920-141 exam Dumps Source : Communication Server (CS) 1000 Release 4.0
Test Code : 920-141
Test denomination : Communication Server (CS) 1000 Release 4.0
Vendor denomination : Nortel
real questions : 68 true Questions
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HERNDON, Va.--(enterprise WIRE)--The U.S. military Contracting Command, national Capital region Contracting middle (NCRCC) suggestions know-how, e-Commerce and commercial Contracting focus has awarded Black box community capabilities the installing suggestions Infrastructure Modernization program (I3MP) improve and voice switching ambiance growth at feet. Bragg/Pope military Airfield, NC. This trouble has an approximate value of $17 million. home to the XVIII Airborne Corps, the 82nd Airborne Division, and the special Operations Command, feet. Bragg is the branch of protection cornerstone for swift deployment ground forces to seize trust of their nation’s pastimes international.
"we are honored by means of the preference of Black container to deliver a state-of-the-artwork, IP-based respond for their nation's biggest defense force installation," pointed out Mr. Charlie Stone, Black realm network features – Federal Division vp of income. "This undertaking will bring superior web protocol voice capabilities, with the intent to provide the measure medium for advanced unified communications capabilities, thereby improving collaboration, coordination, command, and wield for the soldiers, DA civilians, and armed forces communities at toes. Bragg.”
At feet. Bragg, Black container network capabilities will improve and expand the latest Time-Division Multiplexing (“TDM”) switching infrastructure to Voice over cyber web Protocol (“VoIP”)/TDM Hybrid techniques in accordance with the Nortel verbal exchange Server 2100 (“CS2100”) compact split up-core communications platform and the Nortel communique Server one thousand (“CS1000”) at dissimilar remote sites. The Nortel solution will supply geographic survivability and open structure, to comprise a common processing engine with the existing switch, for efficient migration from analog & digital telecommunications to web protocol, capitalizing on packet-primarily based communications and Session Initiation Protocol (SIP).
“It has been their different joy and privilege to serve PM NSC/PdM I3MP-C, ISEC, and the ft. Bragg DOIM on the existing feet. Bragg IMOD assignment to boost and extend the present network infrastructure,” commented Mr. Tony Schneider, Black container network capabilities – Federal Division program vp. “The entire ft. Bragg IMOD group is definitely humbled by this 2d award, making the Black container community features ft. Bragg trouble the biggest and most formidable implementation within the history of IMOD. They show forward to alive up to, and exceeding, the lofty expectations of the U.S. military for this complex and demanding assignment order.”
About Black container
Black container is the world's biggest technical services trade dedicated to designing, constructing and protecting ultra-modern complex information and voice infrastructure methods. Black container functions 175,000 consumers in 141 international locations with 192 places of drudgery throughout the area. To breathe taught more, talk over with the Black box web web site at www.blackbox.com.
Black box® and the Double Diamond logo are registered emblems of BB technologies, Inc. Nortel® is a registered trademark of Nortel Networks. Any third-party logos acting in this press free up are recounted to breathe the property of their respective owners.
CASE studySSA goes gigantic on VOIP
company’s program is likely one of the world’s biggest voice-over-IP implementations
by pass of late February, the VOIP system had handled greater than 1.6 million calls. SSA officers call so as to add as many as sixteen places of drudgery every week to the novel system barnone through the subsequent two years, mentioned Roderick Hairston, deputy associate commissioner of SSA's office of Telecommunications and systems Operations. When completed, the system might breathe one of the crucial largest VOIP deployments on the planet.
"For SSA to retrograde with VOIP to this extent, they had to believe loads of religion in it," spoke of Benjamin Moses, vice president of solutions at Nortel executive solutions, the mission's lead contractor.
The company mandatory technology that could abet enhance productiveness prerogative through the labor crunch officials call within the coming years. "they're dropping employees, and they're getting able to cope with the child multiply explosion of retirees," Moses observed.
SSA's network of box workplaces has sixty three,000 personnel and a cost ambit of about $10 billion a yr. The company paid $650 billion in sociable safety benefits to 55 million americans in 2008, and for years, it has been getting ready for a wave of child boomer retirements. SSA should breathe hit twice as a result of many of its personnel will attain retirement age at the identical time the company's workload spikes.
That procedure has already started. SSA's box workplace workforce diminished by means of four.4 p.c from 2005 to 2008, according to a fresh leer at by the executive Accountability workplace. Visits to SSA places of drudgery extended from forty two million in 2006 to forty four.4 million in 2008. Forty-4 p.c of the agency's cadaver of workers is expected to retire by pass of 2016, whereas the company expects to breathe processing 1 million extra claims a year from retiring boomers by using 2017.
in the meantime, the agency's mobilephone infrastructure was getting older. It had never been a solitary gadget however abit a collection of sunder programs with diverse carriers at each office.
"Our gadget was greater than 12 years old," Hairston spoke of. "a few of it turned into previous its quit of existence, and different materials were drawing near it. we've been running out of components," and the projects of including, shedding or stirring traces were prolonged and labor-intensive. "We in reality needed to accomplish whatever thing to change them. This became a consummate random to study what profile of system they needed."
What officials mandatory become a solitary system that may well breathe centrally managed and proffer a common leer and believe for employees and shoppers. They desired to breathe capable of balance traffic amongst workplaces and re-route calls in case of an outage, and they wanted to breathe in a position to consolidate trunk strains to retailer money. The outcome of that evaluation turned into the ten-yr, $300 million mobile programs replacement challenge (TSRP).
because it turned into a wholesale replacement rather than an improve, "it changed into pretty an dreadful lot a no-brainer" to retrograde with VOIP, Hairston spoke of. "We made the preference in 2003 to accomplish it, but most effective after they did a pilot. It was a reasonably novel expertise after they made the resolution."
The pilot stint changed into carried out from 2004 to 2006 at 43 workplaces, with sunder programs operated via AT&T and Nortel as basic providers. The outcomes believe been sufficient, and Nortel govt solutions turned into awarded the TSRP contract in 2007. Implementation begun in March 2008.
The device makes expend of Nortel's Contact core supervisor Server, verbal exchange Server a thousand for switching, Media Processing Server 500 for interactive voice response, Unified Messaging 2000 for voice mail and IP telephone 1100 sequence handsets. different participants of the contractor group comprise ordinary Dynamics, Black box community capabilities, Shared applied sciences, York Telecom, lofty Wire Networks, NetIQ, Netcom technologies, AttivaSoft and trustworthy friend-Tech.
There are sunder parts to an IP cell device, Moses pointed out. The IP telephony capabilities — the core switching and purposes equivalent to interactive voice response and invent contact with information — tarry on the community and are unbiased of the means used to transport calls.
"VOIP is truly transport," he mentioned. "All we're doing is pointing to a [Session Initiation Protocol] trunk as opposed to to a [public switched telephone network] trunk. The applications can breathe establish either method." but VOIP allows trunk consolidation and enhanced bandwidth expend for stronger pricing. "VOIP is a cost situation — it's no longer about application availability."
Combining the purposes with the transport is the trickiest fraction of the implementation.
"If it became simply offering a dial tone, it wouldn't breathe a worthy deal more than putting a number of servers on the community," Moses noted. "This consumer has a really exciting utility atmosphere."
one of the most unusual features of SSA's programs is the potential to partition denomination and efficiency facts for each flush of administration. Managers retrograde online through a web front end, using SSA's authentication gadget, for entry to the facts that they are approved to see. An workplace supervisor has access to records and security controls best for that workplace. District, regional and headquarters managers believe access to progressively broader swaths of data.
functions and dial tone are provided from 4 redundant carrier beginning points at Richmond, Calif.; Kansas city, Mo.; Durham, N.C.;and the SSA desktop middle in Baltimore. The carrier delivery points give automated failover in case of an outage.
"we believe experienced an outage," Hairston said. "it works very neatly."
each and every office has a sunder gateway to the common public switched cellphone community for further failover. In case of a native-enviornment or large-enviornment network outage, the phone can instantly re-register to the PSTN. Emergency 911 provider is directed in the course of the PSTN gateway on a aboriginal trunk, in order that the public safety answering point receives accurate suggestions in regards to the quantity and address from which the summon is being made.
The handsets also accomplish their fraction to breathe unavoidable first-rate of provider. every acts as a voice quality agent, and when worthy strikes outdoor consummate parameters, the system automatically signals the provider start factor. Calls can also breathe re-routed, issues recognized and solutions launched with out interrupting the call.
subsequently, the fine of voice carrier depends on the first-rate of the network transporting it. Nortel works with SSA's Division of network Engineering to investigate network health and troubleshoot complications before an office implements VOIP.
"In most instances, they're in relatively trustworthy shape," Moses observed. "Our respond is slightly tolerant" of network circumstances.
"We erudite from the pilot a pass to tune the community and secure voice site visitors where it vital to be," Hairston referred to.
SSA changed into fortunate that it had carried out a major network upgrade presently earlier than TSRP, throughout which it applied Multiprotocol Label Switching. MPLS supports varied services and simplifies traffic management for applications comparable to voice and video that are sensitive to latency. just a few years ago, it became an expensive, leading-facet expertise used primarily with the aid of colossal service providers to provision varied functions, but low-budget high-performance MPLS routers now are available in plenty of sizes, making the know-how functional for different groups.
SSA nevertheless has a lot of drudgery to accomplish to transition box workplaces to VOIP, mentioned Andre Pinto-Lobo, application supervisor at Nortel executive options. "we are coming to the conclusion of yr One," he referred to. The fee of implementation will multiply during the 2d and third years and then sluggish once more because the implementation concludes.
but "we're seeing the advantages already," Hairston said. system management has been simplified, there's greater redundancy, and calls may also breathe more suitable routed to the suitable grownup or automated provider, which should gladden each personnel and retiring child boomers.
William Jackson is a Maryland-primarily based freelance author.
Andrew R. Hickey, Senior intelligence writer
Microsoft these days announced a number of latest unified communications optimized contraptions designed for expend with Microsoft office Communications Server 2007 and Microsoft workplace Communicator 2007.
The 15 novel devices, made by means of 9 Microsoft companions -- ASUS, GN, LG-Nortel, NEC, Plantronics, Polycom, Samsung, Tatung and Vitelix -- are based on unified communications to link the drudgery cell to electronic mail, likeaflash messaging, presence, conferencing, VoIP and mobile communications. They combine with workplace Communications Server, Microsoft's VoIP and unified communications server, and office Communicator, its unified communications customer.
building on what Jeff Raikes, Microsoft enterprise Division president, outlined at March's VoiceCon convention, the instruments are designed to invent the desk or workplace telephone a more constructive communique utensil and split down the walls that divide quite a few sorts of communication.
"today's office cell is marooned on an island, split away the leisure of communications gear that tips worker's rely on to accomplish their jobs," Raikes said. "by means of weaving the company phone together with e mail, likeaflash messaging, presence, conferencing and the productivity software people expend most, they are placing voice communications back into enterprise."
all through his bold VoiceCon keynote address, Raikes spoke of that stirring VoIP systems from hardware to software could Cut back the cost of an trade voice gear via half in exactly three years. He brought that over the equal time length, roughly one hundred million people should breathe capable of invent telephone calls at once from their Microsoft office purposes.
but Paul Duffy, Microsoft's senior product supervisor for unified communications, observed the 15 gadgets convey Raikes' vision nearer to truth. pile peripheral phones and instruments to permit voice and unified communications that flee on Microsoft's server and customer adds features and services that regular desk telephones and IP PBXs lack, while additionally offering a brand novel flush of option. basically, businesses can determine on and umpire among the 15 devices, determining which to set up according to end-person and departmental wants, which means that IT is no longer constrained to presenting phones based totally on what integrates with the IP PBX.
"telephones used to breathe built-in with the IP PBX, and you had no choice," Duffy said, including that 15 distinct gadgets working with OCS "offers americans a very gigantic selection of option."
That flush of option, he talked about, can assist IT achieve cost discount rates by pass of now not limiting them to a petite set of expensive instruments from their IP PBX dealer. instead, instruments latitude from $20 to just a few hundred bucks. Gartner Inc. estimates that handsets seize up between 40% and 45% of the cost of an IP telephony installation. stirring from a closed to a a bit open alternative can Cut back those fees, in line with Duffy.
"the expend of an open system to posted application interfaces, Microsoft is enabling partners to innovate novel office phones and instruments that invent enterprise verbal exchange more constructive and productive," Microsoft mentioned in a statement.
Duffy pointed out the phones and contraptions, which consist of USB telephones, wired and instant handsets, conferencing phones, lcd screens and laptops, will motif out-of-the-container with Microsoft software.
telephones and instruments provided consist of:
Yankee group senior vp Zeus Kerravala mentioned Microsoft is taking the market in a special course by pass of introducing openness into an belt that is been broadly speaking closed on the grounds that its inception.
"usual voice carriers tie every runt thing together -- IP phones, computing device application, and so on.," Kerravala mentioned. "Microsoft is attempting to breathe an dreadful lot extra open about it."
Openness creates innovation, he referred to, and each the device makers and quit users benefit. He warned, however, that openness brings novel challenges for IT."it's harder to wield worthy end-to-end because you accomplish not control every runt thing," he observed. "so that you should matter on software interoperability."
Closed methods proffer bigger high-quality but less alternative, in accordance with Kerravala, while open methods present extra option however quality challenges. He suggested IT to "tread carefully."
"The upright integration that the indifferent manufacturers give offers many merits, together with first-rate and some points," he referred to. "however, ultimately, for this market to believe an influence, it breathe received to open up."
Kerravala spoke of IT and quit clients can are expecting to leer identical announcements from different essential carriers going forward.
"The extra mature SIP gets, the extra you are going to see," he observed, including that Microsoft's approach is antithetical to the ease of the business.
As for the pass Microsoft's taking the market in a brand novel course will work, Kerravala noted: "If Microsoft can secure their purchaser to depend greater than the telecom man, [the novel direction will work] neatly. If now not, [the direction will work] poorly."
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For millions of Internet users, surfing the World Wide Web is as smooth as channel hopping on the TV or changing lanes on the freeway.
Click your computer mouse on one spot, and you're in the Lincoln Bedroom with intelligence reports about President Clinton's drive contributions. Click in another, and you're transported down the Amazon River with an adventure expedition. Computers near and far, collectively containing massive storehouses of information, can breathe tapped with the handle of a mouse button.
Just three years ago, navigating the Net involved typing out arcane computer commands on a keyboard. There were no pictures, no graphics, just unostentatious text on a blank screen. Finding just one file of information spelled a lot of time and trouble.
Then Netscape, a small, Silicon Valley, Calif., company, popularized a software program called the Netscape Navigator browser. With Navigator, Web-surfing exploded.
Millions of Internet users obtained Netscape Navigator over the Internet by downloading the software for free.
The value of Netscape shares swelled from $28 on the first day of its public offering, Aug. 9, 1995, to a lofty of $170 on Dec. 5 that same year, making Netscape the foremost prospector in what came to breathe dubbed the Internet Gold Rush.
All of this happened so likeaflash it seems ancient history now. Netscape's huge growth, from a handful of programmers to 1,800 employees, 10 buildings and an expected half-billion dollars in
sales this year if things continue at their current pace, helped to spawn the phrase "Internet time," a high-speed timeline that might breathe compared to dog years.
A lot of dog years believe passed since Netscape's founding. Once portrayed as a vertiginous start-up marked by roller-blade hockey matches, round-the-clock coding marathons, pizza and Jolt cola, and the mood of a college campus after midterms, the company has entered a novel phase. Its shooting star has flee into Planet Microsoft.
BUSINESS BATTLE OF THE '90S
Fifteen months ago, the Redmond giant decided to secure serious about the Internet. Never too arrogant to ape a competitor's success, Microsoft issued its own browser, the Microsoft Explorer, offered it for free over the Net, made deals to ship it with novel computers and versions of America Online and CompuServe, and vowed to build Web-browsing into its Windows operating system and trade software.
The result: Analysts questioned Netscape's competence to compete with a company 10 times its size. Investors fell into line, causing a decline in Netscape's stock to its current cost of $29.37, near its lowest point since that the first day of trading in August 1995. barnone of a sudden, the company once called Wall Street's poster child is finding fear, doubt and doubt wherever it turns.
It's an ironic revolve for the fastest-growing software company in history. More than 50 million copies of Navigator are in expend around the world. An estimated 12 million expend Netscape's e-mail system. In January, the company turned in 1996 sales figures that would believe blown the doors off most 3-year-old start-ups: sales of $346 million, up 405 percent. Profits of $20.9 million, compared with a $6.6 million loss in 1995.
But Microsoft's growing prominence on the Web is taking a toll. Most market-share surveys exhibit Netscape's browser down 10 to 15 points from its peak of around 85 percent. Although the company says the browser is only one fraction of its business, and surveys vary wildly, the market participate continues to breathe watched carefully by key analysts and investors.
With both companies poised to invent major moves in Web technology this year, the Microsoft-Netscape duel is shaping up as the trade battle of the '90s.
If Netscape survives, it will rank as the biggest upset since the iceberg vs. Titanic. If Microsoft wears Netscape down with continued assaults against each of the latter's revenue streams, it will seize its plot as one of the worthy corporate catch-ups in history.
Whatever else happens, 1997 will designate the year of preference for World Wide Web users.
Before Netscape appeared on the horizon, Microsoft was in danger of slipping into middle-aged lethargy.
"There were guys leaving Microsoft simply out of boredom," said designate Eppley, chairman of Bothell-based Traveling Software. "Then Netscape came along and pow! It got folks energized again. There's nothing Microsoft loves better than a target in its gun sights."
Microsoft's No. 2 in command, combative Steve Ballmer "roars at the mention of Netscape," Forbes magazine recently reported. "We pore over (Netscape's) pecuniary statements. They know exactly where they invent their money."
Sitting in the eye of the storm, Netscape is treating the naysayers like dust devils rather than Hurricane Bill. From senior executives on down through the ranks, the company says it has a plan. The keys: Ignore the noise, amble fast, tarry focused, innovate.
"We believe to seize a leadership position and command people where they mediate the technology is going to lead. And then, they either buy into it or not," said Marc Andreessen, 25, Netscape's co-founder.
Both companies are focusing on the lucrative trade market as more corporations and institutions revolve to the Web for internal communications. The market for "intranets" - Web-like networks that corporations and businesses are using to streamline in-house handling of forms, company announcements, electronic mail etc. - is expected to reach $28 billion by 1999, according to Zona Research of Redwood City, Calif. That's a third higher than the most optimistic of final year's projections.
The year of "1995 was barnone about the ascend of the public Internet, and 1996 was about taking those technologies inside companies with intranets," said Netscape's Bob Lisbonne. "And I mediate 1997 will retrograde down as the year when the Internet and intranet were linked and harnessed to accomplish novel and really exciting things."
Intranets let companies exchange not only e-mail but files, forms, meeting schedules and documents over the Web. Considered far more efficient than phone calls or even face-to-face meetings, these "groupware" systems proffer huge returns on investment for companies shifting multiple computer systems over to the uniformity of the Web. The next step, the "extranet," will breathe for companies to participate internal documents, data and communications over the Internet with partners, clients and customers, Lisbonne said.
An International Data Corp. study final year establish that a company typically gains a recur on investment of 1,000 percent or higher - that is, it makes back the money spent in just a month or two, due to efficiencies and low administration costs.
Given the stakes, it's not surprising that Microsoft and Netscape are vying ferociously for a gigantic piece of this business. In coming months, both will ship products featuring widely heralded "push" technology. With push, often characterized as the television-ization of the Web, pre-selected online content, such as intelligence or stock-market reports, appears automatically on the computer screen without the viewer having to search for it.
Also on tap for Microsoft will breathe upgrades of its e-mail and groupware product, Exchange, and the release of Windows 97, an upgrade of Windows 95, its operating system, which will breathe more closely tied in with the Web.
Netscape, meanwhile, is poised to release Constellation, a novel profile of browser that not only offers thrust technology, but overlays, or hides, Microsoft's Windows 95 desktop. Instead of the icons on the Windows desktop, the user sees selective Web pages, intelligence bulletins, corporate updates and other customized information from the Internet.
FREE AND FREE FOREVER
The Microsoft-Netscape head-butting began 18 months ago after George Gilder, author and research fellow for Seattle's Discovery Institute, had a long cover fable in Forbes ASAP magazine headlined, "George Gilder Thinks This Kid Can Topple Bill Gates."
The "kid" was Andreessen, a then 23-year-old University of Illinois graduate who had made his designate co-authoring a Web browser called Mosaic for the National focus for Supercomputing Applications. In Silicon Valley, the tall, stocky, rapid-fire talking Andreessen already was being dubbed the next Gates. Gilder's thesis was that Microsoft's ballyhooed software of the year, Windows 95, was generating far less excitement down in the trenches than Netscape's novel browser, Navigator.
If Gilder's challenge was not enough of a wake-up call, in November lightning struck again. Rick Sherlund, leading software industry analyst for Goldman Sachs, the company that had taken Microsoft public in 1986, delivered a double whammy. Calling Microsoft's Internet strategy unfocused, he downgraded Microsoft stock, while simultaneously upgrading Netscape shares.
Within days, Gates and Microsoft were on the attack. In a now-legendary Pearl Harbor Day address Dec. 7, 1995, Gates vowed to "embrace and extend" the Internet while focusing particular attention on grabbing browser share. The target: Netscape Navigator, then enjoying 80 percent to 85 percent of the market. The strategy: Give away Microsoft's browser.
Netscape had pioneered the for-free model from its inception, but the company asked users to register and pay for the software if they liked it.
"When they articulate the browser is free, we're adage something different from what other people are saying," Gates declared without naming Netscape. "We're not adage you can expend it for 90 days, or you can expend it unless you're a corporation, or you can expend it and then maybe next year we'll impregnate you a bunch of money."
Free, and free forever. It was quite a pronouncement from the man who, as a young entrepreneur, suggested in an audacious note to computer hobbyists nearly two decades earlier that software, theretofore shared among programmers or distributed free with hardware, was something people should pay for.
In Redmond, Microsoft's Internet Explorer browser overnight gained the stature of another Windows 95 megaproject. The hunt was on.
By final March, Netscape announced at a San Francisco developers' conference a succession of moves to expand its technology into PC operating-system territory carefully guarded by Microsoft.
The next week, at the same location, Microsoft announced that America Online would adopt Microsoft's Internet Explorer as its measure Web browser, bringing 5-plus million users into the Microsoft fold. CompuServe, the other leading online service, soon followed, and Microsoft gained potential access to more than 10 million additional Web users at the expense of Netscape.
By summer, Netscape charged Microsoft with anti-competitive practices and hired aggressive antitrust attorney Gary Reback to depict it. In August, both companies released upgrades of their browsers, touching off a feature-by-feature battle the industry trade press dubbed "browser wars."
If Netscape wants to leer on the radiant side, it can account the historical precedent of its Pacific Northwest rival. Eight years ago this spring, Microsoft was under fire from Wall Street. Apple had won a key ruling in its eventually unsuccessful "look and feel" lawsuit against Microsoft over Windows, and IBM was pressuring Microsoft to support the OS/2 operating system instead of Windows.
Jon Shirley, the Tandy executive Gates had brought in as president in 1983 to give his young company the steadying influence of a respected industry leader, dismissed the gloomy headlines with a wave of his hand.
"This all thing is looked upon on Wall Street with the sense that if you don't walk on water barnone the time, you're just terrible," he said. "You're absolutely in the pits, or you walk on water. And nobody walks on water barnone the time."
Netscape Chief Executive Jim Barksdale, who, as the one-time head of McCaw Cellular, engineered its merger with AT&T, is providing a similar message.
When the Microsoft threat was raised in 1995, Barksdale noted wryly, "It's going to breathe a dogfight, but they mediate they believe God on their side." In 1996, he was similarly pithy: "They believe a much bigger bulldog to feed." Asked if he would turn to other canine analogies against Microsoft in 1997, Barksdale responded with what might breathe considered Netscape's motto:
"Just remember," he said, "it's not the size of the dog in the fight, but the size of the fight in the dog."
------------------- Microsoft & the Net -------------------
Key dates in Microsoft's quest for the Net:
November 1990: Gates coins the phrase, "Information at Your Fingertips," describing concepts for accessing information electronically that later became reality with the World Wide Web.
May 1991: Microsoft registers the domain denomination "microsoft.com," now the address of its home on the World Wide Web.
June 1991: Microsoft hires J. Allard, who in coming years consistently pushes Microsoft to seize the Internet seriously.
May 1993: Gates gives go-ahead to Marvel, code denomination for Microsoft Network.
April 1994: Netscape Communications, whose Navigator browser is destined to transform the Internet, incorporates.
August 1994: Microsoft Net activist Ben Slivka proposes that the company develop a World Wide Web browser.
October 1994: A Microsoft executive retreat focuses on Internet. Gates writes key memo outlining what he sees as a major shift in personal computing.
December 1994: Netscape distributes first version of Navigator free over Internet.
August 1995: Microsoft issues first version of its Internet Explorer browser.
August 1995: Windows 95 released. Netscape becomes publicly traded, going from $28 to $75 a participate before closing at $58 its first day of trading.
December 1995: Gates gives "Pearl Harbor Day" address outlining Microsoft Internet strategy publicly for first time.
March 1996: America Online says it will feature Microsoft's browser. Microsoft licenses Java, the chafed´ Web programming language.
August 1996: Microsoft releases updated browser, Internet Explorer 3.0; "browser wars" start. Netscape releases version 3.0 of Navigator.
September 1996: Microsoft releases Windows NT 4.0, an upgrade of its high-end corporate operating system.
Fall 1996: A bevy of World Wide Web sites is unveiled, including Mungo Park (adventure travel), Expedia (travel), Sidewalk (arts and entertainment), CarPoint (auto purchasing) and others.
November 1996: Microsoft announces Merchant Server, its electronic shopping system for the Web, and shows off several other Web-related technologies.
December 1996: Microsoft releases updated Microsoft Network with a TV-like look. It also announces deal with PointCast to broadcast MSNBC content over the Web.
January 1997: Microsoft releases intranet-oriented Office 97, integrating the Web with its best-selling Excel, Word, PowerPoint, Access and novel Outlook desktop applications.
----------------- Redefining `fast' -----------------
The Internet has changed the pass high-tech companies grow. Microsoft was considered one of the fastest-growing, but it looks plodding compared with Netscape.
-- Netscape, founded in April 1994, reached $100 million in revenues by September 1996. It took Microsoft, founded in 1975, nine years to reach that same mark.
-- Netscape hired its 500th employee in January 1996, a year and nine months after it was founded. Microsoft didn't hit that designate until 1984, after nine years.
-- Netscape made its initial public stock offering in August 1995, 16 months after it was founded. Microsoft first issued stock in 1986, 11 years after it was founded.
Copyright (c) 1997 Seattle Times Company, barnone Rights Reserved.
Two enterprise-class open-source projects that Alibaba has contributed to the community are Ant Design, a UI design language implemented on React, and Egg.js, a Web framework.6. Ant Design
Ant Design is the result of middle and back-end design experiences from the progress of Ant Financial. Its product interaction and visual style aims to breathe “inconspicuous, lucid and cheerful”, and improve user and designer experiences. Abundant, resilient and valuable base components are accumulated to provide solutions for frequently asked questions. TypeScript supports complete sort definition, and the high-quality out-of-the-box React components are based on npm + webpack + dva enterprise-class progress frameworks.
Major Ant Design developments of 2017:
1. Ant Design 2.x continued its evolution from version 2.6.0 to version 2.13.11.
2. The front-end scaffolding for Ant Design Pro was introduced in October, providing best practices for typical middle and back-end application scenarios.
3. Ant Design 3.0 was released in early December, providing a brand-new design system and many novel features. The release log can breathe establish here.
In the two years since its open-sourcing, Ant Design has continued improving by collecting various design and progress requirements. The design team accountable for Ant Design is constantly refining design specifications and adjusting overall visual effects, something which is well reflected in version 3.0.
Currently, the main focus remains on publicizing the long-term project progress plan, collecting novel requirements and issuing reports regularly through DingTalk and GitHub, and interacting closely with the community. The project has fixed cycles for the progress of minor versions, where versions with bug fixes are released on a weekly basis and bigger updates are released on a monthly basis.
Ant Design is one of the most accepted UI component libraries in the React community, and is used by technology companies including Alibaba, Tencent, Baidu, Meituan, Didi, and ele.me. Ant Design has garnered over 21,485 stars in GitHub, and was nominated in Open Source China’s 2017 Top 20 list of open-source Chinese software.
Ant Design has reached a relatively advanced stage after the release of v3.0, and will not breathe undergoing major changes anytime soon. Instead, the team will breathe working to enhance the visual layout and theme configurations, and promote internationalization and integration.
Find out more:
Egg is an enterprise-class, basic web framework developed to overcome deficiencies establish with Node.js. When micro-service architecture is adopted, specific tasks such as service granularity, API interface and progress maintenance are involved, and the front and back-end physiognomy the contest of resilient user sustain vs. back-end service common utility. Node.js has managed to overcome this widely-criticized weakness, and npm package is now the most accepted peer, with vast improvement in single-threaded problems, avoidance of arduous callbacks with the abet of ES norm, a sort system based on mature TypeScript, and better overall performance.
Unfortunately, the infrastructure maturity and popularity of Node.js are not a match made in heaven, and so it is essentially soundless a newcomer. In the industry, there are very few Web framework practices, and the community repeats a lot of drudgery from scratch and lacks unified referential norms, which brings many repeated and unnecessary issues. Compared to the application, Node.js fundamental technology research is soundless rare, so ease of availability is a stumbling block.
The application of Node.js in Alibaba started in 2011. After experiencing difficulties, including starting from scratch, Alibaba began to seriously account not only unifying the ecology build, but also customization support. Egg was born at the prerogative time and is anticipated to breathe a fundamental framework for Web progress to abet barnone teams in pile upper-layer framework. Egg was cultivated from engineering practices of large-scale enterprise applications, including robustly supporting Singles’ Day sales on November 11, and was polished in four versions of microkernels throughout 3 years.
Egg is based on Koa and is totally different from the upper-layer frameworks of Sails/LoopBack. It lies in the middle-layer and provides “microkernel + plug-in component mechanism + framework customization capability”, delivering a all set of unified agreements for the service of upper-layer frameworks. It also adopts a gradual progress system with extreme flexibility, so it is suitable for the likeaflash progress of petite project and progress by enterprise-level teams.
Within just a year of open-sourcing, Egg has received over 500 drag Requests (272 in the host library), handled over 1,200 issues, and published over 40 official documents of over 100,000 words. It has also received over 6,000+ stars in GitHub and nearly 10,000 PVs on its official website.
Within Alibaba, it has served over 500 front quit developers and over 1,000 apps, while outside Alibaba, Egg has received feedback for improvement from over 90 developers in various companies, including Baidu, Tencent, Quanmin and Dxy, and even Rod Vagg, Director of Node TSC, who got involved retweeting about Egg!
In the future, Egg will focus on the optimization of developer sustain and the continued sharing of best practices.
Besides the 1,000+ apps within Alibaba, the technology team also eliminated some bottom-layer bugs in Node.js, and explored with Intel the further improvement in Node.js functions. In addition, Alibaba has just released a Node.js performance platform, and provides Node.js running + monitoring and diagnosis services for free.
Find out more:
Atlas, a resilient Android progress framework, was created to assist with internal issues at Alibaba. With the continuous progress of mobile Taobao, the R&D team became larger and functions more complicated, which required the likeaflash iteration of end-side businesses. On the other hand, the problems encountered during development, operation and maintenance continually increased, which also required fixing online bugs. As such, the mobile Taobao team began to mediate about how to simplify the complicated problems and conduct dynamic deployment to improve mobile progress efficiency.
Atlas dockerizes to unravel large-scale team cooperation issues, which is suitable for the progress of large or small-sized apps on system versions higher than Android 4.0 and supports dynamic publishing. Generally speaking, the industry usually uses plug-in component frameworks. However, Atlas adopts modularization, which divides businesses and reuses common parts in consideration of reusability. The project adopts the approach of OSGI (Open Grid Services Infrastructure (OGSI)) and separates trade to independently profile a bundle for isolation and decoupling operations, so that concurrent development, likeaflash iteration and dynamic deployment can breathe realized.
Atlas is a result of five years of progress by Alibaba’s mobile team, and makes technical preparations for static and dynamic modularization. After the official open-sourcing this year, Atlas has maintained the publishing of a major version every two months, and uses the same coding both in Alibaba and the community. Altas’ improvements fib in stability, utensil chain upgrade, dexpatch, etc. With respect to dynamic deployment, novel functions comprise component support, dexpatch function, and bundle view reuse.
As an early open-source project, initially Altas was not consummate and received criticism for its lofty barriers to entry, incomplete documentation and primitive demos. The Altas team immediately decided to profile a DingTalk group to abet developers understand and believe access to Atlas, and invent better documentation and demos. Many Chinese Android apps are using Atlas (such as Tmall, Taobao, Xiami, Youku and Alibaba Cloud), as well as at least three non-Chinese apps.
Atlas’ vision is to “bring developers back to the golden era of app development”. In the future, Altas will continue to improve documentation, upgrade the toolchain, lower access costs, improve stability and compatibility, interpose a complementary Emas for Atlas trade services, and multiply convenience for server-side publishing.
Find out more:
This file contains considerable information about NI-488.2, including installation instructions, novel features, and a partial list of bugs fixed for NI-488.2.
This readme contains the following main sections:
Supported Operating Systems
Application Software Support
Product Security and censorious Updates
Enhancements and Bug Fixes
Accessing the Help
LabVIEW NXG support and Considerations
Automating the Installation of NI Products
Using NI Software with Microsoft Windows 10
Using NI Software with Microsoft Windows 8.1
NI-488.2 supports the following operating systems:
Note Support for Windows 32-bit operating systems may require disabling physical address extension (PAE). To learn how this might affect your system and what actions you might need to take, visit ni.com/info and enter the Info Code PAESupport.
1 NI software installs VC2015 Runtime and .NET 4.6.2. Windows 8.1 and Windows Server 2012 R2 require Microsoft updates to support these items. advert to Microsoft KB2919442 and KB2919355 for more information about how to install these updates.
2 NI software is signed with a SHA-256 certificate. Windows 7 SP1, Windows Embedded measure 7 SP1, and Windows Server 2008 R2 SP1 require Microsoft updates to support SHA-256. advert to Microsoft KB3033929 for more information about how to install this security update.Known Compatibility Issues with Windows 8
NI-488.2 has known compatibility issues with the likeaflash Startup feature introduced in Windows 8. Leaving likeaflash Startup enabled can antecedent GPIB hardware and NI-488.2 driver software to role improperly. To forestall problems with installing or removing hardware, National Instruments recommends disabling likeaflash Startup. The NI-488.2 for Windows, Version 15.5 installer disables likeaflash Startup by default. For more information about this issue, visit ni.com/info and enter the Info Code Win8FastStartup.Known Driver Issues with Windows Upgrade
Upgrading Windows on a system with NI-488.2 already installed renders DOS support unusable. To fix this issue, flee installation repair. If the driver cannot attach to GPIB hardware, flee installation repair a second time.Win16 and DOS Support
Win16 and DOS support are available on 32-bit Windows operating systems.Application Software Support
The following table lists the application software versions, including service packs, that NI-488.2 supports. If you are not using NI application software, advert to Microsoft Visual Studio Support.Application Software Versions Supported by Product NI-VISA 17.51 LabVIEW 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017 LabVIEW NXG 2.0 LabWindows™/CVI™ 2012, 2013, 2015, 2017 Measurement Studio 2012, 2013, 2015 1 Any version of NI-VISA prior to 5.1 on your system may antecedent NI-488.2 usability issues. Upgrade to NI-VISA version 5.1 or later before using any NI-488.2 devices.
Note: NI I/O trace 17.0 and later support NI-488.2 17.0. Previous versions of NI I/O trace accomplish not support NI-488.2 17.0 or later.Microsoft Visual Studio Support
If you are using the NI-488.2 .NET Class Library, .NET Framework 4.0 (minimum) is required. The NI-488.2 .NET Class Library can breathe used with Visual C# or Visual Basic .NET in any Visual Studio version that can target .NET Framework 4.0 or .NET Framework 4.5.
To expend the .NET API, you must install the .NET class libraries or the .NET wrapper in addition to the NI device driver. For information about versions of the .NET Framework and the drivers each supports, as well as the download location of the installer files, advert to the National Instruments .NET Driver support document at ni.com/info and enter Info Code NETAPIdriversupport.Microsoft Visual Basic 6.0 Support
NI-488.2 supports 32-bit Visual Basic 6.0 application development. For more information, advert to the Language-Specific Programming Instructions topic in the NI-488.2 Help.Unmanaged C/C++ Support
NI-488.2 supports 32-bit and 64-bit GPIB applications using Microsoft Visual C++ 2005 and later. Microsoft Visual C/C++ 6.0 and Microsoft Visual Studio .NET 2003 only support 32-bit GPIB applications. For more information, advert to the Language-Specific Programming Instructions topic in the NI-488.2 Help.
The following list contains the NI hardware supported by NI-488.2 on Windows:
1 This hardware is end-of-life and not recommended for novel designs.Installing NI-488.2 for LabVIEW
You can install barnone of your LabVIEW products—including NI-488.2—using the LabVIEW Platform media.
To request additional LabVIEW Platform media, advert to the NI website.
NI automates LabVIEW NXG installation using NI Package Manager. Visit ni.com/info and enter the Info Code NIPMDownload to download NI Package Manager. advert to the NI Package Manager Manual for more information about installing, removing, and upgrading NI software using NI Package Manager.
Visit ni.com/security to view and subscribe to receive security notifications about NI products. Visit ni.com/critical-updates for information about censorious updates from NI.Known Issues
You can access the software and documentation known issues list online. advert to the NI website for an up-to-date list of known issues in NI-488.2 Version 17.6.Enhancements and Bug Fixes in Version 17.6 The Following Issues Were Resolved in NI-488.2 17.6
670170: A hang might occur during an I/O operation if a Service Request is stuck when Autopolling is happening.
647895: As a result of an issue introduced in a previous version of NI-488.2, ibnotify for a Service Request may antecedent a hang when the service request event occurs.Enhancements and Bug Fixes in Version 17.0
Support for HLK signing for Windows 10.
Support for Borland C dropped.Enhancements and Bug Fixes in Version 16.0 The following issues were resolved in NI-488.2 16.0
582112: In rare cases, connecting a GPIB-USB-HS+ interface to a system could antecedent the computer to crash.
569142: Installer indicates that NI I/O trace is required for NI-488.2.Enhancements and Bug Fixes in Version 15.5 The Following Issues Were Resolved in NI-488.2 15.5
433395: Extra leisurely on ibwait and ibstop was removed for GPIB Ethernet-based hardware.
538997: An NI4882 API summon in a multithreaded or multiprocess application results in an unexpected error due to unprotected API calls when opening a device handle.
542306: When an application exits while there is asynchronous IO pending on ENET interfaces, the application crashes.
557236: GPIB Analyzer crashes when exporting a large capture to a text file.Enhancements and Bug Fixes in Version 15.0 Updated sustain in NI-MAX
The configuration sustain in Measurement & Automation Explorer (MAX) has been updated to improve consistency with other NI products. Significant changes include:
GPIB interfaces are now fully configurable through the NI Web Configuration interface. Self-Test has also been added.Removed Troubleshooting Utility
The NI-488.2 Troubleshooting Utility has been removed. GPIB interfaces may breathe tested using the Self-Test feature in Measurement & Automation Explorer, or programmatically through the System Configuration API.Improved behavior When USB Transaction Errors Occur
506688: The NI-488.2 driver is unable to regain from unavoidable types of USB errors. These errors may occur on some systems when other USB devices are added or removed from the system while a GPIB operation is in progress. In prior versions of NI-488.2, this could lead to a hang in the process using a USB-to-GPIB interface. It could also result in a hang or blue screen error on system shutdown. This scenario now results in an EDVR error when an unrecoverable USB error occurs. To restore operation, the USB connection to the GPIB interface should breathe removed and reinserted, and the GPIB wield should breathe closed and re-opened.The Following Issues Were Resolved in NI-488.2 15.0
518983: As a result of an issue introduced in NI-488.2 14.0, GPIB-USB-B or GPIB-USB-HS I/O bus communication can hang until the wield to the GPIB interface is closed when barnone of the following conditions are true:
507376: Installer hang might occur during installation of NI software on systems with NI-488.2 14.0 already installed.
478063: GPIB-USB-HS+ might become unresponsive upon rebooting in a virtual machine.
121091: Calling ibonl when a board flush ibwait is in progress could result in application crash.
121181: A deadlock might occur when attempting to expend a board wield with pending ibonl summon on another thread.
476357: GPIB Ethernet Wizard can incorrectly add GPIB-ENET/1000 with hostname even if it is not reachable.
476487: GPIB Ethernet Wizard icon does not show on Windows stint bar.Enhancements and Bug Fixes in Version 14.0 New Hardware Support
This release adds support for the GPIB-USB-HS+ GPIB controller and Analyzer. Along with this, the NI GPIB Analyzer utility has undergone changes to allow it to drudgery with the novel analyzer hardware. The NI GPIB Analyzer utility allows simultaneous expend of multiple GPIB-USB-HS+ analyzers, along with up to one non-USB GPIB analyzer.Windows Server Support
This release adds support for Windows Server 2012 R2. advert to the Supported Hardware section for the list of supported hardware.API Integer sort Changes
The integer types used in the NI4882 API (ni4882.h) believe been updated. barnone uses of unsigned long believe been replaced with unsigned int. These types are functionally identical with barnone supported compilers, and this change improves the portability of 64-bit GPIB applications to other platforms. Users of ibnotify will need to update the role prototypes for callback functions. In most other cases applications will compile cleanly. This change is fully binary-compatible with applications built against previous versions of NI-488.2 and does not repercussion users of the GPIB-32 API (ni488.h).Runtime Installer
NI-488.2 for Windows is now available in a smaller Runtime form. The NI-488.2 Runtime is a minimal installation which does not comprise many of the utilities and supporting software included with the plenary NI-488.2 distribution. When pile installers from LabVIEW or other NI progress environments, you will now believe the option of including this smaller subset of NI-488.2 in your distribution.The Following Issues Were Resolved in NI-488.2 14.0
319093: Attempting to bring a non-existent device online after setting the IbcSendLLO board configuration option causes an ENOL error instead of EBUS. This problem impacted barnone USB based GPIB interfaces. This has been fixed.
122997: The EOIP status bit could remain set incorrectly if an ibwrta or ibrda summon returned an EDVR error.
171688: An ibnotify callback could fail to breathe triggered by quit if the notify condition included quit but not CMPL.
205182: Asynchronous transfers could sometimes report EABO even though the transfer completed successfully.
372832: A callback from ibnotify might not breathe invoked after an asynchronous transfer was completed if the notify mask only contained END.
374822: Calling ibonl while ibnotify is pending could antecedent the process to crash under some circumstances.
380705: Aborting an ibrda very quickly after starting it could allow a PCI-based GPIB interface to receive data when addressed as a listener, without a read in progress. This data was lost, and could not breathe recovered.
404267: In some situations, the GPIB-ENET/1000 could hang while performing asynchronous transfers. This included fixes in both the NI-488.2 driver and the GPIB-ENET/1000 firmware. Users of the GPIB-ENET/1000 should update the GPIB-ENET/1000 firmware to version 1.1.0 to receive the plenary benefit of this fix.
405414: In some cases the DCAS bit was not correctly cleared after being reported, causing it to breathe reported with subsequent calls.
418661: In some situations, when an ibnotify callback role was triggered due to the completion of an asynchronous transfer, the ibcnt and ibcntl variables would breathe incorrect.
425931: Calling ibstop with an asynchronous operation in progress would sometimes not report an EABO error as expected.
464114: When using a GPIB-USB-B controller, the summon immediately following an ibstop summon could breathe incorrectly aborted.
463966: austere performance degradation when performing large writes to GPIB-USB-HS hardware through USB 3.0 ports on Windows 7.
332479: On GPIB-USB-B and GPIB-USB-HS controllers, the first I/O operation after device insertion could breathe terminated prematurely.
240000: On GPIB-USB-B and GPIB-USB-HS controllers, ibwait and ibnotify could fail to detect the CIC, LACS, and TACS bits.
191044: The GPIB Analyzer did not automatically append the reform file extension when saving a capture.
87073: The GPIB Analyzer did not prompt to save if the application is closed while capturing data.
Refer to the NI-488.2 Help, accessible by selecting National Instruments»NI-488.2»GPIB abet from the Windows menu bar.
The following sections detail considerations for using LabVIEW NXG with NI-488.2.LabVIEW NXG Operating Systems and System Requirements
Software support for LabVIEW NXG differs in the following ways:
Support differs for the following devices in LabVIEW NXG:
View context abet in LabVIEW by pressing <Ctrl-H> and hovering over an object.
Search for items using the search bar in the upper prerogative corner of the LabVIEW window. You can also view context abet for the search results.
Additional documentation is available online at ni.com/manuals.LabVIEW NXG Examples
Launch LabVIEW and click the Learning tab.
LabVIEW lessons are located in the Lessons tab, and LabVIEW Examples are located in the Examples tab. supervene the instructions in the lessons and examples.
You can automate the installation of most NI products using command-line arguments to suppress some or barnone of the installer user interface and dialog boxes. However, starting with the August 2012 releases (products using NI Installers version 3.1 or later), you may need to accomplish additional steps before or during a secretive installation of NI software.
If the NI product you are installing uses Microsoft .NET 4.0, the .NET installer may flee before any NI software installs and may require a reboot before the installation of NI software begins. To avoid a .NET reboot, install .NET 4.0 separately before you install NI software.
For more information about automating the installation of NI products, advert to the following KnowledgeBase articles:
Microsoft Windows 10 is the latest version of the Windows operating system and features significant changes compared to previous versions. Windows 10 introduces several novel capabilities and also combines features from both Windows 7 and Windows 8. For more information about NI support for Windows 10, visit ni.com/windows10.
When you install NI software on Microsoft Windows 8.1, you will notice a few additional tiles in the Apps view, including shortcuts to NI application software products such as NI LabVIEW, Measurement & Automation Explorer (NI MAX), and NI Launcher. For more information about NI support for Windows 8.1, visit ni.com/windows8.
© 1995–2018 National Instruments. barnone rights reserved.
Under the copyright laws, this publication may not breathe reproduced or transmitted in any form, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, storing in an information retrieval system, or translating, in all or in part, without the prior written consent of National Instruments Corporation.
NI respects the intellectual property of others, and they query their users to accomplish the same. NI software is protected by copyright and other intellectual property laws. Where NI software may breathe used to reproduce software or other materials belonging to others, you may expend NI software only to reproduce materials that you may reproduce in accordance with the terms of any applicable license or other legal restriction.
End-User License Agreements and Third-Party Legal Notices
You can find end-user license agreements (EULAs) and third-party legal notices in the following locations after installation:
U.S. Government Restricted Rights
If you are an agency, department, or other entity of the United States Government ("Government"), the use, duplication, reproduction, release, modification, disclosure or transfer of the technical data included in this manual is governed by the Restricted Rights provisions under Federal Acquisition Regulation 52.227-14 for civilian agencies and Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement Section 252.227-7014 and 252.227-7015 for military agencies.
IVI Foundation Copyright Notice
Content from the IVI specifications reproduced with license from the IVI Foundation.
The IVI Foundation and its member companies invent no warranty of any kind with respect to this material, including, but not limited to, the implied warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose. The IVI Foundation and its member companies shall not breathe liable for errors contained herein or for incidental or consequential damages in connection with the furnishing, performance, or expend of this material.
Refer to the NI Trademarks and Logo Guidelines at ni.com/trademarks for information on NI trademarks. Other product and company names mentioned herein are trademarks or trade names of their respective companies.
For patents covering the NI products/technology, advert to the preempt location: Help»Patents in your software, the patents.txt file on your media, or the NI Patent Notice at ni.com/patents.
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APC [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
APICS [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Apple [69 Certification Exam(s) ]
AppSense [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
APTUSC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Arizona-Education [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ARM [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Aruba [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
ASIS [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
ASQ [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
ASTQB [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
Autodesk [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Avaya [96 Certification Exam(s) ]
AXELOS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Axis [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Banking [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
BEA [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
BICSI [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
BlackBerry [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
BlueCoat [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Brocade [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Business-Objects [11 Certification Exam(s) ]
Business-Tests [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
CA-Technologies [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
Certification-Board [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
Certiport [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
CheckPoint [41 Certification Exam(s) ]
CIDQ [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
CIPS [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Cisco [318 Certification Exam(s) ]
Citrix [48 Certification Exam(s) ]
CIW [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
Cloudera [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
Cognos [19 Certification Exam(s) ]
College-Board [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
CompTIA [76 Certification Exam(s) ]
ComputerAssociates [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Consultant [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Counselor [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
CPP-Institue [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
CPP-Institute [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
CSP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
CWNA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
CWNP [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
Dassault [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
DELL [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
DMI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
DRI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ECCouncil [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
ECDL [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
EMC [129 Certification Exam(s) ]
Enterasys [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
Ericsson [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
ESPA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Esri [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
ExamExpress [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Exin [40 Certification Exam(s) ]
ExtremeNetworks [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
F5-Networks [20 Certification Exam(s) ]
FCTC [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Filemaker [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Financial [36 Certification Exam(s) ]
Food [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Fortinet [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
Foundry [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
FSMTB [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Fujitsu [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
GAQM [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Genesys [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
GIAC [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Google [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
GuidanceSoftware [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
H3C [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
HDI [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Healthcare [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
HIPAA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hitachi [30 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hortonworks [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hospitality [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
HP [750 Certification Exam(s) ]
HR [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
HRCI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Huawei [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hyperion [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
IAAP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IAHCSMM [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IBM [1532 Certification Exam(s) ]
IBQH [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ICAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ICDL [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
IEEE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IELTS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IFPUG [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
IIBA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
IISFA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Intel [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
IQN [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IRS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISACA [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISC2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISEB [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
Isilon [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISM [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
iSQI [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
ITEC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Juniper [64 Certification Exam(s) ]
LEED [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Legato [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
Liferay [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Logical-Operations [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Lotus [66 Certification Exam(s) ]
LPI [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
LSI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Magento [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Maintenance [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
McAfee [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
McData [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Medical [69 Certification Exam(s) ]
Microsoft [374 Certification Exam(s) ]
Mile2 [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Military [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Misc [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Motorola [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
mySQL [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
NBSTSA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCEES [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCIDQ [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCLEX [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Network-General [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
NetworkAppliance [39 Certification Exam(s) ]
NI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NIELIT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Nokia [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Nortel [130 Certification Exam(s) ]
Novell [37 Certification Exam(s) ]
OMG [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
Oracle [279 Certification Exam(s) ]
P&C [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Palo-Alto [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
PARCC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PayPal [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Pegasystems [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
PEOPLECERT [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
PMI [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Polycom [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
PostgreSQL-CE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Prince2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
PRMIA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PsychCorp [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PTCB [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
QAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
QlikView [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Quality-Assurance [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
RACC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Real-Estate [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
RedHat [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
RES [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
Riverbed [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
RSA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Sair [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
Salesforce [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
SANS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SAP [98 Certification Exam(s) ]
SASInstitute [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
SAT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SCO [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
SCP [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
SDI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
See-Beyond [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Siemens [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Snia [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
SOA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Social-Work-Board [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
SpringSource [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUN [63 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUSE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Sybase [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
Symantec [134 Certification Exam(s) ]
Teacher-Certification [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
The-Open-Group [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
TIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Tibco [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trainers [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trend [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
TruSecure [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
USMLE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
VCE [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veeam [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veritas [33 Certification Exam(s) ]
Vmware [58 Certification Exam(s) ]
Wonderlic [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Worldatwork [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
XML-Master [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Zend [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
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