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310-303 Sun Certified Security Administrator for the Solaris 10 OS

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310-303 exam Dumps Source : Sun Certified Security Administrator for the Solaris 10 OS

Test Code : 310-303
Test cognomen : Sun Certified Security Administrator for the Solaris 10 OS
Vendor cognomen : SUN
real questions : 295 existent Questions

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SUN Sun Certified Security Administrator

Oracle licensed knowledgeable (OCE) - Oracle Solaris security Administrator | existent Questions and Pass4sure dumps

This dealer-specific Certification is obtainable by course of:Oracle CorporationRedwood Shores, CA USAPhone: 800-672-2531

ability level: advanced                          repute: Unknown

most economical: $300 (shortest song)                practising Required

summary:for people with extensive job-role journey administering protection in an Oracle Solaris or a Solaris working outfit environment. even though it is not required, outdated Oracle Solaris or Solaris OS outfit and network administration certification is strongly counseled. This certification changed into formerly known as solar licensed security Administrator (SCSECA) for Solaris.

preliminary requirements:There are 2 certification paths to choose between. if you cling an Oracle licensed professional, Oracle Solaris outfit Administrator certification, you can bypass the working towards path and easily pass the Oracle Solaris protection Administrator licensed expert exam ($300). otherwise, you must comprehensive an authorized practising direction ($3250), rush the Oracle Solaris protection Administrator certified knowledgeable exam ($300), and comprehensive the direction submission kind. The exam has a 90 minute closing date and includes fifty nine questions. A passing rating of forty nine% is required.

continuing requirements:None targeted

See replete Oracle Certifications

vendor's page for this certification

solar certified system Administrator: Job Description & requirements | existent Questions and Pass4sure dumps

licensed Solaris gadget administrators are suggestions technology (IT) professionals who installation and hold network servers working one of the most Solaris operating gadget, currently purchasable throughout the Oracle agency. they are constantly employed with the aid of groups and different groups with desktop networks that expend the company's open supply application items. As systems directors, they might too also boos other IT staff and reply to questions and upkeep requests from workplace worker's.

education Bachelor's degree in advice technology or desktop science recommended Job knowledge Troubleshooting, analytical pondering, multitasking, verbal exchange profits latitude (2016)* $87,four hundred to $104,762 with sun certified gadget Administrator credentials Job multiply (2014-2024)** 8% for network and computing device methods administrators

supply: *Payscale, **U.S. Bureau of Labor data

Required education

Most methods administrators enjoy achieved a Bachelor of Science in information know-how, desktop Science or a connected container. Core coursework typically comprises topics in programming languages and processes, networking and systems design. Solaris certifications are available through the Oracle company in network, protection and systems administration. necessities comprehend a passing rating on an examination, which candidates can achieve together for by enrolling in courses on the Oracle Academy or an accepted working towards core, reviewing seminar packages and taking apply exams.

potential Required

systems directors are analytical thinkers who are capable of troubleshoot concerns for significant groups of community outfit clients. stressful instances require clear, quick pondering, and may contain working lengthy hours unless the issue is fixed. The capability to multitask can breathe positive when managing multiple undertaking at a time. verbal exchange talents are key when working with nontechnical corpse of workers members.

career and earnings Outlook

The U.S. Bureau of Labor records (BLS) envisioned that jobs for device directors in well-known will enhance by a regular pace, eight% from 2014 to 2024. licensed outfit directors will savor surprising job possibilities, as agencies more and more faith on full-time professionals to hold their laptop operating systems. based on, certified methods administrators for Solaris operating techniques earned between $87,400 and $104,762 in might too 2016.

Cisco is leading the course for Wi-sun interoperability | existent Questions and Pass4sure dumps

Utilities enjoy been gradual to adopt IoT networking because of long upgrade cycles and interoperability complexities throughout diverse purposes with differing network needs. Yet, more and more, they hear their utility valued clientele emphasize the exigency to simplify and back large-scale out of doors networks that exploit an array of options from wise metering and distribution automation, to require response and renewable power integration.

At DistribuTECH, they shared how Cisco’s continuing innovation is meeting this problem. They showcased their replete portfolio of utility industry options that comprehend Cisco Resilient Mesh and their FAN routers, goal-built to enrich interoperability. And they announced that Cisco is the first to achieve Wi-solar province locality network (FAN) 1.0 interoperability certification for their IR509 Cisco Resilient Mesh industrial router.

Why is interoperability so important? Let’s buy a look.

The challenge of interoperability

typically, utilities and wise cities exigency to answer numerous networking expend instances, with options from various carriers, managed by course of divide operations companies and even conclusion clients. as an example, an influence utility might too expend sensible grid, advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) and Distribution Automation (DA) networks. Interoperability becomes even more crucial in the event that they deserve to integrate distributed power resources (DER), which might comprehend solutions the station they don’t enjoy direct control, such as home solar, electric car charging stations, or wise highway lighting.

First era wise grid AMI and DA networks often used proprietary mesh networking technologies, partly IP-enabled and the usage of proprietary safety protocols. however that usually suppositious safety turned into less scrutinized, much less robust, and may enjoy had unknown vulnerabilities. devoid of sufficient interoperability, utilities were compelled to first select a community infrastructure seller, after which require replete of their grid device carriers (e.g., for line sensors, meters, cap pecuniary institution controllers) to integrate/certify verbal exchange modules from that network vendor.

The outcomes is an exceedingly inefficient, time- and price-intensive procedure for everybody concerned. A utility customarily has to wait a very long time except the mixing and container compliance is accomplished for replete of the grid instruments before they can install and expend the community comfortably. meanwhile, they can continue to sprint distinctive networks each and every with divide conversation technologies for diverse purposes (e.g., line sensor vs. volt-var handle) and proceed to deal with elevated maintenance can charge, complexity, and fragility of their techniques.

Cisco IoT solutions goal to reduce interoperability complexities with intent-based networking, and assist pace implementation by means of bringing companions collectively via their IoT DevNet application.

constructing comfy and dependable interoperability

while security and reliability are right of intellect for their utility shoppers, interoperability tends to buy a back seat in conversations. Yet interoperability is key for endured boom in IoT – and that’s the station they are available. Cisco is leading the pack with their IR509 router, the primary with Wi-sun FAN 1.0 interoperability certification.

Wi-sun FAN 1.0 gives for fundamental interoperability of contraptions for community discovery, affiliation, authentication, key exchange and rotation, encryption, RPL routing, and IPv6 tackle project. Wi-solar compliance is gaining attention, and that has each community providers and machine providers scrambling to pickup licensed. With utilities enabling smart city infrastructures like highway lighting, EV charging, and wise parking, a mess of carriers and purposes are converging on the identical network, making wider adoption of Wi-sun inevitable.

meanwhile, as Wi-sun is evolving toward FAN 2.0 requirements, Cisco is retaining tempo to breathe capable. We’re carrying on with to drudgery on advanced points equivalent to time distribution, adaptive data expense and modulation, peer-to-peer communication, QoS and snug certificate re-enrollment.

Interoperability is a vital component in attaining IoT success – and we’ll pickup you there.

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Sun Certified Security Administrator for the Solaris 10 OS

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Sun Certified System Administrator: Job Description & Requirements | existent questions and Pass4sure dumps

Certified Solaris system administrators are information technology (IT) professionals who install and maintain network servers running one of the Solaris operating system, currently available through the Oracle Corporation. They are usually employed by businesses and other organizations with computer networks that expend the company's open source software products. As systems administrators, they may too boos other IT staff and respond to questions and maintenance requests from office workers.

Education Bachelor's degree in information technology or computer science recommended Job Skills Troubleshooting, analytical thinking, multitasking, communication Salary compass (2016)* $87,400 to $104,762 with Sun Certified System Administrator credentials Job Growth (2014-2024)** 8% for network and computer systems administrators

Source: *Payscale, **U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics

Required Education

Most systems administrators enjoy completed a Bachelor of Science in Information Technology, Computer Science or a related field. Core coursework typically includes topics in programming languages and procedures, networking and systems design. Solaris certifications are available through the Oracle Corporation in network, security and systems administration. Requirements comprehend a passing score on an exam, which candidates can prepare for by enrolling in courses at the Oracle Academy or an approved training center, reviewing seminar packages and taking exercise exams.

Skills Required

Systems administrators are analytical thinkers who are able to troubleshoot issues for great groups of network system users. Stressful situations require clear, quickly thinking, and can involve working long hours until the problem is fixed. The faculty to multitask can breathe helpful when managing more than one project at a time. Communication skills are key when working with nontechnical staff members.

Career and Salary Outlook

The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) predicted that jobs for system administrators in universal will multiply by an detached pace, 8% from 2014 to 2024. Certified system administrators will devour excellent job prospects, as businesses increasingly faith on full-time professionals to maintain their computer operating systems. According to, certified systems administrators for Solaris operating systems earned between $87,400 and $104,762 in May 2016.

Solaris 10 Trusted Extensions vs. SELinux | existent questions and Pass4sure dumps

What is your sentiment on the advantages of one over the other -- maintainability, ease of use, robustness of security features, etc.? They are choosing an operating system to expend for a cross-domain demo.

Solaris Trusted Extensions or TX and SELinux are quite difficult to compare because they are quite different in many respects. It's too a debated topic and some of what I dispute could readily breathe disputed.

So first, what's the difference? Solaris is an operating system that, with Trusted Extensions applied, runs the multi-level security (MLS) model. SELinux is a Mandatory Access Control scheme that can sprint on a number of Linux distributions and can comprehend a policy that applies MLS.

What is MLS? MLS is a specific Mandatory Access Control scheme for particular types of tightly controlled environments such as the government and military. It is designed for environments with multi-layer data classifications and strict rules about how data is passed between those layers. You can read some more about MLS at this page

Solaris TX is aimed at implementing a trusted multi-level security (MLS) operating system to military and government standards - EAL4+/LSPP (see the common criteria portal for more information ). This creates a successor to the now defunct Trusted Solaris 8 variation of the Solaris operating system.

As described, SELinux is a Mandatory Access Control implement that is included on a number of Linux operating systems. On some of these operating systems - most notably Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 - a security policy that implements MLS is too included. Enabling this policy on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 aims to allow the platform to breathe certified to the EAL4+/LSPP standard. But you can too load, extend or enhance other policy on a host in addition to the MLS policy. SELinux is designed to breathe extensible and potentially sprint multiple policies simultaneously.

Where does this leave us with for option of an operating system? The decision becomes a miniature more complicated and actually comes down to:

1. Solaris running Trusted Extensions, or 2. Linux distribution running SELinux

Without a view of your requirements and skills, it's difficult to recommend one or the other. Assuming you enjoy the know-how to sprint either Solaris or Linux, the purpose of the host is the focal concern. If you are dealing with a government client with a requirement for MLS then Solaris 10 TX may breathe the right approach. This is not to screech Solaris TX isn't a marvelous option in other circumstances but it is designed for a specific purpose, and it is potentially best deployed for that purpose.

Alternatively you can choose a Linux-based distribution and sprint SELinux on it. SELinux is designed to enjoy a much more supple policy approach and can breathe more easily customized to manage other security controls. This maintenance may buy more trouble and overhead than Solaris TX but does allow you to deviate more readily from the MLS baseline.

Hope that helps clarify the situation. Here are some links to further discussion on SELinux versus Solaris TX: James Turnbull is a Council member for Linux Australia - the peak advocacy corpse for Linux in Australia.

Implementing Security, Part II: Hardening Your UNIX/Linux Servers | existent questions and Pass4sure dumps

Continuing with Part 2 of this two-article series, Joseph Dries helps you continue to expand upon your list of basic security processes by looking at UNIX/Linux hardening, protecting your servers from network based TCP/IP attacks, and utilizing centralized logging servers.

This article was excerpted from The Concise sheperd to Enterprise Internetworking and Security.

"A commercial, and in some respects a social, doubt has been started within the ultimate year or two, whether or not it is right to dispute so openly the security or insecurity of locks. Many well-meaning persons suppose that the discussion respecting the means for baffling the suppositious safety of locks offers a premium for dishonesty, by showing others how to breathe dishonest. This is a fallacy. Rogues are very keen in their profession, and already know much more than they can instruct them respecting their several kinds of roguery. Rogues knew a marvelous deal about lockpicking long before locksmiths discussed it among themselves, as they enjoy lately done. If a lock—let it enjoy been made in whatever country, or by whatever maker—is not so inviolable as it has hitherto been deemed to be, surely it is in the interest of honest persons to know this fact because the untruthful are tolerably unavoidable to breathe the first to apply the learning practically; and the spread of learning is necessary to give honest play to those who might suffer by ignorance. It cannot breathe too earnestly urged, that an acquaintance with existent facts will, in the end, breathe better for replete parties." —Charles Tomlinson's "Rudimentary Treatise on the Construction of Locks," published around 1850

It has been said that the wonderful thing about standards is there are so many to choose from. The same option is available in the UNIX arena. There are two basic flavors, BSD-derived and AT&T System V-derived. BSD-derived UNIX systems comprehend OpenBSD, FreeBSD, NetBSD, BSDi, MacOS X, and SunOS 4. System V-derived UNIX systems comprehend HP-UX and Solaris (SunOS 5). Other UNIX systems, such as AIX, provide commands that will act BSD-ish or System V-ish, depending on how they were invoked. Linux is not derived from any UNIX, but depending on the distribution, borrows from both BSD and System V semantics. Actually, Linux itself is just the operating system kernel and supporting drivers. Most Linux distributions expend the GNU system (, thus they are called GNU/Linux distributions. There are hundreds of available GNU/Linux distributions, but even the "top 5" are different in their default commands, startup scripts, filesystem layout, included utilities, and packaging systems.

What does this addupto to you? Unlike Windows NT, including Windows 2000, it is a far more complex process to relate how to acclimatize a UNIX/Linux server. This next section provides some common procedures that can breathe applied across UNIX versions and GNU/Linux distributions. Following that are some pointers to animated documents on the Internet, which track available data and releases, and depart into a more minute account of how to acclimatize a server for a particular task.

Common Steps for Hardening UNIX/Linux Servers

The process of edifice a UNIX or GNU/Linux server for expend as a firewall or DMZ server begins with installation. Eliminating points of attack, such as filling the filesystem, or removing unnecessary libraries and services, is equivalent to removing viable entry points for intruders.

Some common guidelines for configuring UNIX servers with a more secure default stance are available from CERT's Web site at

Partition for Protection

Besides having divide partitions for the obvious, such as SWAP and /tmp, you should protect against out-of-disk-space denial-of-service attacks. Intruders might try to create extravagant generation of logging data or fill your file system with great files through FTP or mail spool. The best course to protect against this is to segment the filesystem hierarchy into divide physical partitions.

The root partition / can breathe miniature because it generally contains just the kernel—the necessary files, libraries, and configuration for booting in /bin, /sbin, /etc, and /lib. Access to the attached devices is provided through the /dev and /devices directories. Many GNU/Linux distributions store kernels and emblem data in the /boot directory, whereas kernel libraries are stored under /lib.

The /usr partition is normally where user-accessible applications are stored. Normally, /usr does not contain data or configuration files that change; therefore, an added security measure can breathe mounted as read-only.

The /var partition stores system logs and data services such as mail, Web, databases, printing, running services, package management, and so on. On a mail server, you might want to design /var/spool/mail, or /var/mail in Solaris, a divide partition, or—even better—a divide disk array. If you only create one divide partition from /, /var is the one you should separate.

The /usr/local directory structure, and in Solaris the /opt directory, often contains locally installed optional software, configuration files, and data. /usr/local is normally not affected by operating system upgrades. Depending on how you expend those directories, they too can breathe mounted as read-only.

These are suggestions and guidelines only, and are different from recommended settings for a system that contains user accounts, usually in /home.

Disable Extraneous inetd Services

inetd is the UNIX "Internet Super Server." It is a daemon process that is invoked at boot time and reads in a flat file configuration database normally create at /etc/inetd.conf. inetd listens for incoming connections on the defined IP ports. When a connection is initiated on a defined port, it invokes the configured program to service the request. After the connection is finished, the process invoked to service that request terminates. This was originally designed to lighten the load and resources required for systems.

There are a number of services enabled through inetd, and almost replete of them should breathe disabled for edifice firewalls and DMZ servers. Besides normally disabling FTP, TFTP, Telnet, and the Berkeley r* commands, disable the following:

  • in.named—BIND cognomen services daemon. Except for your DNS servers, you should not breathe running DNS on your firewall or DMZ servers.

  • in.fingerd—Finger daemon that can breathe used to prove user information and lists of users who are logged in. There is no reason to advertise that information to would-be intruders.

  • daytime—Connections to this service parade the date and time on the system in a string format. Getting the date and time of a system is useful for an intruder trying to implement replay attacks.

  • time—Connections to this service recur the time as a 32-bit value representing the number of seconds since midnight 1-Jan-1900. carryout not provide intruders with your exact system time.

  • echo—This is a diagnostic service that echoes incoming data back to the connecting machine.

  • discard—This is a diagnostic service that does not reverberate (thus discarding) the incoming data stream back to the connecting machine.

  • chargen—This is a diagnostic service that automatically generates a stream of characters sent to the connecting machine.

  • systat—Connections to this service provide a list of replete processes and their status.

  • netstat—Connections to this service provide a list of current network connections and their status.

  • Install and Configure tcp_wrappers

    Install and configure Wietse Venema's tcp_wrappers on both your firewall and DMZ servers. tcp_wrappers allows you to define access control to various services, depending on a limited set of criteria, such as username, IP address, or DNS domain.

    You might breathe asking why it's necessary to configure and install additional products when your firewall will breathe doing the same thing. And that's a telling question. The reply is to avoid separate points of failure, and to provide security in layers. If one layer is pierced and bypassed, other layers will breathe standing guard behind the breach.

    tcp_wrappers are lightweight and extremely useful on internal servers; not just on firewalls and DMZ servers. hold in intellect that most information security breaches, intentional or accidental, betide internally. It's only the external defacements, massive distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks, virus-du-jour, and stolen credit card databases that grab the press. That, and misplaced difficult drives with highly sensitive nuclear information.

    tcp_wrappers enjoy two main files that allow access to the individually defined services. The following two files are checked for rules governing access to individual or wildcard services:

    /etc/hosts.allow /etc/hosts.deny

    Like most firewalls, access is granted or denied on the first matching rule. The rules are checked in order, first in hosts.allow and then in hosts.deny.

    Care should breathe taken when using the KNOWN or UNKNOWN wildcards. replete will always match whatever criteria you are testing. Read the hosts_access manual page included with tcp_wrappers for further details on syntax and rules setup.

    tcp_wrappers is installed and configured by default on most GNU/Linux distributions and BSD releases. For those UNIX systems that carryout not enjoy tcp_wrappers installed by default, they can breathe create at Retrieve the source, compile, and install the binaries on the servers.

    Lock Down Your DNS Server

    The Berkeley Internet cognomen Daemon, or BIND, is the reference implementation of the cognomen service providing DNS for the Internet. The Internet Software Consortium (ISC) is amenable for implementing and maintaining BIND. There are three basic versions of BIND: BIND 4, BIND 8, and (recently) BIND 9.

    BIND 4 has been around forever, and has its partake of exploits. Only very customary versions of UNIX systems and GNU/Linux distributions came with BIND 4. Still, you'll breathe surprised how many installations quiet enjoy the older BIND 4 running. You should upgrade to a newer version of BIND. The luckless thing is that the file format defining the zones served by the server has changed. There are conversion scripts, but there is sure to breathe some hand editing.

    BIND 8 is the current stable release, and offers many more features and better control and granularity in access control. The settings described later are discussed with BIND 8 in mind.

    BIND 9 was released late in 2000. It offers many current features, such as IPv6 support, DNSSEC, replete Dynamic DNS, incremental zone transfers, multiple views (internal, external, and so on) from a separate server, and scalability improvements. If any of those features are distinguished to your configuration, you should investigate using BIND 9; otherwise, it's best left to the adventurous.

    Although almost replete UNIX systems and GNU/Linux distributions arrive with BIND as the cognomen server, it is distinguished you design sure you are at a recommended release. Before deploying a DNS server, internally or on the DMZ, design sure it is at least version 8.2.2-P5. Any version prior to that has sedate exploits. This warning should not breathe ignored. The Internet Software Consortium themselves enjoy issued a statement that if you are running any version of BIND prior to 8.2.2-P5, you should assume your server has already been compromised. Check your UNIX system or GNU/Linux distribution. If the version of BIND is not at least 8.2.2-P5, check with your vendor for upgrades. If an upgrade is not available, you can compile a version of BIND yourself on a workstation, and install the binaries on your server. The source code can breathe create at

    First, restrict zone transfers to specific secondary servers in your primary zones. The acl command allows you to define an access control list composed of blocks of addresses to breathe used with a named identifier. Using ACLs provides a self-documenting mode of administrating the named.conf configuration file. In the following example, they define two ACLs comprising their externally visible DNS servers and the secondary servers at their ISP:

    acl your-company-dns {;; }; acl your-ISP-dns {;; };

    The following allow-transfer option directive placed in your named.conf file will default replete defined zones to only allow transfers for the defined hosts:

    options { allow-transfer { your-company-dns; your-ISP-dns; }; };

    You can override the allow-transfer statement in the options directive by placing the allow-transfer statement in the zone definition:

    zone "" { ilk master; file "db.yourdomain-com"; allow-transfer {;; }; }

    The default allow-transfer option will avert zone transfers to hosts not specified in the ACLs. However, if you want to restrict replete zone transfers on your secondary servers and any secondary zones on your primary servers, expend predefined match list none. This can breathe accomplished with the following allow-transfer directive in your zone definitions:

    zone "" { ilk slave; file "db.yourdomain-com.s"; masters {; }; allow-transfer { none; }; };

    Finally, because you will breathe allowing recursive queries through your servers, it's best to enable access control lists for your internal networks. Using a nested, named acl with the allow-query option in the zone definition, you can then restrict recursive queries to internal hosts only as seen in the following example:

    acl internal-net {; }; acl dmz-net {; }; acl trusted-hosts { localhost; internal-net; dmz-net; }; zone "" { ilk master; file "db.yourdomain-com" allow-query { trusted-hosts; }; };

    Que's Concise sheperd to DNS and BIND by Nicolai Langfeldt is a wonderful resource to further grok BIND configuration and maintenance.

    Tighten Sendmail Default Options

    Send mail comes with just about every UNIX/Linux installation as the default mail transfer agent (MTA). As a result of being so widely installed, it has been estimated that sendmail handles a majority of the email on the Internet. Because it runs as suid root, sendmail exploits impress millions of machines.

    sendmail version 8.11.0 is available at the time of publication, and supports current features such as STARTTLS and SMTP AUTH encryption. Upgrade to the newest version available, if possible, but delight design sure that you are running a version no later than version 8.9.3 because of security exploits.

    To enable the Realtime Blackhole List feature, expend the following in your file:


    Additionally, you might want to disable the SMTP VRFY and EXPN commands in sendmail. These commands are often used by intruders to assemble information about your system:

    define(´confPRIVACY_FLAGS', ´novrfy,noexpn')dnl

    There are several additional flags you can set to design sendmail enjoy a more secure stance:

  • authwarnings—Add X-Authentication-Warning header in messages on unavoidable conditions that might betoken mail system spoof attempts.

  • needmailhelo—Require that the sending site uses the SMTP HELO command first when connecting to ship email.

  • needexpnhelo—Require that the sending site uses the SMTP HELO command before allowing any EXPN usage.

  • needvrfyhelo—Require that the sending site uses the SMTP HELO command before allowing any VRFY usage.

  • noreceipts—Disable Delivery Status Notification (DSNs) of delivery and read receipts.

  • goaway—Set replete flags except restrictmailq and restrictqrun.

  • restrictmailq—Prevent users from using the mailq command to view the contents of the mail queue.

  • restrictqrun—Stop users from processing the queue.

  • Better than sendmail: Making Postfix Your MTA

    According to its Web page, Postfix's goals are "to breathe fast, light to administer, and secure, while at the same time being sendmail compatible enough to not upset existing users."

    Postfix was primarily written by Wietse Venema of tcp_wrappers fame. Postfix was designed to breathe modular, thus Postfix is not a separate executable like sendmail; rather, Postfix comprises a collection of specialized programs that perform specific tasks. replete the programs except for the master control process (oddly called master because it runs without root privilege) sprint as nonprivileged users, limiting the damage an attacker can inflict on your system. Because of the speed, ease of configuration (and thus less random of misconfiguration), and security, it is recommended that you investigate replacing sendmail with Postfix. For those of you who carryout not dream in syntax, Postfix will design email administration both easier and more secure.

    Postfix is now distributed with most GNU/Linux and BSD releases, although it is not often installed by default. Usually, it is a simple matter of installing it via your package management system, or (in the BSD case) via the ports collection.

    If you are using an operating system that does not distribute Postfix, despondency not. You can download and compile the sources easily on a development workstation and then install the binaries on your mail server. The sources, FAQs, and documentation can breathe create at

    Linux-Specific Tasks

    There are many GNU/Linux distributions out there. Each vendor has its own installation process, which usually changes between current versions of the vendor's distribution. The "forerunners" of GNU/Linux distributions are Red Hat, SuSE, TurboLinux, Mandrake, Caldera, Slackware, and Debian. That does not addupto specifically that you should expend any one of them because the elevated number of distributions allows vendors to tailor their GNU/Linux distributions to specific tasks such as embedded systems, routers, and firewalls. buy the time to carefully investigate the available distributions, and determine which best fits your needs.

    With that said, two of these universal distributions stand out, but for different reasons. Red Hat, because it has had the most cognomen recognition, and is usually the first to pickup any sort of corporate back in the course of commercial software or commercial technical service. Many vendors, such as Oracle, IBM, and Check Point, enjoy released products for Red Hat-specific distributions. This does not addupto that those software releases will not sprint on other GNU/Linux distributions, but if there is a problem, the vendor might not back your installation of its product on a non-Red Hat distribution.

    Debian is the second distribution that deserves mention. First, not because it is entirely free, but because it is maintained by a nonprofit organization made up entirely of volunteers. These volunteers are highly motivated by quality and pride in their efforts to design Debian the most stable and completely 100% free distribution available. Debian has proven to breathe extremely stable and light to manage and upgrade remotely. The upgrade process is by far the easiest of any of the GNU/Linux distributions. Debian installations can breathe upgraded without the exigency for reboots, replacing every installed package and running process excepting the kernel. Additionally, the Debian packaging system and its front ends allow extremely fine-grained control over which packages, utilities, libraries, and files exist on your system. Debian too is currently available on six different architectures, with more than 3,900 included software packages to select from when installing.

    For both Debian and Red Hat installations, you should choose custom installations, and select the individual packages you want on your system. There should breathe no exigency to install development packages, any of the current KDE or GNOME desktops, and certainly not X Window. Unfortunately, neither distribution yet has a minimal secure server or firewall predefined install-set.

    During the installation process, you should choose to enable shadow password file support; choose to expend MD5 hashes for the passwords rather than the unpretentious crypt function. If you miss these options during the install, you can change them after installation. In Red Hat, expend the setup utility. In Debian, you can expend the shadowconfig utility to enable or disable shadow passwords. To enable MD5 hashes, you enjoy to edit the commandeer files under /etc/pam.d to comprehend md5 on the password lines.

    You should too enable ipchains support, even if this is an application server on the DMZ. ipchains provides additional layers of security, and allows you to protect the server from traffic should the firewall fail for some reason. A sample ipchains configuration is discussed later in the article.

    You should additionally read and monitor the security and errata/updates lists from your distribution vendor. With Debian, it is extremely light to automatically install security updates using the apt-get utility. For Red Hat installations starting with the 6.0 release, there is the up2date utility to retrieve updated packages for your release.

    For those people who choose to install Red Hat Linux, there is a security-related project called Bastille Linux, whose flush is not just to acclimatize your Linux installation, but to educate the administrators on how to acclimatize the system. Bastille Linux supports Red Hat and Mandrake Linux distributions with project goals to become distribution, and UNIX flavor, agnostic. The Bastille Linux product is a set of scripts that asks a sequence of questions and then allows you to apply those modifications to your system. The questions relate what needs to breathe done, why it should breathe done, and why you might not want to carryout it. It is very educational, especially for those administrators just getting chummy with Linux. Bastille Linux can breathe create at

    Another excellent source of information for administrators is the Linux Administrator's Security Guide. It covers an extremely wide array of topics related to Linux and security. You can find the Linux Administrator's Security sheperd online at

    Solaris-Specific Tasks

    Solaris has four default install-sets: Core, End-User, Developer, and Entire Distribution. Installing any install-set higher than the Core installation will enable more services than are required for DMZ servers or firewalls. In reality, you can often remove a significant percentage of the default Core install-set, depending on your server's application requirements.

    For Solaris-based servers, there are several excellent documents from Sun in its Blueprints Online archive at The following three papers are excellent starting points for edifice secure Solaris servers:

  • "Solaris Operating Environment Minimization for Security: A Simple, Reproducible and Secure Application Installation Methodology" by Alex Noordergraaf and Keith Watson. Although this paper specifically covers the iPlanet Web server requirements, similar requirements are necessary for using Apache or other Web servers.

  • "Solaris Operating Environment Security" by Alex Noordergraaf and Keith Watson. An overview of universal security options on a Solaris server. This paper includes some specifics for the SPARC architecture; however, most of the material is applicable to Intel architectures as well.

  • "Solaris Operating Environment Network Settings for Security" by Alex Noordergraaf and Keith Watson is another excellent paper on kernel tuning and application parameters that impress network security.

  • As a matter of fact, Sun's Blueprints Online is a wealth of whitepapers outlining Best Practices regarding Solaris Operating Environments, whether it is a DMZ Web server, firewall, or internal highly available database cluster.

    Lance Spitzner too has an excellent Solaris hardening document that details the hardening process for edifice a Check Point FireWall-1 firewall on several recent versions of Solaris (through version 8) for the Intel and SPARC platforms. The animated document resides at

    Finally, there is an equivalent to the Bastille-Linux hardening scripts for Solaris called TITAN. The TITAN project and documentation can breathe create at

    OpenBSD-Specific Tasks

    This section concentrates on OpenBSD 2.7, which is one of the three more famed BSD variants; the others being NetBSD and FreeBSD. Each variant has focused on a different problem: NetBSD is the most portable, FreeBSD has the best performance, and OpenBSD is the most secure.

    One of the stately strengths of OpenBSD is the highly secure default stance of a default install of OpenBSD. The OpenBSD Web site claims "three years without a remote pocket in the default install, only one localhost pocket in two years in the default install." Almost replete services are disabled until the administrator has enough undergo to properly configure them.

    Two additional changes necessary for an OpenBSD box to become a firewall are to disable sendmail and enable IP filter support. Both changes are made to the same file, /etc/rc.conf. To disable sendmail, change




    To enable IP filter support, you must change




    Additionally, if you will breathe doing Network Address Translation (NAT), providing transparent proxying, or providing back for FTP, you must enable the ipnat option by setting ipnat=YES. Syntax for IP filters will breathe covered briefly later in the chapter.

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