides the fact that children, this work is at last carried out! GlassFish is fully constructed on the Eclipse infrastructure, and brand current liberate through Eclipse marks one more principal step in GlassFish's lengthy adventure, dawn at Kiva, passing via NetScape, growing to breathe up at solar, passing via Oracle, and now landing at Eclipse.One Step closer to Jakarta EE 9
but it's not most efficacious about GlassFish itself. With this switch achieved, and each GlassFish and its accessories attainable by course of the Jakarta Maven coordinates, we're one main step nearer to dawn the work for Jakarta EE 9.
GlassFish 5.1 may besides breathe downloaded here: https://projects.eclipse.org/projects/ee4j.glassfish/downloads
The implementation add-ons can breathe create from the org.glassfish Maven coordinates as earlier than: https://repo1.maven.org/maven2/org/glassfish/leading/distributions/glassfish/5.1.0
The API jars now reside below the brand current Jakarta Maven coordinates: https://repo1.maven.org/maven2/jakarta/
We at Payara would affection to thank everysingle partners from Jakarta EE who helped with the transfer. particular thanks vanish to Dmitry Kornilov for his unflagging amount of assist and information each time they acquired stuck on whatever thing. Thanks, Dmitry!
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Eclipse GlassFish 5.1 has been released, and unlike the modest enlarge in version number might suggest, this truly marks a major milestone — not just for the GlassFish project itself, but for Java EE and piteous Jakarta EE forward even more.A explore at the History of GlassFish
GlassFish goes back a long way. It started with the Kiva Enterprise Server, a Java application server that was released in January 1996 (for comparison, Java 1.0 itself was besides released in that month!)
A year later, Netscape acquired Kiva, and the Kiva Enterprise Server became known as Netscape Application Server (NAS), which had its own pre-J2EE proprietary Java web APIs (such as the AppLogic framework, which was affection Servlets and DAE for DB access). NAS 2.1, which was available from early 1998, was a particularly favorite version. Application servers were quite pricey back then, as Netscape Application Server was around $35,000 per CPU.
In 1999, Sun and Netscape (later AOL) formed an alliance, and Netscape Application Server 4, which was released later that year, included advocate for an early version of J2EE (Servlets, EJBs, JSPs, and JDBC). For example, JSP advocate was for the early version 0.92.
Netscape Application Server 4 was chosen by the alliance to continue evolution on instead of merging it with the NetDynamics 5.01 application server Sun had acquired earlier. The name was once again changed, this time into iPlanet Application Server (iAS). It was piece of the iPlanet suite of products jointly developed by Sun and AOL (Netscape).
iAS Version 6, from around the year 2000, was a J2EE 1.2-compatible server, supporting things such as Servlets 2.2, EJB 1.1, JSP 1.1 (based on Jasper), and JTA 1.0 (based on the Encina transaction monitor).
For version 7, the name was once again changed, now in plenary to "Stanford University Network Open Net Environment Application Server," aka Sun ONE Application Server (S1AS, or SOAS). S1AS 7 was made available for no cost when it was released in late 2002, although it was quiet closed source. It included a modified Tomcat 4, which has a long history as well. Version 8 once again saw a name change, when it became Sun Java System Application Server (SJSAS) 8, which was J2EE 1.4 compatible. Around this time period, Sun had besides split off a derived version called the J2EE SDK (Reference Implementation, or RI), which was essentially the core of the plenary application server, but later on, this became the Platform Edition of SJSAS and the absolute RI was only made available for TCK testing.Open-Source GlassFish Project
In 2005, the open-source GlassFish project was started, which was essentially formed by the donation of the source code for SJSAS 9 by Sun and the TopLink persistence source code by Oracle (for the current JPA implementation in EE 5). In May 2006, the Java EE 5-compatible and fully open-source GlassFish 1.0 was released. After some intermediate versions, a major re-architectured version of GlassFish was released in December 2009, GlassFish 3.0. In the GlassFish source code internally, there are quiet many references to "V3," which refers to this major milestone.Payara Server Is Born
After Oracle acquired Sun, it quiet released a version 3.1 of GlassFish in early 2011 with production features such as clustering and load balancing, but after that release, it got relatively silent. In November 2013, Oracle announced they would quiet advocate the open source GlassFish but ended commercial support. In fair open-source fashion, this led to the Payara Server, which started as a fork of GlassFish and added commercial support, regular bug fixes, and regular component updates. GlassFish 4 was released to advocate Java EE 7, but from a server architecture point of view, it was a relatively minor update, with mostly the components being updated to their EE 7 versions.GlassFish Is Transferred to the Eclipse Foundation
Late 2015/early 2016, it becomes quieter on the GlassFish front, and several articles appeared questioning Oracle's interest in Java EE, specifically GlassFish. In August 2017, Oracle indeed announced that they did not want to breathe primarily accountable for Java EE and GlassFish anymore. A microscopic later, Oracle announced that Java EE and everysingle the GlassFish code (GlassFish itself and everysingle its constituent components) will breathe transferred to the Eclipse Foundation. The name of the project would become "EE4J," and in early 2018, the source code starts transferring to the "eclipse-ee4j" repo on GitHub.
As piece of the deal between Oracle and Eclipse, it has decided to release GlassFish 5.1, which is completely built by the Eclipse organization from the transferred and relicensed components that is fully Java EE 8 certified.Payara Services Involvement
Altogether, this transfer has taken a lot of work. Payara Services (the company as well as individuals working for Payara) possess supported this process from its early stages. It included assist from the initial cleaning of several projects for the vetting of the transfer. For instance, in the Mojarra project, there was quite a bit of ancient code and other artifacts that were removed one by one, as they would possess been difficult to vet. After the bare source code transfer, several adjustments were needed to fabricate the projects cleanly build and later on to fabricate them work on the Eclipse Jenkins instances (https://jenkins.eclipse.org). For this to happen, a great number of jobs had to breathe created, for each project to build, stage, and finally to release them to Maven central. The component tracker at https://wiki.eclipse.org/Eclipse_GlassFish_5.1_Components_Release_Tracker gives some understanding of which projects were involved.
Payara specifically contributed to the transfer of the following API projects and their associated implementations:
Altogether, it was a powerful sustain working on this transfer, but at times, it was besides quite a bit of work, especially when, in the beginning, it wasn't lucid at everysingle how to proceed with inescapable things.
Now, however, this work is finally done! GlassFish is fully built on the Eclipse infrastructure, and today's release by Eclipse marks another major step in GlassFish's long journey, starting at Kiva, passing through NetScape, growing up at Sun, passing through Oracle, and now landing at Eclipse.One Step Closer to Jakarta EE 9
But it's not only about GlassFish itself. With this transfer completed, and both GlassFish and its components available via the Jakarta Maven coordinates, we are one major step closer to starting the work for Jakarta EE 9.
GlassFish 5.1 can breathe downloaded here: https://projects.eclipse.org/projects/ee4j.glassfish/downloads
The implementation components are available from the org.glassfish Maven coordinates as before: https://repo1.maven.org/maven2/org/glassfish/main/distributions/glassfish/5.1.0
The API jars now live under the current Jakarta Maven coordinates: https://repo1.maven.org/maven2/jakarta/
We at Payara would affection to thank everysingle partners from Jakarta EE who helped with the transfer. Special thanks vanish to Dmitry Kornilov for his unflagging amount of assist and counsel whenever they got stuck on something. Thanks, Dmitry!
I'm not certain what I expected when I finally connected with Gartner Vice President and Distinguished Analyst Anne Thomas last week to debate a research note she co-authored that took cumbersome fire from critics in the enterprise Java community. But her chipper, glad-to-help-out response to my interview request shouldn't possess surprised me; in the roughly two decades since they first met, I've create Thomas to breathe a responsive and attentive industry watcher with a relatively thick hide.
"It's my job to breathe controversial if that's what's needed," Thomas told me, "to fabricate people rob a step back and explore at what's really going on."
What did dumbfound me was Thomas's contention that she and her critics are essentially on the selfsame page.Thomas wrote the report ("Market lead for Application Platforms") with contributing analyst Aashish Gupta. In it the authors asserted, among other things, that Java EE has not kept pace with architectural trends and digital industry initiatives, that Java developers are demonstrating a lucid preference for lightweight frameworks over Java EE, and that Java EE is not an commandeer framework for pile cloud-native applications. They besides advised those accountable for modernizing an enterprise's application infrastructure to "develop a strategy to deal with the obsolescence of Java EE and other three-tier application frameworks."
Java EE community leaders called the Gartner analysts irresponsible and out of handle with the platform, and many blasted the report in blog posts and gregarious media (and my inbox). I interviewed several of those critics for my January post, which includes links to some of the blogs.
Thomas was a bit surprised at the even of outrage over her and Gupta's observations on what she believes are obvious facts about Java EE and the evolving demands on enterprise developers.
"In the note I definitely acknowledged that Java is a tremendous platform for developing enterprise applications," she told me. "But Java EE is, by definition, this amalgam of this massive number of APIs, everysingle of which the certification process says must breathe present in the platform. What I'm motto is, people don't requisite 90 percent of the stuff sitting in Java EE to build modern enterprise applications."
Some critics argued that Thomas and Gupta failed to recognize that Java EE has evolved since version 5 and the J2EE era, and that lighter-weight enterprise Java technologies, such as the Web Profile, IBM's WebSphere Liberty Profile, Red Hat's WildFly Swarm, Payara Micro and the current Eclipse MicroProfile, possess emerged. Others insisted that the admittedly slower pace of Java EE's evolution is a might of the platform; it's standards-based, which matters in the enterprise.
But the critics are, if inadvertently, helping to fabricate Thomas's point, she said.
"I'm 100 percent in agreement with a lot of what these guys are saying," she said. "But they've got it in their heads that Java EE means everysingle of Java. The current MicroProfile, for example, is just three Java APIs. That's great, but it's not Java EE."
Everyone understands that Java EE is overgrown, and nopart better than Thomas, who was working at Sun Microsystems when the platform was conceived and the seeds of that growth were planted.
"The original aim behind Java EE was to fabricate certain that everything you could possibly want in the enterprise Java space was going to breathe available in any application server you decided to deploy it on," she recalled. "It was everysingle about portability. If I'm pile a Java application, I know I'll possess this specific set of APIs and these specific versions, so that when I'm pile an application I'll know it's there. That was a valuable proposition when Java EE was first created.
"The problem is it ended up becoming this incredibly bloated environment. conclude I really requisite CORBA in applications that I'm pile today? In the next version of Java EE, they are going to remove CORBA, so there is evolution happening. The Web Profile took out a bunch of things, and it's a much better environment for pile application than a full-bore Java EE. But it's quiet very focused on three-tier, where the front-end tier is a Web environment. It's not designed to advocate multi-client-, multi-channel-type applications. It's not designed to advocate both Web and mobile, much less 20 or 30 other types of systems that are out there. It's not very well suited to advocate Internet of Things applications. And it's not designed to advocate microservices, which is why this independent group has gone off and said, they possess to possess a MicroProfile for Java EE."
One of the criticisms leveled against Thomas and Gupta's report was that they failed to differentiate between the Java EE measure and what Java EE vendors are building.
"Again, that supports my position," Thomas said. "What the vendors are pile is not in conformance with the standard. They are pile much smaller, much more focused implementations. They're not including everything but the kitchen sink in case somebody might requisite it.
"If you explore at something affection the Jetty Web server, for example, which a lot of people are using now to build their applications, I arbiter it's now about 12MB in size. Compare that with the WebLogic platform, which is over 3GB in size. Why conclude I requisite such a great platform to host a microservice? It would breathe insane to consume it. What I want is to embed Jetty, or Undertow, or Tomcat into my Spring Boot component, which is now an independently deployable component. I don't possess to deploy it into an application server. I just establish it into a container and deploy it directly onto my VM. That's what the current environment looks like."
Effectively, she went on to argue, Java EE and enterprise Java are no longer the selfsame thing. And a modern enterprise Java platform for modern applications is emerging, not from Oracle or the older standards bodies, but from open source communities.
"Over the past five years, maybe longer, the open source communities possess literally displaced the great standards bodies as a course of ensuring quickly innovation and commonality across different systems," she said. It takes years for current standards to glean produced through the Java Community Process (JCP). And that process is even slower now that Oracle is running the JCP. The fact is, open source in universal is a much more efficacious course of creating community standards. Communities affection Spring, CloudFoundry, Eclipse, Apache -- that's where innovation in Java in particular is happening."
Thomas besides expressed her admiration for the work of groups affection the Java EE Guardians and the MicroProfile.io initiative, but insisted that they aren't protecting Java EE, but enterprise Java.
"The MicroProfile is saying, this is the stuff that's vital to us today," she said, "but Java EE does not give us what they need, so they possess to build their own, because Oracle isn't doing that. And the Guardians recognize that Oracle isn't doing what is needed to maintain Java as a censorious enterprise language and platform for the modern age."
Posted by John K. Waters on 02/16/2017 at 9:45 AM
This chapter from Core J2EE Patterns presents a lofty even overview of the Java™ 2 Platform, Enterprise Edition (J2EE) and its technologies.From the author of
This chapter presents a lofty even overview of the Java™ 2 Platform, Enterprise Edition (J2EE) and its technologies. If you already understand the J2EE platform and its technologies and APIs, you may wish to skip this chapter.
Read on if you wish to refresh your recollection on J2EE.
From its introduction to the world in 1994 to current day, the Java™ programming language has revolutionized the software industry. Java has been used in a myriad of ways to implement various types of systems. As Java started becoming more and more ubiquitous, spreading from browsers to phones to everysingle kinds of devices, they saw it gradually hone in on one particular area and establish its might and value proposition: That area is the consume of Java on servers. Over time, Java has become the chosen platform for programming servers.
Java provides its Write Once flee Anywhere™ handicap to IT organizations, application developers, and product vendors. IT organizations leverage the benefits of vendor independence and portability of their applications. The increasing availability of skilled Java programmers promoted Java's adoption in the industry. Unbelievably, the number of Java programmers has rocketed to 2.5 million developers in only five years.
The simplicity of the language and the explosive growth of its consume on the Internet and the intranet urged numerous developers and IT organizations to embrace Java as the de facto programming language for their projects.
The client-server application architecture, a two-tier architecture, over time evolved to a multitier architecture. This natural progression occurred as additional tiers were introduced between the end-user clients and backend systems. Although a multitier architecture brings greater flexibility in design, it besides increases the complexity for building, testing, deploying, administering, and maintaining application components. The J2EE platform is designed to advocate a multitier architecture, and thus it reduces this complexity.
During this time, corporate Internet usage changed. Corporations transitioned from providing a simple corporate Web site to exposing some of their not-so-critical applications to the external world. In this first phase of Internet experimentation, IT managers were quiet skeptical and the security police were adamantly unfriendly to the understanding of using the Internet to flee and expose industry services.
Before long, more and more companies started to embrace the power of the Internet. For example, customer service organizations began to provide service on the Web, in addition to the traditional methods of supporting customers by phone and email. Such organizations recognized the major cost implications of providing online service. Customers could now assist themselves for most problems, and summon a customer service agent only for more staid issues.
Customers liked using the Web too, as it improved their productivity. Soon, customers started expecting more and more online services from companies, and companies had to step up and provide these services. If they did not, someone else would.
Since then, almost everything has gone online—banking, bill payment, travel, ticketing, auctioning, car buying services, mortgages and loans, pharmacies, and even pet food! current companies were created that had no industry model (now they know) other than opening shop online. They thrived and they thrashed. Established companies had to fabricate their online presence felt to mug the challenges of these current kids on the block. This tremendous growth fueled the requisite for a robust, enterprise class, Web-centric application infrastructure.Application Servers—The current Breed
As the acceptance and adoption of Java on the server side became more established, and the demand for Web-centric application infrastructure rose, they saw an emergence of a current breed of infrastructure applications—application servers. Application servers provided the basic infrastructure required for developing and deploying multitiered enterprise applications.
These application servers had numerous benefits. One vital profit was that IT organizations no longer needed to develop their proprietary infrastructure to advocate their applications. Instead, they could now reckon on the application server vendor to provide the infrastructure. This not only reduced the cost of their applications, but besides reduced the time-to-market.
Each application server had its own benefits and disadvantages. Because there were no standards for application servers, no two application servers were completely alike. Some application servers were based on Java, and these allowed you to write only Java components to flee on that server, while others used different languages for development.Convergence of Java Technologies
In the area of Web applications, there were significant developments in Java as well. The Common Gateway Interface (CGI) approach for developing Web-centric applications was resource-intensive and did not scale well. With the introduction of servlet technology, Java developers had an elegant and efficient mechanism to write Web-centric applications that generated dynamic content. However, writing servlets quiet took some endeavor and Java expertise.
The measure approach for database access in Java applications is Java Database Connectivity (JDBC). The JDBC API (application programming interface) gives programmers the competence to fabricate their Java applications independent of the database vendor. One can write a JDBC application that accesses a database using measure Structured Query Language (SQL). If the underlying database changes from one vendor's product to another, the JDBC application works without any code change, provided that the code is properly written and does not consume any proprietary extensions from the first vendor. JDBC API is offered as piece of the core APIs in the JavaTM 2 Platform, measure Edition (J2SETM).
J2SE (formerly known as Java evolution Kit or JDK) is the foundation for everysingle Java APIs. J2SE consists of a set of core APIs that define the Java programming language interfaces and libraries. Java developers consume the J2SE as the primary API for developing Java applications. As requirements expand and the Java language matures over the years, the J2SE offers additional APIs as measure extensions.
As Java established its permanent role on the server side, and the adoption of various Java APIs became widespread, Sun establish together an initiative to unify standards for various Java technologies into a sole platform. The initiative to develop standards for enterprise Java APIs was formed under the open Java Community Process (JCP). Enterprise Java APIs are a collection of various APIs that provide vendor-independent programming interfaces to access various types of systems and services. The enterprise Java APIs emerged as the JavaTM 2 Platform, Enterprise Edition (J2EE™).The surge of the J2EE Platform
The Enterprise Java Beans™ (EJB™) technology is one of the prominent, promising technologies in the J2EE platform. The EJB architecture provides a measure for developing reusable Java server components that flee in an application server. The EJB specification and APIs provide a vendor-independent programming interface for application servers. EJB components, called enterprise beans, provide for persistence, industry processing, transaction processing, and distributed processing capabilities for enterprise applications. In short, the EJB technology offers portability of industry components.
Various application vendors, having further together with Sun under the open JCP to develop this standard, adopted and implemented the EJB specification into their application server products. Similar to JDBC application portability, EJB applications are portable from one application server vendor to another. Again, this is fair if the application does not consume any vendor-dependent feature of the application server. J2EE technologies are now a proven and established platform for distributed computing for the enterprise.
Java Message Service (JMS) is another measure API in the J2EE platform. It brings the selfsame kindhearted of standardization to messaging as JDBC brought for databases. JMS provides a measure Java API for using message-oriented middleware (MOM) for point-to-point and publish/subscribe types of enterprise messaging. As with the other technologies, JMS brings vendor independence in the MOM products for Java.
In each of these areas, Sun and other companies collaborated in coming up with an acceptable measure under the auspices of the open JCP. The JCP coordinated the activities to develop these standards. This cooperation is a foundation for the success of these APIs.J2EE Value Proposition
The J2EE platform, built on the Java programming language and Java technologies, is the application architecture that is best suited for an enterprise-distributed environment. The J2EE platform is a measure that brings the following benefits to IT organizations, application developers, and product vendors:
Vendors develop products that can flee on any system that supports the J2EE platform. With virtually no extra effort, their products are available on a wide scope of system platforms.
Corporate IT developers profit from the advantages of portable component technology. IT applications become vendor-independent and release the IT organizations from the clutches of vendor lock-in.
IT developers can focus on supporting industry process requirements rather than pile in-house application infrastructure. The application servers wield the complex issues of multithreading, synchronization, transactions, resource allocation, and life-cycle management.
IT organizations can rob handicap of the best available products built on a measure platform. They can pick among products and select the most suitable and cost-effective evolution products, deployment products, and deployment platforms based on their requirements.
Adopting the J2EE platform results in a significant productivity increase. Java developers can quickly learn the J2EE APIs.
Companies protect their investment by adopting the J2EE platform, since it is an industry-supported measure and not a vendor-defined lock-in architecture.
Development teams can build current applications and systems more rapidly. This decreases time-to-market and reduces the cost of development.
A measure evolution platform for distributed computing ensures that robust applications are built on a proven platform.
The J2EE platform provides a clear, logical, and physical partitioning of applications into various tiers, thus naturally addressing multitiered application requirements.
Developers can either build their own J2EE component or procure it from the rapidly growing third-party components market. Vendors are able to offer their components individually, and customers are able to buy these software parts as needed.
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