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310-110 Sun Certified Mobile Application Developer for the Java 2 Platform, Micro Edition, Version 1.0

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310-110 exam Dumps Source : Sun Certified Mobile Application Developer for the Java 2 Platform, Micro Edition, Version 1.0

Test Code : 310-110
Test title : Sun Certified Mobile Application Developer for the Java 2 Platform, Micro Edition, Version 1.0
Vendor title : SUN
real questions : 340 real Questions

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SUN Sun Certified Mobile Application

Oracle certified skilled (OCP) - Java ME cell application Developer | real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

connected supplies: Books   

This dealer-selected Certification is offered by course of:Oracle CorporationRedwood Shores, CA USAPhone: 800-672-2531

skill level: Intermediate                          repute: active

inexpensive: $300 (shortest music)               

summary:For developers who create mobile purposes the expend of Java applied sciences for cellphones or "smart" instruments. This certification became formerly called sun certified cellular utility Developer (SCMAD).

initial necessities:You gain to hold either an Oracle certified expert, Java Programmer certification or a sun certified Java Programmer certification. You should then tide the Java cellular utility Developer licensed professional examination ($300). The exam consits of 68 questions and is one hundred fifty minutes lengthy. A passing rating of 54% is required. practising is available however no longer required.

carrying on with requirements:None precise

See All Oracle Certifications

supplier's web page for this certification

Itron supports the Wi-solar Alliance’s FAN Certification application for tremendous-scale outside Industrial IoT Networks | real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

LIBERTY LAKE, Wash.--(company WIRE)--

Availability of Wi-sun’s FAN 1.0 Certification software Marks Milestone for Itron and the trade

Itron, Inc. (ITRI), which is innovating the style utilities and cities control power and water and a member of the Wi-sun Alliance, has announced its assist for the Wi-solar box locality network (FAN) Certification software launched today. The Wi-sun (wireless smart Ubiquitous Networks) Alliance is a global ecosystem of member businesses in quest of to speed up the implementation of open requirements-primarily based FAN and the information superhighway of issues (IoT). A FAN is a communications infrastructure for terribly-tremendous scale networks. In the identical means the internet is attainable to many different makes and models of smartphones and computers, the Wi-sun FAN commonplace allows different industrial instruments to interconnect onto ordinary, comfy, industrial-grade networks.

in the course of the FAN Certification application, the Wi-solar Alliance certifies products according to their compliance to a communications profile derived from applicable open requirements and their means to interoperate with different Wi-sun licensed items. Itron will expend the Wi-sun FAN daily as a groundwork for its network structures.

“As a Promoter Member of the Wi-solar Alliance and an critical contributor to the FAN certification software, Itron is glad to breathe among the first to post their product through the certification method,” observed Sharelynn Moore, senior vice president of networked options at Itron. “Itron’s long-standing dedication to the development and evolution of this mediocre technology addresses their valued clientele’ demands for an interoperable community ecosystem. With Wi-sun FAN measure because the foundation of their community, Itron will proceed to convey one of the highest performing, most at ease and resilient networks in the business.”

“Certification ensures interoperability, which is essential to the extend of IoT innovation,” observed Phil Beecher, president and CEO of the Wi-solar Alliance. “we are glad to formally launch the FAN Certification program and are excited for the primary wave of FAN licensed products to breathe deployed into the market nascence Q1 2019.”

About Itron

Itron permits utilities and cities to safely, securely and reliably deliver essential infrastructure functions to communities in more than a hundred international locations. Their portfolio of sensible networks, software, capabilities, meters and sensors helps their shoppers more advantageous manage electricity, fuel and water elements for the people they serve. by means of working with their consumers to breathe sure their success, they back enhance the quality of existence, ensure the security and promote the well-being of hundreds of thousands of americans everywhere. Itron is committed to creating a extra imaginative world. breathe a allotment of us:

Itron® is a registered trademark of Itron, Inc. All third-birthday party trademarks are property of their respective house owners and any usage herein does not attest or imply any relationship between Itron and the third party unless expressly stated.

concerning the Wi-solar Alliance

The Wi-sun Alliance is a global non-profit member-primarily based affiliation made from trade main corporations. Its mission is to power the global proliferation of interoperable wireless solutions for expend in smart cities, sensible grids and different cyber web of things (IoT) applications the expend of open world standards from businesses, comparable to IEEE802, IETF, TIA, TTC and ETSI. With greater than a hundred and eighty contributors global, membership of the Wi-sun Alliance is open to All industry stakeholders and comprises silicon carriers, product companies, features suppliers, utilities, universities, agencies and municipalities and local govt organizations.

For greater assistance, gratify seek recommendation from:

Wi-sun Alliance and the Wi-solar Alliance brand are emblems of the Wi-solar Alliance.

View supply version on

sun-instances’ mother or father launching countrywide cell-first advice app network | real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

The Chicago sun-instances’ parent enterprise, Wrapports LLC, is launching a brand novel digital exertion so that you can deliver the drudgery of some solar-times writers, in addition to aggregated advice and content, to localized websites and apps in 70 U.S. cities.

the brand novel “cell-first app community” will deliver “countrywide publicity to the paper’s award-profitable enjoyment, sports and political insurance,” in line with a statement launched by the business Tuesday.

the distress is designed to present content material in a fashion similar to web sites corresponding to Deadspin and Buzzfeed, which aggregate information reviews whereas providing further commentary.

The online platform will launch Oct. 31 and should operate below a separate Wrapports company known as the sun-instances network. users can breathe in a position to access the websites at

The community is the brainchild of Wrapports Chairman Michael Ferro, who achieved a $14 million round of funding that blanketed an investment from Irish businessman Denis O’Brien, the founder and chairman of Digicel, a instant cellphone enterprise.

“Michael Ferro will develop into chairman of the board of the solar times community and spearhead this aggressive digital push,” Wrapports CEO Tim P. Knight eminent in an announcement. “He deserves grotesque credit for that leadership and for this innovation which begins an exciting novel chapter for the solar-times company.”

The sun-times community could breathe led with the aid of CEO Tim Landon, who co-headquartered the websites and

Work on the distress has been underway for roughly two years, in keeping with these with skills of the company’s planning. the novel company will hire an unspecified number of staffers to flee the web sites and apps.

The company has plans to expand to international markets in 2015.

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Sun Certified Mobile Application Developer for the Java 2 Platform, Micro Edition, Version 1.0

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Java 2 Platform Security | real questions and Pass4sure dumps

This chapter explains the Java 2 platform architecture and its security features as they apply to building Java applications. In particular, it describes the various Java platforms and the core security features that contribute to the end-to-end security of Java-based applications running on various systems—from servers to stand-alone computers, computers to devices, and devices to smart cards.

This chapter is from the engage 

Topics in This Chapter

  • Java Security Architecture
  • Java Applet Security
  • Java Web Start Security
  • Java Security Management Tools
  • J2ME Security Architecture
  • Java Card Security Architecture
  • Securing the Java Code
  • Sun's Java philosophy of "Write Once, flee Anywhere" has been an evolving success legend since its inception, and it has revolutionized the computing industry by delivering to us the most capable platform for building and running a wide compass of applications and services. In general, the Java platform provides a general-purpose object-oriented programming language and a measure runtime environment for developing and delivering secure, cross-platform application solutions that can breathe accessed and dynamically loaded over the network or flee locally.

    With the release of the Java 2 Platform, Sun categorized the Java technologies under three key major editions in order to simplify software development and deployment. The Java 2 measure Edition (J2SE) provides the runtime environment and API technologies for developing and executing basic Java applications, and it moreover serves as the secure foundation for running Java enterprise applications. The Java 2 Enterprise Edition (J2EE), or the J2EE Platform, is a set of standards and API technologies for developing and deploying multi-tier business applications. To back Java on microdevices and embedded systems, Java 2 Micro Edition (J2ME) provides the runtime environment and API technologies for addressing the needs of consumer electronics and devices. With its widespread adoption, today Java technology is enabled and executed from smart cards to microdevices, handhelds to desktops, workstations to enterprise servers, mainframes to supercomputers, and so on.

    To facilitate end-to-end security of the Java platform-based application solutions, the Java runtime environment (JRE) and the Java language provide a solid security foundation from the ground up by imposing strong format and structural constraints on the code and its execution environment. This distinguishes the Java platform from other application programming languages—it has a well-defined security architectural model for programming Java-based solutions and their secure execution.

    In this chapter, they will explore the various Java platforms and the intricate details of their security architecture that contribute to the end-to-end security of Java-based application solutions. In particular, they will study Java security and the inherent features of the following technologies:

  • J2SE security
  • Java applet security
  • Java Web start security
  • Java security management tools
  • J2ME security
  • Java Card security
  • Java Code obfuscation
  • Security has been an integral allotment of Java technology from day one. Security is moreover an evolving design goal of the Java community—building and running secure and robust Java-based network applications. The primary intuition for Java's success today as a secure execution environment is the intrinsic security of its architectural foundation—the Java Virtual Machine (JVM) and the Java language. This foundation achieves the basic Java security goal and its definitive ways for extending security capabilities to ensure features such as confidentiality, integrity, trust, and so forth. A second intuition for its success is its skill to deliver an interoperable and platform-neutral security infrastructure that can breathe integrated with the security of the underlying operating system and services.

    The Java Virtual Machine (JVM)

    The JVM is an abstract computing engine that resides on a host computer. It is the execution environment for the Java programming language and has the primary responsibility for executing the compiled code by interpreting it in a machine-independent and cross-platform fashion. The JVM is often referred to as the Java runtime environment. While executing a Java program running on top of the JVM, the JVM insulates the application from the underlying differences of the operating systems, networks, and system hardware, thus ensuring cross-platform compatibility among All of the implementations of the Java platform.

    The Java language allows creation of general-purpose programs called Java classes that represent a Java program or an application. The Java classes compile into a format called Java's executable bytecodes, which are quite similar to the machine language that can flee on top of a JVM. The JVM moreover allows users to download and execute untrusted programs and applications from remote resources or over a network. To back delivery of Java components over the network, the JVM controls the primary security layer by protecting users and the environment from malicious programs. To enable security, the JVM enforces stringent measures ensuring systems security on the host client machine and its target server environments.

    Distributing the executable Java bytecode over a network or running automatically inside a Web browser or a client's machine leads to different security risks and attacks, such as disclosure of the target environment to the untrusted applications and damage or modification of the client's private information and data. For example, Java applets downloaded from a network are not allowed to gain access to, read from, or write to a local file system. They are moreover not allowed to create network connections to any host system except the one where they are deployed. On the other hand, stand-alone Java applications that reside and flee locally as trusted applications are not subjected to these security features. The key issue is that allowing untrusted applications such as Java applets to breathe downloaded from a network via a Web browser and letting them access inevitable resources on the host computer paves the course for security breaches and becomes a potential avenue for the spread of viruses. To avert known security breaches and threats, the JVM provides a built-in Java security architecture model, configurable security policies, access control mechanisms, and security extensions. Because of the built-in JVM safety features, Java programs can flee safely and are more securely protected from known vulnerabilities.

    The Java Language

    Java is a general-purpose object-oriented programming language similar to C++. It delivers platform-neutral compiled code that can breathe executed using a JVM and is intended for expend in distributed application environments, heterogeneous systems, and diverse network environments. The Java language is moreover designed to provide for the security and integrity of the application and its underlying systems at All levels—from the Java language constructs to the JVM runtime and from the class library to the complete application.

    The several inherent features of the Java language that provide for the secure Java platform are as follows:

  • The language defines All primitives with a specific size and All operations are defined to breathe in a specific order of execution. Thus, the code executed in different JVMs will not vary from the specified order of execution.
  • The language provides access-control functionality on variables and methods in the kick by defining title space management for ilk and procedure names. This secures the program by restricting access to its critical objects from untrusted code. For example, access is restricted by qualifying the ilk members as public, protected, private, package, etc.
  • The Java language does not allow defining or dereferencing pointers, which means that programmers cannot forge a pointer to the reminiscence or create code defining offset points to memory. All references to methods and instance variables in the class file are done via symbolic names. The elimination of pointers helps to avert malicious programs fondness computer viruses and misuse of pointers such as accessing private methods directly by using a pointer starting from the object's pointer, or running off the conclude of an array.
  • The Java kick encapsulation supports "programming by contract," which allows the reuse of code that has already been tested.
  • The Java language is a strongly typed language. During compile time, the Java compiler does extensive ilk checking for ilk mismatches. This mechanism guarantees that the runtime data ilk variables are compatible and consistent with the compile time information.
  • The language allows declaring classes or methods as final. Any classes or methods that are declared as final cannot breathe overridden. This helps to protect the code from malicious attacks such as creating a subclass and substituting it for the original class and override methods.
  • The Java Garbage Collection mechanism contributes to secure Java programs by providing a transparent storage allocation and recovering unused reminiscence instead of deallocating the reminiscence using manual intervention. This ensures program integrity during execution and prevents programmatic access to accidental and incorrect freeing of reminiscence resulting in a JVM crash.
  • With these features, Java fulfills the promise of providing a secure programming language that gives the programmer the license to write and execute code locally or distribute it over a network.

    Java Built-in Security Model

    In the previous two sections, they briefly looked at the basic security features provided by the JVM and the Java language. As allotment of its security architecture, Java has a built-in policy-driven, domain-based security model. This allows implementing security policies, protecting/controlling access to resources, rule-based class loading, signing code and assigning levels of capability, and maintaining content privacy.

    In the first release of the Sun Java Platform, the Java development Kit 1.0.x (JDK) introduced the notion of a sandbox-based security model. This primarily supports downloading and running Java applets securely and avoids any potential risks to the user's resources. With the JDK 1.0 sandbox security model, All Java applications (excluding Java applets) executed locally can gain complete access to the resources available to the JVM. Application code downloaded from remote resources, such as Java applets, will gain access only to the restricted resources provided within its sandbox. This sandbox security protects the Java applet user from potential risks because the downloaded applet cannot access or alter the user's resources beyond the sandbox.

    The release of JDK 1.1.x introduced the notion of signed applets, which allowed downloading and executing applets as trusted code after verifying the applet signer's information. To facilitate signed applets, JDK 1.1.x added back for cryptographic algorithms that provide digital signature capabilities. With this support, a Java applet class could breathe signed with digital signatures in the Java archive format (JAR file). The JDK runtime will expend the trusted public keys to verify the signers of the downloaded applet and then deal it as a trusted local application, granting access to its resources. device 3-1 shows the representation of a sandbox in the JDK 1.1 security model.

    Java 2 Security Model

    The release of J2SE [J2SE] introduced a number of significant enhancements to JDK 1.1 and added such features as security extensions providing cryptographic services, digital certificate management, PKI management, and related tools. Some of the major changes in the Java 2 security architecture are as follows:

  • Policy-driven restricted access control to JVM resources.
  • Rules-based class loading and verification of byte code.
  • System for signing code and assigning levels of capability.
  • Policy-driven access to Java applets downloaded by a Web browser.
  • In the Java 2 security architecture, All code—regardless of whether it is flee locally or downloaded remotely—can breathe subjected to a security policy configured by a JVM user or administrator. All code is configured to expend a particular domain (equivalent to a sandbox) and a security policy that dictates whether the code can breathe flee on a particular domain or not. device 3-2 illustrates the J2SE security architecture and its basic elements.


    Figure 3-2 Java 2 Security architecture and basic elements

    Let's engage a more circumstantial peer at those core elements of the Java 2 security architecture.

    Protection Domains ( ): In J2SE, All local Java applications flee unrestricted as trusted applications by default, but they can moreover breathe configured with access-control policies similar to what is defined in applets and remote applications. This is done by configuring a ProtectionDomain, which allows grouping of classes and instances and then associating them with a set of permissions between the resources. Protection domains are generally categorized as two domains: "system domain" and "application domain." All protected external resources, such as the file systems, networks, and so forth, are accessible only via system domains. The resources that are allotment of the unique execution thread are considered an application domain. So in reality, an application that requires access to an external resource may gain an application domain as well as a system domain. While executing code, the Java runtime maintains a mapping from code to protection domain and then to its permissions.

    Protection domains are determined by the current security policy defined for a Java runtime environment. The domains are characterized using a set of permissions associated with a code source and location. The class encapsulates the characteristics of a protected domain, which encloses a set of classes and its granted set of permissions when being executed on behalf of a user.

    Permissions ( ): In essence, permissions determine whether access to a resource of the JVM is granted or denied. To breathe more precise, they give specified resources or classes running in that instance of the JVM the skill to permit or traverse inevitable runtime operations. An applet or an application using a security manager can obtain access to a system resource only if it has permission. The Java Security API defines a hierarchy for permission classes that can breathe used to configure a security policy. At the root, is the abstract class, which represents access to a target resource; it can moreover comprise a set of operations to construct access on a particular resource. The permission class contains several subclasses that represent access to different types of resources. The subclasses belong to their own packages that represent the APIs for the particular resource. Some of the commonly used permission classes are as follows:

    For wildcard permissions

    For named permissions

    For file system

    For network

    For properties


    For runtime resources


    For authentication

    For graphical resources


    Example 3-1 shows how to protect access to an kick using permissions. The code shows the caller application with the required permission to access an object.

    Example 3-1. Using Java permissions to protect access to an object // Create the kick that requires protection String protectedObj = "For trusted eyes only"; // create the required permission that will // protect the object. // Guard, represents an kick that is used to protect // access to another object. Guard myGuard = novel PropertyPermission ("java.home", "read"); // Create the guard GuardedObject gobj = novel GuardedObject(protectedObj, myGuard); // obtain the guarded object try { kick o = gobj.getObject(); } ensnare (AccessControlException e) { // Cannot access the object }

    Permissions can moreover breathe defined using security policy configuration files (java.policy). For example, to vouchsafe access to read a file in "c:\temp\" (on Windows), the FilePermission can breathe defined in a security policy file (see instance 3-2).

    Example 3-2. Setting Java permissions in policy configuration file grant{ permission "c:\\temp\\testFile", "read"; };

    Policy: The Java 2 security policy defines the protection domains for All running Java code with access privileges and a set of permissions such as read and write access or making a connection to a host. The policy for a Java application is represented by a Policy object, which provides a course to declare permissions for granting access to its required resources. In general, All JVMs gain security mechanisms built in that allow you to define permissions through a Java security policy file. A JVM makes expend of a policy-driven access-control mechanism by dynamically mapping a static set of permissions defined in one or more policy configuration files. These entries are often referred to as vouchsafe entries. A user or an administrator externally configures the policy file for a J2SE runtime environment using an ASCII text file or a serialized binary file representing a Policy class. In a J2SE environment, the default system-wide security policy file java.policy is located at <JRE_HOME>/lib/security/ directory. The policy file location is defined in the security properties file with a setting, which is located at <JRE_HOME>/lib/security/

    Example 3-3 is a policy configuration file that specifies the permission for a signed JAR file loaded from "*" and signed by "javaguy," and then grants read/write access to All files in /export/home/test.

    Example 3-3. Setting codebase and permissions in policy configuration file vouchsafe signedBy "javaguy", codebase "*" { permission "/export/home/test/*", "read,write"; };

    The J2SE environment moreover provides a GUI-based tool called "policytool" for editing a security policy file, which is located at "<JAVA_HOME>/bin/policytool."

    By default, the Java runtime uses the policy files located in:

    ${java.home}/jre/lib/security/java.policy ${user.home}/.java.policy

    These policy files are specified in the default security file:


    The effective policy of the JVM runtime environment will breathe the union of All permissions in All policy files. To specify an additional policy file, you can set the system property at the command line:

    java MyClass

    To ignore the policies in the file and only expend the custom policy, expend '==' instead of '=':

    java MyClass

    SecurityManager ( java.lang.SecurityManager ): Each Java application can gain its own security manager that acts as its primary security guard against malicious attacks. The security manager enforces the required security policy of an application by performing runtime checks and authorizing access, thereby protecting resources from malicious operations. Under the hood, it uses the Java security policy file to elect which set of permissions are granted to the classes. However, when untrusted classes and third-party applications expend the JVM, the Java security manager applies the security policy associated with the JVM to identify malicious operations. In many cases, where the threat model does not comprise malicious code being flee in the JVM, the Java security manager is unnecessary. In cases where the SecurityManager detects a security policy violation, the JVM will hurl an AccessControlException or a SecurityException.

    In a Java application, the security manager is set by the setSecurityManager fashion in class System. And the current security manager is obtained via the getSecurityManager fashion (see instance 3-4).

    Example 3-4. Using SecurityManager SecurityManager mySecurityMgr = System.getSecurityManager(); if (mySecurityMgr != null) { mySecurityMgr.checkWrite(name); }

    The class java.lang.SecurityManager consists of a number of checkXXXX methods fondness checkRead (String file) to determine access privileges to a file. The check methods summon the SecurityManager.checkPermission fashion to find whether the calling application has permissions to execute the requested operation, based on the security policy file. If not, it throws a SecurityException.

    If you wish to gain your applications expend a SecurityManager and security policy, start up the JVM with the option and you can moreover specify a security policy file using the policies in the option as JVM arguments. If you enable the Java Security Manager in your application but Do not specify a security policy file, then the Java Security Manager uses the default security policies defined in the java.policy file in the $JAVA_HOME/jre/lib/security directory. instance 3-5 programmatically enables the security manager.

    Example 3-5. Using SecurityManager for restricting access control // Before the security manager is enabled, // this summon is possible System.setProperty("java.version","Malicious: Delete"); try { // Enable the security manager SecurityManager sm = novel SecurityManager(); System.setSecurityManager(sm); } ensnare (SecurityException se) { // SecurityManager already set } // After the security manager is enabled: // This summon is no longer possible; // an AccessControlException is thrown System.setProperty ("java.version", "Malicious: Delete");

    The security manager can moreover breathe installed from the command-line interface:

    java <ClassName>

    AccessController ( ): The access controller mechanism performs a dynamic inspection and decides whether the access to a particular resource can breathe allowed or denied. From a programmer's standpoint, the Java access controller encapsulates the location, code source, and permissions to execute the particular operation. In a typical process, when a program executes an operation, it calls through the security manager, which delegates the request to the access controller, and then finally it gets access or denial to the resources. In the class, the checkPermission fashion is used to determine whether the access to the required resource is granted or denied. If a requested access is granted, the checkPermission fashion returns true; otherwise, the fashion throws an AccessControlException.

    For example, to check read and write permission for a directory in the file system, you would expend the code shown in instance 3-6.

    Example 3-6. Using AccessController try { AccessController.checkPermission (new FilePermission("/var/temp/*", "read,write")); } ensnare (SecurityException e) { // Does not gain permission to access the directory }

    Codebase: A URL location of class or JAR files are specified using codebase. The URL may refer to a location of a directory in the local file system or on the Internet. instance 3-7 retrieves All the permissions granted to a particular class that's been loaded from a code base. The permissions are effective only if the security manager is installed. The loaded class uses those permissions by executing Class.getProtectionDomain() and Policy.getPermissions().

    Example 3-7. Using codebase class URL codebase = null; try { // obtain permissions for a URL codebase = novel URL(""); } ensnare (MalformedURLException e) { } ensnare (IOException e) { } // Construct a code source with the code base CodeSource cs = novel CodeSource(codebase, null); // obtain All granted permissions PermissionCollection pcoll = Policy.getPolicy().getPermissions(cs); // View each permission in the permission collection Enumeration enum = pcoll.elements(); for (; enum.hasMoreElements(); ) { permission p = (Permission)enum.nextElement(); System.out.println("Permission " + p); }

    To test instance 3-7, instance 3-8 is the policy file (test.policy), which provides permission to read All system properties.

    Example 3-8. Policy file for testing permissions to a codebase vouchsafe codebase "" { // Give permission to read All system properties permission java.util.PropertyPermission "*", "read"; };

    To ignore the default policies in the file, and only expend the specified policy, expend '==' instead of '='. With the policy just presented, you may flee the following:

    java TestClass

    CodeSource: The CodeSource allows representation of a URL from which a class was loaded and the certificate keys that were used to mark that class. It provides the selfsame notion as codebase, but it encapsulates the codebase (URL) of the code where it is loaded and moreover the certificate keys that were used to verify the signed code. The CodeSource class and its two arguments to specify the code location and its associated certificate keys are as follows:

    CodeSource(URL url, certs[]);

    To construct a code source with the code foundation and without using certificates, you would expend the following:

    CodeSource cs = novel CodeSource(codebase, null);

    Bytecode verifier: The Java bytecode verifier is an integral allotment of the JVM that plays the critical role of verifying the code prior to execution. It ensures that the code was produced consistent with specifications by a trustworthy compiler, confirms the format of the class file, and proves that the chain of Java byte codes are legal. With bytecode verification, the code is proved to breathe internally consistent following many of the rules and constraints defined by the Java language compiler. The bytecode verifier may moreover detect inconsistencies related to inevitable cases of array bound-checking and object-casting through runtime enforcement.

    To manually control the plane of bytecode verification, the options to the Java command with the V1.2 JRE are as follows:

  • -Xverify:remote runs verification process on classes loaded over network (default)
  • -Xverify:all verifies All classes loaded
  • -Xverify:none does no verification
  • ClassLoader: The ClassLoader plays a separate role in Java security, because it is primarily amenable for loading the Java classes into the JVM and then converting the raw data of a class into an internal data structure representing the class. From a security standpoint, class loaders can breathe used to establish security policies before executing untrusted code, to verify digital signatures, and so on. To enforce security, the class loader coordinates with the security manager and access controller of the JVM to determine the security policies of a Java application. The class loader further enforces security by defining the namespace separation between classes that are loaded from different locations, including networks. This ensures that classes loaded from multiple hosts will not communicate within the selfsame JVM space, thus making it impossible for untrusted code to obtain information from trusted code. The class loader finds out the Java application's access privileges using the security manager, which applies the required security policy based on the requesting context of the caller application.

    With the Java 2 platform, All Java applications gain the capability of loading bootstrap classes, system classes, and application classes initially using an internal class loader (also referred to as primordial class loader). The primordial class loader uses a special class loader SecureClassLoader to protect the JVM from loading malicious classes. This class has a protected constructor that associates a loaded class to a protection domain. The SecureClassLoader moreover makes expend of permissions set for the codebase. For instance, URLClassLoader is a subclass of the SecureClassLoader. URLClassLoader allows loading a class or location specified with a URL.

    Refer to instance 3-9, which shows how a URLClassLoader can breathe used to load classes from a directory.

    Example 3-9. Using URLClassLoader // Create a File kick on the root of the // directory containing the class file File file = novel File("c:\\myclasses\\"); try { // transmute File to a URL URL url = file.toURL(); URL[] urls = novel URL[]{url}; // Create a novel class loader with the directory ClassLoader myclassloader = novel URLClassLoader(urls); // Load in the class; // MyClass.class should breathe located in // the directory file:/c:/myclasses/com/security Class myclass = myclassloader.loadClass(""); } ensnare (MalformedURLException e) { } ensnare (ClassNotFoundException e) { }

    Keystore and Keytool: The Java 2 platform provides a password-protected database facility for storing trusted certificate entries and key entries. The keytool allows the users to create, manage, and administer their own public/private key pairs and associated certificates that are intended for expend in authentication services and in representing digital signatures.

    We will engage a peer in greater detail at the usage of the Java keystore and keytool and how these tools back Java security in the section entitled "Java Security Management Tools," later in this chapter.

    Certification Watch Volume 7 #13 | real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Written by Anne Martinez Published: 15 August 2004

    Certification advice regarding CompTIA Project+, viagra novel certifications from Sun, a Cisco CCIE beta opportunity, Macromedia special, and a novel Siebel exam.

    IT Project+ Renamed to Project+

    CompTIA renamed is common IT Project+ certification to simply CompTIA Project+, dropping the reference to Information Technology. According to a CompTIA spokesperson, the title change reflects the content of the certification since its ultimate upgrade - that it is applicable to many types of project management, whether information technology is involved or not. The certification exam tests for traditional project management expertise, as well as the problem solving and communications skills required by project managers involved in such varied projects as business process improvement, marketing, product development, software development/engineering, ERP, IT, and more. CompTIA has operated this certification as IT Project+ since it acquired it from the Gartner Group in 2001.

    Sun Microsystems Announces Web Services, Mobile-focused Certifications

    The Sun Certified Developer for Java Web Services (SCD/WS) certification exam is for developers who gain been creating web services applications using Java technology components such as those supported by the Java Web Services Developer Pack and the Java 2, Enterprise Edition 1.4 platform. To deserve this designation, you'll first gain to hold the Sun Certified Programmer for the Java 2 Platform, plus pass the SCD/WS exam.

    Another novel title from Sun, Sun Certified Mobile Application Developer (SCMAD), moreover requires individuals to first hold the Sun Certified Programmer for the Java 2 Platform. SCMAD is for Sun Certified Java Programmers who create mobile applications using Java technologies for cell phones or "smart" devices, specifically Java 2 Platform, Micro Edition (J2ME) technologies. You must pass the SCMAD exam to deserve this title.

    Testing for both novel Sun exams is through Authorized Worldwide Prometric Testing Centers, but you must first purchase a voucher from Sun, which costs $150 per exam

    CCIE Written Beta to breathe Available for $50

    From August 31st through September 21st 2004 CCIE is offering a beta version of the revised Routing and Switching Written exam at a discounted cost of $50. Passing the Routing and Switching beta exam gives candidates complete credit toward lab qualification, or satisfies the requirement for recertification. The beta will breathe available at testing locations worldwide and scheduling opens August 31st.

    Macromedia Running August Exam Special

    According to the Macromedia Website, August is Macromedia Certification Month. What this means to you is that you can reclaim 60% off a Macromedia Certified Professional exam if you register during August using the code AUGCERT. Registration is through VUE .

    Siebel 7.7 business Analyst Core Exam Coming Soon

    The 7.7 business Analyst Core Exam is slated for September, 2004 release. The exam counts toward Siebel 7.7 business Analyst Exam certification.

    That's All for this edition of Certification Watch. gratify preserve your certification advice and tips coming to the This email address is being protected from spambots. You requisite JavaScript enabled to view it..

    Java Platform and Java Community Process Overview | real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    In this article, I'm going to define the most critical pieces of the Java platform and provide a brief explanation of the process amenable for evolving it. First I'm going to introduce the different Java editions—Java ME, Java SE and Java EE—and some critical acronyms related to them, fondness JDK, JRE, JVM, JSP, JPA, etc. In the end, I will provide an overview of the Java Community Process (JCP).

    Java Editions

    Before diving into the Java Community Process (JCP), it's critical to understand the main pieces of the platform. Java is distributed in three different editions: Java measure Edition (Java SE), Java Enterprise Edition (Java EE) and Java Micro Edition (Java ME).

    Java Micro Edition was created to back applications running on embedded and mobile devices in the Internet of Things. This edition is not, by far, as common as its siblings and will not breathe the focus of this article, although it shares many of the acronyms and processes in its evolution.

    Java measure Edition and Java Enterprise Edition are heavily used worldwide. Together, they are used in various kinds of solutions like web applications, applications servers, ample data technologies and so on.

    Both editions are composed of a large number of modules and it wouldn't breathe feasible to provide a thorough explanation of the all platform. Therefore, I'm going to briefly address its most critical pieces.

    Java Editions and their applicability

    Java measure Edition (Java SE)

    The Java measure Edition (Java SE) is the minimum requirement to flee a Java application. This edition provides a solid basis to the Java Enterprise Edition, and as such I will start by defining some of its components:

  • Java Virtual Machine (JVM)
  • Java Class Library (JCL)
  • Java Runtime Environment (JRE)
  • Java development Kit (JDK)
  • Java Virtual Machine (JVM)

    The Java Virtual Machine (JVM) is amenable for supporting the execution of Java applications. This is the piece of the platform that makes the statement write once, flee everywhere true for Java. Each particular host operating system (Windows, Linux, Mac OS, etc) needs its own implementation of the JVM, otherwise, it wouldn't breathe feasible to flee Java applications.

    Let's engage as an instance an arbitrary application that needs to read files from the hosting system. If this application didn't flee on an engine fondness the JVM, that abstracts tasks like IO operations, it would breathe necessary to write a different program to every unique system targeted. This would execute the release process slower and it would become harder to back and share this application.

    One critical concept to suffer in intelligence is that the JVM is, before everything, a specification. Being a specification allows different vendors to create their own implementation of the JVM. Wikipedia has an up to date article that lists open source and proprietary JVMs, but the most critical and used ones are: Open JDK (which is open source), J9 from IBM and Oracle JVM (both proprietary).

    JVMs are specific to each OS and architectureJava applications flee on JVMs that are specific to each OS and architecture

    Java Class Library (JCL)

    The Java Class Library is a set of measure libraries that is available to any application running on the JVM. This set of libraries is composed of classes that allow programs to manipulate commons tasks like: network communication, collection manipulation, file operations, user interface creation, etc. This measure library is moreover known as the Java measure Edition API.

    As of version 8 of Java, there were more than 4 thousand classes available to the applications running on the JVM. This makes a typical installation of Java consume a large size on disk.

    Java members, realizing that Java platform was getting too ample addressed the issue by introducing a feature called compact profiles on Java 8 and by making the whole API modular on Java 9.

    Java SE API and some of its packages

    Java Runtime Environment (JRE)

    The Java Runtime Environment (JRE) is a set of tools that provide an environment where Java applications can flee effectively. Whenever a user wants to flee a Java program, they must elect a vendor and install one of the versions available for their specific environment architecture (Linux x86, Linux x64, Mac OS X, Windows x64, etc). Installing it gives them access to a set of files and programs.

    Java has always been extremely watchful with backward compatibility. Therefore, installing the latest version available is advised and will probably lead to better performance.

    There are two files that are worth noting on a typical JRE installation. The first one is the java executable file. This file is amenable for bootstrapping the JVM that will flee the application. The second one is the rt.jar file. This file contains All the runtime classes that comprise the JCL.

    Java development Kit (JDK)

    The Java development Kit (JDK) is an extension of the JRE. Alongside with the files and tools provided by the JRE, the JDK includes the compilers and tools (like JavaDoc, and Java Debugger) to create Java programs. For this reason, whenever one wants to develop a Java application, they will requisite to install a JDK.

    Nowadays, most of the tools distributed by JDK are not directly used by developers. Usually, Java developers reckon on third party tools (like Apache Maven or Gradle) that automate compile, build and distribution processes. Developers moreover reckon on their IDEs (Integrated development Environments) to build and debug their projects.

    Java Enterprise Edition (Java EE)

    The Java Enterprise Edition (Java EE) was created to extend the Java SE by adding a set of specifications that define capabilities commonly used by enterprise applications. The latest version of this edition contains over 40 specifications that back developers to create applications that communicate through web services, convert object-oriented data to entity relationship model, handle transactional conversations, and so on.

    One magnificient advantage of having an enterprise edition defined as specifications is that different vendors can develop their own application servers to back it. This leads to a richer environment where companies can elect the best vendor to back their operations.

    Java Enterprise Edition Vendors

    At the time of writing, there are 8 different vendors that certified their Java EE implementation. Among these vendors, two of them are free and open-source: GlassFish Server Open Source Edition and WildFly.

    Oracle, the creator of GlassFish, and Red Hat, the creator of WildFly, moreover provide proprietary and paid versions of these application servers. Oracle GlassFish Server is the version supported by Oracle and JBoss Enterprise Application Platform is the version supported by Red Hat.

    One may wonder why companies fondness Oracle and Red Hat execute available two versions of their applications servers: one open-source and free and the other paid and proprietary. The biggest differences between these versions are that the paid ones usually gain more performance and better support. Vendors invest a lot to execute these versions flee smoothly and to decipher any issues that might occur as likeaflash as possible.

    Java Enterprise Edition Features

    As already stated, Java EE comes with a lot (more than 40) features based on JSRs. These features back companies to manipulate common needs fondness persistence, security, web interfaces, state validation and so on. The following list enumerates some of the most critical and used features of Java EE:

  • Java Persistence API (JPA): A specification for accessing, persisting, and managing data between Java objects and a relational database
  • JavaServer Faces (JSF): A specification for building component-based user interfaces for web applications
  • JavaServer Pages (JSP): A technology that helps software developers create dynamically generated web pages based on HTML
  • Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS): a spec that provides back in creating RESTful web services
  • Enterprise Java Beans (EJB): A specification for developing components that encapsulates business logic of an application
  • Context and Dependency Injection (CDI): A technology that allows developers to apply inversion of control on Java applications
  • Java Community Process (JCP)

    The Java Community Process (JCP) is the process that formalizes and standardizes Java technologies. Interested parties, fondness developers and companies, cooperate in this process to evolve the platform. Enhancements to any Java technology or introduction of novel ones occur through Java Specification Requests (JSRs).

    As an example, let's account the introduction of the Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS) specification on Java EE. To release this specification in Java EE 5, Sun Microsystems—the company that created Java—issued a JSR to the JCP program, under the number 311. This request defined some details like:

  • A description of the proposed specification
  • The target platform
  • Why the requisite for a novel specification
  • And technologies that the specification relied on
  • After submitting this specification request, members of the Executive Committee (EC) analyzed it to elect if the request deserved attention or not. Since it was approved by the EC, tag Hadley and Paul Sandoz—former employees of Sun Microsystems—were assigned as Specification Leads and kept working on it with the back of Expert Group members and Contributors.

    All the different roles and the workflow involved to release any JSR, fondness the instance above, are defined in the JCP program and are governed by the EC.

    Java Community Process Membership

    To officially participate in any stage of a JSR or process in the JCP, an organization or individual has to mark a Java Specification Participation Agreement (JSPA), an Associate Membership Agreement (AMA) or a Partner Membership Agreement (PMA).

    Any entity (human or organization) that signs one of these agreements gets categorized as one of the three types of JCP Membership available: Associate Member, partner Member or complete Member. Each of these types qualifies members to act on different roles in the process. The JCP provides a very circumstantial explanation of how different benign of subjects (individuals, non-profit organizations or commercial organizations) become members and how they can contribute. But basically, the following rules apply:

  • Associate Members can be Contributors to JSRs' Expert Groups, attend JCP Member events and vote in the annual Executive Committee elections for two Associate seats
  • Partner Members can serve on the Executive Committee, attend to JCP Member events and vote in the annual Executive Committee elections
  • Full Members can drudgery on the Executive Committee, vote in the annual Executive Committee elections, drudgery as Contributors to JSRs and lead these specifications.
  • JCP members hierarchy

    Executive Committee (EC)

    The Executive Committee (EC) plays a major role in the JCP program. Members of this group gain to analyze, comment, vote and decided on the approval of All the JSRs submitted to the program. Besides being amenable for guiding the evolution of the entire platform, the EC and the whole JCP program are moreover amenable for the JCP program itself, keeping it in adherence to what the community expects from the program and its members.

    Members of this committee are elected through annual elections and they are amenable for:

  • reviewing and voting to endorse or reject new JSR proposals
  • reviewing and voting to endorse or reject public review drafts
  • deciding when JSRs should breathe withdrawn
  • collaborating on revisions to the JCP program
  • Specification Lead

    The Specification Lead is usually the author of the specification or, fondness in the instance of the JAX-RS spec, someone related to the organization that filed the request. Spec Leads main responsibility is to guide Expert Group members and the Contributors while developing a specification, but they moreover gain to:


    Contributors are Associate Members (i.e. individuals that signed the Associate Membership Agreement) that back the Expert Group and the Specification Lead to test and develop a JSR. This role is the first step to the JCP program. Contributors that provide magnificient back on one or more JSRs have a telling desultory to breathe considered as candidates for future Expert Groups and/or to act as a Specification Lead.

    Java Specification Requests (JSR)

    A Java Specification Request is the document that starts an enhancement on the Java platform. Whenever a member of the JCP program sees an occasion to ameliorate the platform, they create a JSR describing the occasion and submit it for revision. The JSR then passes through a chain of stages until it gets released or discarded. The following list enumerates the stages from the creation of a JSR to its release:

  • Write a JSR
  • Submit a JSR
  • JSR Review
  • EG formation
  • Early Draft Review
  • Public Review
  • Proposed Final Draft
  • Final Ballot
  • JCP stages

    All these stages are thoroughly defined in the JCP 2.10: Process Document. But below I share a summary of them.

    Write a Java Specification Request

    The first stage is where an individual or a company that has identified an occasion writes about it. The artifact expected from this stage must conform to the JSR Submission Template.

    Submit a Java Specification Request

    After having the template properly filled, the author then submits it to the JCP program. If everything is ok with the submission, then the JSR enters the review phase.

    Java Specification Request Review

    When a JSR reaches this stage, the EC, and the all community, gain from 2 to 4 weeks to anatomize and comment on it.

    The length of this term is defined by the JSR submitter. This stage ends in a JSR Approval Ballot (JAB), where members of the EC have another 2 weeks to vote on it. To breathe approved, a JSR has to:

  • Receive at least 5 votes
  • Receive yes as the majority of the votes cast (absent votes are ignored)
  • Expert Group Formation

    When a JSR gets approved by the EC, the Specification Leads start forming an Expert Group and a team of Contributors to drudgery on the specification. After having the all crew defined, they start working on the Early Draft Review (EDR).

    Early Draft Review

    The goal of Early Draft Review is to obtain the draft specification into a contour suitable for Public Review as quickly as possible. The public participation in this stage is desired and critical as they can raise architectural and technological issues that can ameliorate the specification.

    Public Review

    This stage is reached when a JSR is really close to its complete definition and the EG is ready to start developing the Reference Implementation (RI). The goal of this stage is to collect some ultimate feedbacks and to give the desultory to the community to contribute one ultimate time before affecting to the Proposed Final Draft.

    Proposed Final Draft

    If the Public Review is successful, the Expert Group then prepares the Proposed Final Draft of the specification by completing any revisions necessary to respond to comments. During this phase the JSR gets finished both as a specification and as an implementation (a Reference Implementation). Also, the Specification Lead and the Expert Group is amenable for completing the TCK.

    Final Ballot

    After having All the documents, the implementation and the TCK finished, the Specification Leads send the Final Draft of the Specification to the JCP program to gain the Final Approval Ballot initiated. In case, of a successful ballot, after a maximum of 14 days, the specification gets published on the JCP website with its RI. The JSR then gets in a Maintenance mode where petite updates to it might occur.


    As you can see, the Java community has an addiction for acronyms, mainly those that contains the letter J. But alongside with this "addiction", the community has moreover built an wonderful environment, with crystal-clear rules, that enable Java to evolve as a platform and as a community.

    The all process defined as JCP enables multiple companies to reckon on technologies that adhere to specifications. Relying on these specifications guarantee that companies will gain more than one vendor capable of supporting their operations. As such, if a vendor starts providing scandalous services or goes bankrupt, the companies gain the guarantee that affecting to another vendor won't cause too much trouble.

    Of course, this process and these specifications don't reach for free. Actually, the charge is quite high, which is the timeframe that novel technologies and trends engage to obtain adopted by the JCP community.

    As an example, let's declar that a company would fondness to use GraphQL. birthright now, there is no specification on any Java edition that supports this technology, and there are chances that Java standards will never back it at all. So, if the company really wants to expend it, it will gain to engage its chances by adopting another solution that will gain nothing to Do with the Java platform and its standards. This would execute the company lose the upside of the specifications.

    What about you, what Do you contemplate about the Java platform, the JCP program, and the all Java community? Do you contemplate they are affecting in the birthright direction? Would you suggest some changes to it? They would worship to hear your ideas.

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    AppSense [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    APTUSC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Arizona-Education [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ARM [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Aruba [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ASIS [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ASQ [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ASTQB [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Autodesk [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Avaya [101 Certification Exam(s) ]
    AXELOS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Axis [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Banking [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    BEA [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
    BICSI [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    BlackBerry [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
    BlueCoat [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Brocade [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Business-Objects [11 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Business-Tests [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CA-Technologies [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Certification-Board [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Certiport [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CheckPoint [43 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CIDQ [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CIPS [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Cisco [318 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Citrix [48 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CIW [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Cloudera [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Cognos [19 Certification Exam(s) ]
    College-Board [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CompTIA [76 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ComputerAssociates [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Consultant [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Counselor [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CPP-Institue [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CPP-Institute [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CSP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CWNA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CWNP [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CyberArk [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Dassault [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    DELL [11 Certification Exam(s) ]
    DMI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    DRI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ECCouncil [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ECDL [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    EMC [129 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Enterasys [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Ericsson [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ESPA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Esri [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ExamExpress [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Exin [40 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ExtremeNetworks [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    F5-Networks [20 Certification Exam(s) ]
    FCTC [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Filemaker [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Financial [36 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Food [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Fortinet [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Foundry [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    FSMTB [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Fujitsu [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    GAQM [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Genesys [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    GIAC [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Google [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    GuidanceSoftware [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    H3C [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    HDI [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Healthcare [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    HIPAA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Hitachi [30 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Hortonworks [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Hospitality [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    HP [752 Certification Exam(s) ]
    HR [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    HRCI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Huawei [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Hyperion [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IAAP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IAHCSMM [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IBM [1533 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IBQH [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ICAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ICDL [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IEEE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IELTS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IFPUG [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IIBA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IISFA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Intel [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IQN [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IRS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ISA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ISACA [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ISC2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ISEB [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Isilon [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ISM [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    iSQI [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ITEC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Juniper [65 Certification Exam(s) ]
    LEED [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Legato [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Liferay [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Logical-Operations [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Lotus [66 Certification Exam(s) ]
    LPI [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
    LSI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Magento [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Maintenance [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    McAfee [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    McData [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Medical [69 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Microsoft [375 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Mile2 [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Military [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Misc [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Motorola [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
    mySQL [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NBSTSA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NCEES [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NCIDQ [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NCLEX [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Network-General [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NetworkAppliance [39 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NIELIT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Nokia [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Nortel [130 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Novell [37 Certification Exam(s) ]
    OMG [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Oracle [282 Certification Exam(s) ]
    P&C [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Palo-Alto [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PARCC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PayPal [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Pegasystems [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PEOPLECERT [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PMI [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Polycom [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PostgreSQL-CE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Prince2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PRMIA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PsychCorp [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PTCB [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    QAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    QlikView [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Quality-Assurance [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
    RACC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Real-Estate [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    RedHat [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    RES [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Riverbed [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    RSA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Sair [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Salesforce [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SANS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SAP [98 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SASInstitute [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SAT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SCO [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SCP [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SDI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    See-Beyond [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Siemens [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Snia [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SOA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Social-Work-Board [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SpringSource [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SUN [63 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SUSE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Sybase [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Symantec [135 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Teacher-Certification [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    The-Open-Group [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    TIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Tibco [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Trainers [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Trend [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    TruSecure [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    USMLE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    VCE [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Veeam [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Veritas [33 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Vmware [58 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Wonderlic [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Worldatwork [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    XML-Master [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Zend [6 Certification Exam(s) ]

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