A2040-924 exam Dumps Source : Assessment- IBM WebSphere Portal 8.0 Migration and back Instructions
Test Code : A2040-924
Test cognomen : Assessment- IBM WebSphere Portal 8.0 Migration and back Instructions
Vendor cognomen : IBM
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SAN FRANCISCO, Feb. 12, 2019 (Canada NewsWire by means of COMTEX) -- tools and features designed to assist companies set up fresh applications across hybrid cloud environments with protection and effectivity
IBM suppose -- IBM IBM, -0.66% nowadays introduced fresh hybrid cloud choices to aid organizations migrate, integrate and manipulate functions and workloads seamlessly and with security across any public or deepest cloud and on-premises IT ambiance.
The IBM Institute for enterprise cost estimates that with the aid of 2021, 98 p.c of companies surveyed design to adopt hybrid architectures, but simply 38 percent may hold the strategies and tools they necessity to function that environment(1). The process today is difficult since it is largely manual with predominant protection implications and a scarcity of consistent management and integration equipment.
As allotment of ultra-modern news, IBM is launching fresh hybrid cloud outfit and functions designed to aid enterprises navigate the complexities of this fresh landscape:-- fresh IBM Cloud Integration Platform designed to carve back time and complexity to launch fresh services and applications across cloud environments in a constant and comfy method. -- fresh IBM features designed to intimate on holistic cloud ideas. -- fresh IBM features designed to simplify the administration of materials across cloud environments. -- fresh functions designed to supply trade-main safety for information and functions within the public cloud.
"At Aetna, a CVS health business, they notice hybrid cloud as an integral allotment of their transformation event," talked about Claus Torp Jensen, Chief know-how Officer, Aetna. "We necessity to spend the most efficient functions from quite a lot of cloud providers to create a seamless buyer event and digitalize underlying company procedures. For that, they are taking an API-centric approach to integration and making confident that every one of their APIs are comfortably available across their hybrid cloud ecosystem."
New Cloud Integration Platform Designed to Dramatically carve back Coding Time, Complexity
The IBM Cloud Integration Platform is designed to securely combine applications, software and functions from any dealer in spite of even if these methods are on-premises, in a public cloud or a private cloud. The platform brings collectively a finished set of integration outfit in a single construction ambiance. it will probably assist extend productiveness because integration experts can write, test and relaxed code once, withhold it within the platform and reuse it - an onerous assignment that once monopolized their time. this can assist organizations reduce the time and value of integration with the aid of 1/three, while staying inside their exciting necessities for safety and compliance(2).
Integration is essential as enterprises optimize enterprise tactics and create extra personalized client experiences. however, integration is fitting increasingly advanced as a result of many corporations surveyed are already using between two to fifteen discrete clouds and want to set up fresh cloud services akin to AI, analytics and blockchain to dwell forward of the competitors(three).
With the IBM Cloud Integration Platform, businesses can rapidly deliver to market fresh capabilities while releasing up integration specialists to focal point on the more complex, gadget-degree integrations.
"Most significant businesses hold facts and workloads spread across dissimilar public and personal clouds, SaaS and on-premises environments - every so often as a result of their enterprise manner infrastructure, however also for compliance, regulatory and facts privacy motives," referred to Denis Kennelly, regular supervisor, cloud integration, IBM. "The problem in this environment is to beat information and know-how siloes to promptly set up fresh trade services and applications with protection. nowadays, we're launching fresh capabilities designed to waiton unleash the entire power of the hybrid cloud."
learn more about the fresh IBM Cloud Integration Platform through visiting: www.ibm.com/cloud/integration/platform
New end-To-conclusion IBM Hybrid Cloud services
IBM is launching fresh IBM functions for Cloud way and Design, a comprehensive set of services designed to advise valued clientele on the route to architect the redress holistic cloud way from design, migration, integration, street mapping and architectural services to navigating their relish to cloud. IBM features is establishing dedicated groups of consultants who're certified experts within the latest functions and technologies across assorted cloud systems. groups will spend open and snug multicloud concepts, drawing upon IBM's relish in IT transformation and collaboration with an ecosystem of cloud companions. the brand fresh features leverage IBM's trade-main Cloud Innovate formulation, computerized option accelerators and IBM Cloud garage way to waiton valued clientele with co-introduction and scaled innovation in application development, migration, modernization and management.
constructing off of a fresh partnership enlargement announcement with ServiceNow, IBM is also introducing fresh IBM functions for Multicloud management to provide a single gadget to assist businesses simplify the administration of their IT substances throughout varied cloud providers, on-premises environments and private clouds.
The start of IBM services for Multicloud administration contains three layers designed to provide a single administration and operations system:-- trade management - purposes that provide digital service ordering, modern provider administration, and price governance to aid manipulate spend; -- Orchestration - an automation layer that helps enable functions of differing types, from diverse vendors to exist integrated quite simply and made obtainable to patrons; -- Operations - a layer that helps permit infrastructure and operations administrators to display screen and retain methods, together with legacy infrastructure, deepest cloud, public cloud and container environments.
in addition, it comprises a unified, self-provider event to users to facilitate faster and less demanding access to cloud capabilities by route of an environment integrated with the ServiceNow Portal to configure and purchase cloud features and solutions from dissimilar cloud providers. It also offers performance administration functions and offers the skill to display screen and manage the health of the cloud.
"As they grow their digital enterprise, stirring their applications to the cloud is crucial to waiton modernize their techniques and carry even improved experiences for their shoppers. Adopting the arrogate strategy and migration strategy to cloud has to exist seamless and requires an figuring out of their IT panorama," noted Sarp Uzkan, vice chairman, IT, Tribune Publishing. "IBM cloud advisory capabilities and tools offered an in depth assessment that determined no longer only which functions would exist top-quality to lumber to the cloud but a robust trade case that might meet their needs and enabling us to explore the choicest approach for relocating to the cloud."
learn more concerning the fresh IBM features via traveling: http://www.ibm.com/blogs/cloud-computing/2019/02/12/new-ibm-features-multicloud-world/
industry-leading security for facts and purposes within the Public Cloud
safety continues to exist a redress vicissitude throughout everysingle industries and markets when deploying apps and records in hybrid cloud environments. in an effort to lower threats, organisations necessity to the capacity to offer protection to information at each stage of its adventure, effortlessly control entry and identity and gain visibility into the protection carriage for everysingle of their functions.
IBM is launching the IBM Cloud Hyper offer protection to Crypto carrier, which is designed to deliver business-main security on the common public cloud and is made feasible by using bringing IBM LinuxONE into IBM's international cloud information centers. This provider will supply encryption key management with a committed cloud hardware security module (HSM) constructed on the only FIPS a hundred and forty-2 even four-based technology offered by a public cloud provider(4).
here is a allotment of the IBM Cloud Hyper give protection to family of functions, which is already presenting enterprises relish DACS and Solitaire Interglobal with business-main safety and resiliency for their applications. To supply excessive stages of protection across each public and private clouds, IBM is also announcing massive enhancements to IBM Cloud inner most on Z.
be taught greater about IBM's fresh capabilities in cloud protection with the aid of touring: https://ibm.com/blogs/bluemix/2019/02/cloud-safety-correct/
related:-- Video: How IBM Hybrid Clouds pressure Innovation whereas Managing Complexity -- weblog: fresh IBM capabilities waiton businesses manipulate the fresh multicloud world -- weblog: The state of IBM Cloud security: IBM feel 2019 -- weblog: The better of IBM Z and LinuxONE in the Public and personal Cloud -- blog: A "Kubernetes everywhere" method: construct & set up commercial enterprise-Scale up to date purposes for Hybrid Cloud
About IBM believe:At believe 2019, IBM will define fresh choices, customer engagements, partnerships, expertise breakthroughs and developer outfit that underscore how IBM and partners are altering the route the zone works. For greater counsel, consult with the IBM feel 2019 Newsroom: https://newsroom.ibm.com/consider. solemnize the convention on Twitter at #think2019 and @ibmlive, and vanish to https://www.ibm.com/events/feel/ for the plenary agenda and reside streaming agenda.
IBM's statements involving its plans, instructions, and intent are discipline to alternate or withdrawal with out note at IBM's sole discretion. information related to talents future products is supposed to define their customary product course and it's going to not exist relied on in making a paying for choice. The counsel mentioned regarding talents future items is not a commitment, promise, or criminal obligation to bring any material, code or functionality. assistance about knowledge future products may additionally not exist integrated into any contract. The construction, unencumber, and timing of any future aspects or performance described for their items is silent at their sole discretion.
Footnotes1. IBM Institute for company value: Assembling Your Cloud Orchestra, October 20182. in line with client adventure and total pecuniary hold an impact on methodology developed through Forrester analysis, Inc. (the total pecuniary influence of an API administration answer, February 2017) 3. IBM Institute for company price: Assembling Your Cloud Orchestra, October 20184. presently accessible in beta, deliberate for widely wide-spread availability March 2019
Media Contact:Sarah MurphyIBM Media members of the family firstname.lastname@example.org
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source: believe 2019
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informationIBM Buffs dwelling of labor and WebSphere Portal IBM this week announced fresh and up-to-date items in its workplace family unit of collaboration items, together with 19 function-based built-in applications for medium and tiny enterprise valued clientele. The company also referred to it's going to deliver advert hoc net conferencing as a provider for valued clientele starting in December.
The options supply customizable company features for specific industries or classes of company tasks and operations – everysingle developed the usage of IBM workplace products and selected third-birthday celebration purposes.
even though possibly a cliché through now, IBM officials also continued to emphasize the modifications between a “community-delivered” collaboration ambiance and one based essentially on own computer systems – primarily Microsoft’s view. “[With Workplace Solutions] you Do not necessity to hold Microsoft workplace,” says Larry Bowden, vice president, of IBM workplace utility solutions.
IBM designed the options by using researching the job roles required for performing typical units of initiatives or operations inside a collection of plumb markets. on the equal time, it considered a route to implement horizontal trade roles inside typical businesses’ IT environments, together with procurement, finance and administration, consumer service, and human supplies. the fresh workplace options provide built-in software sets that meet at that nexus; for example, systems to give offshoot banking or retail store management functions.
“They’ve taken classes out of IBM’s services neighborhood and . . . they hold designed these packages to gain those individuals with the key trade roles more effective,” says Robert Mahowald, analysis manager at IDC. That may still, the reasoning goes, gain these organizations that undertake those solutions more a hit.
since the solutions and IBM workplace items waiton industry necessities, including Java and XML, other items will also exist integrated with different techniques as neatly. IBM office comprises Lotus dwelling of work, WebSphere Portal, Lotus Notes and Domino, and WebSphere Everyplace, in response to the business’s internet site.
“Our focal point is on organizational productivity,” says Bowden, adding, “Having a aggressive side isn't pretty much as pleasurable as having a sustainable aggressive part.”
in fact, implementing total built-in methods in response to the features that a company needs to function as neatly as the roles of the americans who effect the crucial initiatives, and offering that to consumers in an acknowledge package it truly is the next best thing – or so IBM officials hope – to a turnkey solution, offers that sustainable part, enterprise executives establish up.
The options don’t Do every thing. Implementation details continue to exist however IBM’s intent is to purchase a allotment of the smart out of the way for tiny and medium-sized businesses that don’t hold a division dedicated to proposing IT. “Why don’t they salvage you 70 p.c of ways?” asks Bowden rhetorically.
in a single of IBM’s demonstration eventualities, a bank offshoot teller receives a huge check and wishes to achieve the approval of a client service adult, and also needs to clear the deposit for regulatory compliance and auditing. The offshoot banking solution offers job roles for three distinctive worker assignment sets to meet the mandatory enterprise features. certainly, the fresh office options encompass greater than 30 job capabilities or worker roles, company spokespeople referred to.
among the areas the dwelling IBM is offering fresh office solutions are: retail, electronics, manufacturing, finance, telecommunications, executive, lifestyles sciences, healthcare and car businesses. additionally, the enterprise has updated its offshoot Banking acknowledge in addition to its company Controls and Reporting acknowledge (now at edition 2.5).
essentially, although, IBM is taking a a bit different tack on coopetition. To companies relish Oracle, SAP and PeopleSoft, “They’re asserting, ‘we’re going to give the plumbing for you,’” says IDC’s Mahowald, leaving a allotment of the pie for other players.
IBM will also launch providing on demand net conferencing subsequent month, officers mentioned. “if in case you hold a browser and a mobile, that you may install a web convention,” Bowden says. “instead of purchasing the software from us, you could simply purchase the carrier.” This comes as a direct try and purchase company faraway from Microsoft’s reside meeting, says Mahowald.
moreover, IBM also introduced a brand fresh product in the dwelling of labor household. IBM dwelling of labor features categorical v2.0 is a fresh product designed for tiny and mid-sized businesses and departments in tremendous firms. It contains crew collaboration, document administration, web varieties, assignment lists, and portal services as neatly consumer customization aspects. IBM office capabilities specific additionally integrates with the person's existing applications and statistics, in addition to email, calendar and tackle publication, and offers more than a few collaboration tools including built-in snappily messaging. it will ship in December, officials observed.
at last, IBM debuted the newest free up of WebSphere Portal – version 5.1 – which adds virtual portals, enterprise process workflow aspects, and better content material management capabilities. edition 5.1 might exist purchasable by route of the abide of November.
The company will declar pricing for the entire items and services when the items are available, company officials said.
Stuart J. Johnston has coated know-how, primarily Microsoft, for the judgement that February 1988 for InfoWorld, Computerworld, counsel Week, and notebook World, in addition to for commercial enterprise Developer, XML & web functions, and .internet magazines.
This chapter introduces you to two powerful application items which are desirable for enforcing a portal. The IBM WebSphere Portlet manufacturing unit gives a building environment for growing the applications for a portal. The IBM WebSphere Portal presents the tools for constructing and managing a portal and presents the internet hosting/runtime atmosphere for a portal.This chapter is from the publication what's a Portal?
A portal is a website that presents users a single ingredient of entry to a company's materials and functions, requiring only one login to the web page. It gives users customized interaction with the elements and capabilities, provides role-based access, and makes it viable for users to elect their event and customise their own views of the web site.
clients include personnel, company companions, suppliers, and valued clientele. "business's resources and features" refer to purposes, content, company tactics, and individuals.
as an example, here are some features of a portal for a laptop company.
To an abide consumer, a portlet is a window on a portal site that displays counsel or offers a feature. To a developer, it's an software.
A portlet application is a group of related portlets that share the same supplies. as an example, these are images, houses, files, and classes.
Portal web page
A portal page incorporates one or more portlets.
Portal web page
A portal web page is constructed with portal pages.IBM WebSphere Portlet manufacturing facility
IBM WebSphere Portlet factory gives a swift building device, WebSphere Portlet manufacturing facility clothier, to simplify and accelerate the introduction of portlet purposes. WebSphere Portlet manufacturing facility designer, hereafter referred to as Portlet factory vogue designer, is a graphical device it's a plug-in to Eclipse-based mostly integrated development environments (IDEs).
With Portlet factory dressmaker, you create tasks, below which you extend models the usage of builders and generate the ensuing portlet purposes from those fashions. customarily, no coding is required.
it's price mentioning that IBM WebSphere Portlet factory will also exist used as a development tool for creating Java 2 Platform, enterprise version (J2EE) web purposes, although internet purposes are not the heart of attention of this chapter. The odds is that you would create one model and spend the equal model to generate each an internet and a portlet utility.IBM WebSphere Portlet manufacturing unit basic concepts and Definitions
IBM WebSphere Portal has a complete set of portal capabilities to bring enterprise-to-enterprise (B2B), enterprise-to-client (B2C), and company-to-worker (B2E) portals. The capabilities include framework services, integration capabilities, content capabilities, and collaboration features.
Portals developed the usage of IBM WebSphere Portal are at ease, personalised, and role-primarily based with a unified person adventure. These portals combine people, purposes, enterprise approaches, and content (document and different varieties) so users can labor productively and exist more satisfied.
IBM WebSphere Portal utility helps gain it handy to create and preserve a portal. it is also quicker. With a wealthy, responsive consumer interface in keeping with internet 2.0 facets, groups can give self-provider, collaboration, trade intelligence dashboards, and more for their personnel, companions, suppliers, and consumers. because of this, they can respond perquisite now to company alternatives and pressure enterprise success.IBM WebSphere Portal basic ideas and Definitions
IBM WebSphere Portal has a extensive set of capabilities. It provides you with a runtime server, functions, tools, and a lot of other features. It is not the objective to list the entire capabilities perquisite here, however let's anatomize just a few key ones.
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A decade ago, regulated industries were the rare exception; today, the industry that isn't regulated is the exception....
In fact, most firms hold multiple sets of regulatory requirements they necessity to address.
As the regulatory cross increases, businesses are finding themselves in an increasingly involved ecosystem of governance--we audit their contractors and clients to ensure their compliance to their security requirements, and the firms they service audit us.
As they implement security controls related to compliance, as well as controls contractually required of us by their clients, they establish into production an ever more complicated laundry list of security controls to manage. Making risk decisions in this hive of controls, regulation and contractual obligations is nigh onto impossible.
IT governance, risk and compliance (GRC) tools swear to waiton us meet these challenges. They swear to waiton us gain smarter risk decisions, manage their compliance efforts and govern everything about their security program, from security awareness to technical controls.
GRC is the latest information security buzzword, but marketing hype is doing a disservice to this array of products that address an organization's policy governance, risk management and compliance needs. Most deliver only allotment of the picture they promise, and every tool in this market has its own focus, areas of maturity and strategies for solving the same trade challenges.
To waiton you pattern out what approaches might exist perquisite for your organization, Information Security took a near peek at three GRC products that are very different in focus, coverage and technology: Archer Technologies' SmartSuite Framework 4.1, Symantec's Control Compliance Suite 8.60 and Modulo's Risk Manager 5.0
Our goal was to create tests that address the swear of GRC while not favoring any particular technical strategy for getting there. They wanted to test the heart of GRC, the products' skill to:
Purchasing a GRC product is difficult, so they designed a springy testing approach tied to real-world deployment scenarios to account for the sweep of corporate requirements, the expansive nature of the products and their varying levels of maturity. To Do this, they foremost wanted to create a set of hypothetical scenarios that simulate how most organizations would typically spend and deploy GRC products. They drew on real-life experiences and smart points to create regulatory, oversight and technical challenges, such as any organi- zation might face, and how the products might unravel these challenges in a typical deployment context. Specifically, their goal was to test the "promises" of GRC (see "'Promising' Products").Compliance
We evaluated how these GRC products might facilitate compliance efforts by determining how they can waiton organizations understand, record and document where and how they meet specific regulatory requirements. How Do they waiton you author policy, map regulatory requirements to policy, and, in turn, map specific technical controls to that policy? They also looked at the skill to create highly granular policies. For example, can you map a specific technical control on a particular server everysingle the route back to the driving requirement for that control?
We created test policies and attempted to link those policies to both the regulatory requirements as well as technical controls used to implement the governing policy. In other words, can you actually spend the tool to track compliance activities, track the implementation of technical controls specifically required by the regulation, and track the operation of those controls in the field.Risk management
Analyzing trade risk is tough enough, but regulatory requirements add a layer of complexity that is fueling the market for specialized tools. arbiter of your own environment, where the data required to determine what risk applies to a particular set of devices, applications or processes is probably spread throughout the company.
For example, in order to understand what risk applies to a legacy system that doesn't back a particular control, you necessity to know what the system does, how it's used, what compensating controls might exist in dwelling and what systems are relative on it. Typically, that means getting data from the business, IT, external parties (such as service providers) and the compliance department.
A tool that can automate this process and preserve the information gathered in a central repository is essential to conduct formal risk analyses. To this end, they looked at the skill of the products to waiton assemble data about particular systems/processes and their relative risk, evaluate that risk and establish it in context. A key related zone is the products' skill to record and track areas of the firm where technical controls could not exist implemented, as well as features that anatomize the even of risk associated with those exceptions.Technical controls
Finally, they considered how products manage the many technical controls that firms might exist interested in from a compliance and governance perspective. They assumed from the get-go that different products would hold varied ways to monitor controls. For example, a product might spend an agent on the remote host to periodically poll the device, and/ or import data from other sources, such as vulnerability assessment tools to gain information about the status of system and application controls. The bottom line: Does the product provide enough information and the perquisite kind of information to exist of true use?
Archer focuses primarily on the non-technical aspects of GRC. The core of the product is a central framework within which a customer can spend various modules that target the issues that an information security practitioner might relish within a regulated industry. For example:
There's no installation to talk of, as the recommended customer interface is a Web portal for an ASP-type service offering. (Customers can also elect to host the product.)
Admins spend their interface to create users and groups, modify roles, permissions and security parameters of the system, manage content, or change the appearance of the portal. However, the true magic happens within the customizable interfaces for the installed modules.Archer's strengths
Policy management is a true tough suit. To test how SmartSuite would exist used in an actual organization, they wanted to create policy they could tie to the regulatory requirements of their hypothetical company.
However, they didn't necessity to. Archer ships with a stock policy that is pre-mapped to a big number of regulatory frameworks. Given Archer's roots in the pecuniary services sector, they were not surprised to notice some relatively specific requirements such as FTC 16 CFR allotment 314 (GLBA) and the FFIEC Information Security Booklet. They were, however, pleasantly surprised to also find more common guidance, such as COBIT and ISO 17799 (although they silent necessity to update the numbering), as well as specific guidance for other regulated industries, such as HIPAA for healthcare and PCI for retail.
Although the stock policies are quite comprehensive, most firms will necessity to modify them to reflect their own requirements. They create this process a bit counterintuitive. The editing function allows you to directly modify the policy supplied by Archer, but you're better off avoiding that and using Archer's Somewhat kludgy alternative.
The problem is that Archer's sporadic updates to the stock policy (as well as the mapping to the regulatory frameworks) will overwrite any custom changes you gain to the stock policy directly. Archer recommends that instead of modifying its policies, you create a fresh policy statement with customized text, link it to the stock policy, and update your firm's views to display the fresh statement. The stock statements live on--just out of view of the users.
The upshot is you will necessity to periodically revisit your custom policy to ensure that it reflects updates, such as changes to regulatory requirements.
Nevertheless, exceptions are light to create and relatively straightforward. You simply select a control to associate with the exception and enter information along with compensating controls to address the issue. The workflow allows exceptions to vanish from user entry to information security review and keeps track of approvals and timeframe for expiration.
The risk management feature is straightforward. You apportion risk to entities entered via the asset module and score them according to a number of different risk vectors. For example, they used the asset module to create a fresh application and assigned an initial trade criticality weight as well as risk profile (high, medium or low.) From there they were able to apply questionnaires to the asset to determine how it performed relative to items of interest, such as whether cryptography was employed.
These questionnaires targeted specific controls that hold an impact on the overall risk of the application and include factors relish vulnerabilities, cryptographic controls, access control, and so on. The responses to the questionnaires fit directly into the overall risk ascribed to the application. The workflow ensures that arrogate personnel review the submission and are alerted if it is completely noncompliant.
In navigating and using SmartSuite, they create the Archer community to exist head and shoulders above what you typically salvage with a vendor knowledge foundation or other back portal. The community allows users to interact with each other, interrogate questions of the Archer engineering team, and receive extensive training on spend and configuration of the product.Archer's weaknesses
While the product was very tough in policy and risk management, the more technology-centric pieces are not as automated as the other products. There's no autodiscovery function--you add assets by submitting a spreadsheet. While this will answer the needs of many organizations, larger firms with extensive asset inventories may find this process error-prone and difficult to maintain.
Monitoring technical controls is also less automated than some of the competition. Archer provides instructions on how to create linkages between automated vulnerability assessment tools (e.g., Qualys), but automated vulnerability assessments may not give you the total picture. There's itsy-bitsy out-of-the-box integration of additional tools, such as other vulnerability assessment scanners, IPSes, SIEMs, etc., but you can spend the springy API to allow custom data consumption applications to exist written using feeds from files/databases, etc.
One nice feature lets you correlate information from a number of threat publication sources, such as Verisign iDefense and Symantec DeepSight, in addition to custom entry of threat data.
While Archer is heavy on policy management, Control Compliance Suite 8.60 (CCS) has a profound focus on the management and monitoring of technical controls, providing quite a bit of functionality to assist in tasks relish network discovery, automated validation of host technical configuration, and so on.
The software can exist installed in standalone or enterprise mode, depending on whether you intend to host the database on the same box as the information server or spend a different box for the database. Additionally, enterprise mode is required if you intend to gain spend of the Web portal integration with Microsoft IIS. They installed the product in enterprise mode, as this allowed access to the Web portal and supported a remote database and remote data collection.Symantec's strengths
At first, they were a bit skeptical about the policy creation interface (not the prettiest interface we've ever seen), but using it to write policy was straightforward despite the initial awkwardness.
We were able to author policy, import existing policy from Microsoft Word documents and accredit publication to the CCS Web portal. The tool supports a policy authorship workflow in much the same route Archer does, allowing us to postpone publication until approval and to withhold a recorded archive once a fresh version is created.
Surprisingly, they create ourselves missing the kind of stock policy supplied by Archer. Symantec has a number of sample policies (templates), but they create that importing their own policies or creating fresh policies from scratch using the policy import and creation tools took less time than customizing the templates.
One feature that really stood out was the flexibility provided to map policy to the compliance frameworks and regulations CCS provides. The mechanism is a mapping editor that's reminiscent of the relationship manager feature of Microsoft Access. Though it took us a while to pattern out how to spend it, the mapping editor provides tremendous flexibility in making connections between policy, framework and regulatory items. The skill to notice these relationships visually had a determined "cool factor." Of course, while this is a springy approach, it requires a bit of manual interaction to maintain. An enterprise seeking to gain heavy spend of the policy portion of this tool would require more ramp-up time to salvage ready for plenary deployment.
CCS is very tough on technical controls. The product ships with a big number of technical standards packs that can exist used as a benchmark against which to compare devices that it is watchful of. The standards packs draw on intimate source material, such as NSA configuration guides and the CIS configuration benchmarks.
The technical information-gathering feature supports a very big number of devices for remote profiling. CCS can spend an agent or agentlessly retrieve data across a diverse sweep of platforms, such as various Windows versions and multiple flavors of Unix and Linux.
The product also ships with many benchmark standards to evaluate against, to ensure that arrogate patches are applied and that arrogate configuration steps are taken.
CCS also ships with network mapping capability that allows automatic discovery of devices, which can then exist imported into the risk management and asset management view.
We expected CCS to effect very strongly in technical controls validation, but were unprepared for the product to effect equally well in policy and risk management. They were pleased to notice the sweep of technical standards and regulatory frameworks that the product ships with: multiple versions of COBIT (both 3 and 4), FDA regulations, FISMA, HIPAA, NERC (North American Electric Reliability Corp.) guidance and NIST SP 800-53 were everysingle included.Symantec's weaknesses
While CCS is heavy on governance and technical compliance, they create the risk piece difficult to use. Technical risk is assessed directly within the CCS console via evaluation of technical security controls; for the less technical areas, the product leverages customized questionnaires.
CCS allowed us to import Symantec's questionnaires using content packs or create their own. They used the tool to create an ad hoc vendor evaluation, and create the process painful.
Each questionnaire is represented as a tree view to which questions are added. Questions can require single or multiple-choice answers, or written responses. Creating a questionnaire required us to manually enter a big number of customized answers (the templates, which were fine for yes/no questions, rarely supplied the answers they needed).
Once the questionnaire was complete, they used a wizard to apportion weights to each of the questions and acknowledge choices. everysingle told, the process took us about an hour to create a 20 questions. If you're planning to gain extensive spend of this functionality, they recommend using the content packs that supply stock questionnaires rather than creating customized questionnaires from scratch.
Many vendors in the GRC space try to purchase the "boil the ocean" approach by being everything to everybody. Not Modulo. It doesn't hold the compliance-framework creation and policy-centric features of Archer, or the technical control validation capabilities of Symantec. Instead, Modulo's aptly named Risk Manager focuses almost exclusively on the risk aspects of the GRC equation. The functionality within the other areas of GRC serves only to back the risk management mission.
Risk Manager does not hold a Web front abide (although you can submit questionnaires via the Web), and relies on a number of client-side applications to implement various features.
The installation process gave us quite a bit of danger initially. Insufficient RAM on the first few lab machines they attempted to install caused the installer to fail (the test machines had double the memory requirements specified in the manual). However, with some coaching from the Modulo engineers--followed by a hardware upgrade beyond the recommended requirements--we completed the installation.Modulo's strengths
Risk Manager allows enterprises to categorize themselves into one or more "organizations" that are represented by a tree view in the client. It auto-populates this view by importing information from a variety of sources, such as lively Directory, asset spreadsheets/ databases and manual entries.
Its true power lies in its skill to categorize every asset in the organization--processes, applications, technical components and facilities--associate a risk even to each, and withhold track of the controls that are implemented on an asset-by-asset basis. The tool also facilitates keeping track of personnel associated with the assets and threats to it.
Risk information is collected using one or more questionnaires applicable to different assets, based on their categorization. For example, data centers can exist assigned one or more data center-specific questionnaires to arrogate personnel. Risk Manager gathers information about everysingle the assets in a particular scope and quantifies the associated risk, keeping track of controls' status on an asset-by-asset basis.
You can link evidence with particular answers as well. For example, to back a response to a questionnaire about authentication, you can attach evidence in the shape of policy, an export of the arrogate group policy objects governing password characteristics, and so on.
This skill to associate evidence with questionnaires should tickle auditors, who require proof of a particular control, rather than simply validating that a governing policy exists.
Auditors will also prize the skill to generate remediation plans for particular assets based on the results of the questionnaires. The remediation guidance provided for each of the assets in scope is concise, yet thorough.
Risk Manager facilitates governance of vendors and external relationships in a route the other products Do not. For example, Risk Manager ships with the skill to effect a risk assessment using the pecuniary Institution Shared Assessments Program Standardized Information Gathering questionnaire. It also allows you to create "perimeters" (nodes on the organizational tree) for vendors and third parties. While the other products can exist configured to Do similar things, endemic back for FISAP out of the box is a true plus for organizations who spend Risk Manager in an auditing context.
Other questionnaires can exist assigned to assets within the vendor perimeter. This enables you to withhold track of assessments performed of a particular vendor, the evidence collected during the assessment, the vendor's compensating controls, etc.Modulo's weaknesses
Risk Manager has a few uneven edges. First and foremost, the need of a fully functional Web interface is a significant drawback. While questionnaires can exist submitted over the Web, a portal view of the application (including a Web-enabled dashboard) was a sorely missed feature and would provide quite a bit of benefit.
Additionally, installation was challenging; the application has very specific installation prerequisites, and any failure of the installation process (due, for example, to need of a prerequisite, insufficient memory or a populated database instance) resulted in an error message that required technical back to interpret.
Further, the product appears to exist difficult to customize. For example, some of the built-in databases (such as the threat database) are static, precluding user customization.One size doesn't fit all
Each of the products they looked at interprets governance, risk and compliance in a different route and has a feature set tailored to its vision. Archer emphasizes regulatory compliance, most useful for the compliance or security group in a heavily regulated industry. Modulo focuses on risk management, which is of special value to the auditor or consultant out in the realm validating organizational compliance to controls. Symantec focuses on technical control validation, most useful to information security technical personnel.
But in order to know how the vendor interprets the GRC vision, you must peek beyond the marketing. everysingle of these products are marketed similarly; they salvage coverage from analysts in the same reports and they're lumped together in the industry press. But they're really very different.
What does that addupto to the industry? Maybe they should start segmenting the GRC market to reflect the fact that these products aren't the same. What does it addupto for GRC vendors? Maybe it's not a threat if your product doesn't Do exactly the same thing as the other guy's product. And what does that addupto for the consumer? It means you necessity to exist extra watchful before you buy: gain confident your vendor's vision of the market aligns with yours, and that the product you're buying does what you arbiter it will.
The numbers disclose you what you already know -- you're neck profound in a rising flood of fresh security vulnerabilities. Carnegie Mellon's Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT) reported 2,437 computer vulnerabilities in 2001, more than double the previous year's total. That's an average of about 10 every working day -- a lot to read about, much less deal with.
"Dealing with security vulnerabilities presents true problems," says Claxton Francis, director of information systems for the fresh York-based nonprofit Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC). "I hold to spend time each day reviewing the latest issues and evaluating the even of exposure to settle whether to deal with the problem immediately or wait for the next scheduled maintenance window."
It's not impossible to sift through this flood of information, find what's relevant to your organization and purchase swift action to prevent intrusions -- if you hold a plan. The template is simple, but the devil is in the details of your environment. Broadly speaking, there are four steps to sound vulnerability management:
Don't assume that big enterprises unravel the problem simply by throwing people at it. No matter what the size of your organization, vulnerability management isn't simply a matter of resources -- it's about process. For example, one big international conglomerate (200,000-plus employees) created an 80-person staff dedicated to vulnerability management and patch deployment. Despite having dedicated labs in each trade unit to test patches and fixes, the company silent couldn't withhold up.
"Prioritization," declares Bret Sigillo, a senior consultant and director of marketing for the managed services division of Predictive Systems, a security and network infrastructure consulting company hired by the conglomerate to find a route out of this quagmire. "They needed waiton in figuring out what problem needs their attention first."
Implementing sound vulnerability management practices costs time and money. But you necessity to weigh your costs against the potential consequences of intrusions. After all, companies lost millions ultimate year to attacks that exploited known vulnerabilities. Code Red and Nimda cost companies worldwide an estimated $2 billion in damaged computing resources and downtime, according to Computer Economics. More than 600,000 servers were infected by Code Red, although the vulnerabilities it exploited had been published and a patch was available about a month before the worm was released. The patch for Nimda was available up to a year before it made its debut, but the worm silent infected 160,000 hosts at its peak. efficient vulnerability management could hold saved much of the cost of these and other viruses, worms and electronic exploits.The number of computer vulnerabilities reported to Carnegie Mellon's Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT) more than doubled from 2000 to 2001. 1. Inventory Your Systems
To salvage what you need, you hold to know what you've got. Identifying deployed technologies yield the first carve at the security vulnerabilities that dwelling your organization at risk. For many organizations, this solitary is a major project, as their networks hold grown without adequate documentation.
Here are the keys to taking stock of your systems:
Classify your network assets by platform. That's the first thing you'll peek for when a fresh vulnerability is reported. Conduct and maintain a complete inventory of the hardware and software, including the versions of software and firmware and any patches or upgrades that hold been installed. For example, if a vulnerability affecting only older versions of Sun Solaris is announced, you necessity to know which -- if any -- of your Solaris systems are vulnerable.
Determine risk potential. Identify the trade exposure of each technology on your network. arbiter about the impact on your trade if each of these elements was compromised or made unavailable. Which systems and software gain up the faultfinding core of your network?
Know what defensive tools you hold in place. There are many kinds of defenses you can deploy, such as router filters, system logging and intrusion detection systems.
Many corporations spend system and network vulnerability scanners to identify known bugs and holes in their infrastructure. Extensible yet easy-to-use software scanners are available from vendors such as Internet Security Systems, Foundstone, BindView, Symantec, Harris and others. These scanners probe for vulnerabilities using a database of already-catalogued system weaknesses. While this approach allows users to survey systems for hundreds of vulnerabilities, these products won't detect newly discovered holes until database signatures hold been updated.
Regardless of whether you spend a vulnerability scanner, maintaining an up-to-date inventory of your systems is the first faultfinding step in knowing what to Do when the next colossal Vulnerability is publicized.
"The inventory process is silent an issue for many organizations," says David Goldsmith, fresh York regional director of professional services for information security firm @stake. "The problem scales with the size of the organization -- if your network is small, manual systems may labor well. But as the size of your network increases, collecting and maintaining the inventory data becomes a major undertaking, requiring automated tools.2. Manage the flood of Information
Finding security information on the 'Net isn't a problem -- a search of "computer security advisories" turned up about 62,000 pages in Google's Web index. But what about getting information that's relevant to your systems and software in a timely and practical manner without being overwhelmed? Now that's a problem.
Once you hold an inventory, you can launch to filter vulnerability reports. If you're an all-Microsoft shop, Solaris and Linux vulnerabilities are only of passing interest. If your e-business is supported by an HTTP Web Server and WebSphere application server, alerts about IBM are a top priority. You hold options for getting the information you need, with a ensnare -- you salvage what you pay for. Fee-based services provide a even of customized information and timeliness that free Internet services can't match. But if the cost is prohibitive, some free sites are excellent resources.
Three of the leaders in the security intelligence industry, SecurityFocus, Vigilinx and SecurityGlobal.net, offer tough fee-based services.
SecurityFocus' Security Intelligence Alert (SIA) service includes information on systems affected, a technical discussion and analysis of the problem and its potential impact, sample exploit code (if available) and mitigation strategies. Users settle the platforms and issues for which they will salvage alerts. While some of this information is available on the SecurityFocus free site, the SIA alerts include ratings of the severity, urgency, impact and credibility, as well as additional technical details.
SIA alerts are released to subscribers about two days before the abridged free versions are posted on the SecurityFocus Web site, so timeliness is a factor. plenary SIA alerts are delivered by e-mail or fax. Subscribers can receive high-priority alerts by phone or SMS message.
Access to this enhanced information is priced at $5,900 per user per year for between 3 and 15 users.
Vigilinx's IntelliSHIELD also allows subscribers to create profiles detailing the technologies they use. Vigilinx analysts apportion each alert a severity level, which is used to determine how customers are notified (e.g., e-mail, pager). In addition to technology-based alerts, Vigilinx offers "Intelligence Bulletins," which relate security challenges posed by fresh technologies as well as attack trends and techniques. IntelliSHIELD also issues "Geopolitical Analysis Reports," which examine world events and their potential repercussions in cyberspace.
The IntelliSHIELD Web-based interface also provides a central repository for information on your organization's response to vulnerabilities, offering reports on which systems hold been patched and which are silent vulnerable to attack. Maintaining the repository is manual, requiring users to enter in the details of fixes they hold applied to systems.
IntelliSHIELD is priced on a per-user basis, starting at $40,000 per year for six users.
SecurityGlobal.net's SecurityTracker offers Web-based services for both abide users and security services, such as managed security providers, consultants and integrators. Users can specify which systems they want to receive vulnerability notices about through an SSL-secured browser. Notices are sent via e-mail. Users can salvage everysingle the information in the e-mail, or elect to receive basic information and salvage the plenary legend by logging into the Web site.
SecurityGlobal.net also sends free weekly e-mail summaries of fresh vulnerabilities and maintains a free listing of vulnerabilities on its Web site. End-user pricing starts at $695 per month for two users. Service provider contracts are negotiated based on the service Security-Global.net provides. Free crucible subscriptions are available.
While the fee-based services offer the most timely and targeted vulnerability information, not everysingle organizations can afford them. With some effort, free services can exist used for efficient information management.
SecurityFocus and ICAT are among the leading free sources of security information. They can exist valuable tools if you focus on searching for the information relevant to your systems.
SecurityFocus is a pleasurable dwelling to peek while drinking your morning coffee, but you may hold to Do some labor to find out what you specifically need. The site offers a number of search tools to allow users to find security information for a particular vendor or product or by the vulnerability identifiers issued by BugTraq and the CVE Project, the two major catalogers of security problems. The strategy here is to search for vulnerabilities affecting the systems in your inventory.
The site's "Vulnerabilities" and "Advisories" sections bring together security information from everysingle of the major vendors, security sites and researchers into an easy-to-use portal. The descriptions of vulnerabilities and solutions are brief, clear and light to read. Links to exploits and patches are provided when available. While the alerts don't rate the relative severity of each problem, the discussion sections usually provide enough information for security pros to evaluate threats themselves.
The ICAT Metabase is the National Institute of Standards and Technology's central index to sites containing vulnerability and patch information. If SecurityFocus is the morning paper for vulnerability management, ICAT is an annotated reference book. ICAT provides a affluent set of search functions, allowing users to zero in on the vulnerabilities relevant to their systems. While the ICAT site's waiton file states that the database is updated "at least monthly," many notices are posted within a day or so of their announcement.
ICAT's entries are less informative than those in the SecurityFocus database, but this is by design -- ICAT is meant to exist an index, and each entry has pointers to sites where additional information can exist found.
While both SecurityFocus and ICAT Do a pleasurable job of integrating big amounts of information into searchable portals, you hold to exist proactive. Two other free services, Cassandra and Security Alert Consensus, forward customized vulnerability information, although they need the timeliness of paid services.
Cassandra, operated by Purdue University's heart for Education and Research in Information Assurance and Security (CERIAS), uses the ICAT database to provide customized e-mail notifications of vulnerabilities. Cassandra (named for the woman who warned the Trojans that bringing that wintry Greek horse into the city might not exist such a powerful idea) allows you to set up custom system profiles. You can further narrow the selection of vulnerabilities by adding keywords. For example, you might exist interested in Perl vulnerabilities, but only if they mention "CGI" or "Web." When fresh vulnerabilities meet your criteria, you'll receive an e-mail with links to further information.
Timeliness can exist an issue, as Cassandra relies on the ICAT database, which, as noted earlier, is sometimes updated only monthly. Cassandra may exist better used as a backup source of information.
If SecurityFocus is the morning paper for vulnerability management, ICAT is an annotated reference book.
Security Alert Consensus, a service of the Systems Administration and Network Security (SANS) Institute, provides a weekly e-mail roundup of significant security warnings, customized to your interests. However, a week is a long time in the computer security world. You can also receive news announcements about both commercial and non-commercial security tools. SANS also offers a monthly roundup of Windows-specific security information (Windows Security Digest) and a weekly summary of security news (SANS News-Bites). relish Cassandra, SANS is a pleasurable backup source of information and provides valuable background material for security professionals.
Sharing Information: ISACs and InfraGard
All of the information sources discussed so far are "broadcasters" -- they aggregate information and present it to subscribers. While you can tailor some of these services to attest a subset of the available information, the flood is one way. Many organizations are finding value in sharing information about problems, vulnerabilities and incidents with their peers through the Information Sharing and Analysis Centers (ISACs). Each ISAC brings together a community of organizations with similar interests:
There's also a Worldwide ISAC, which is open to everysingle companies. ISAC members exchange security information anonymously, which promotes sharing without exposure, according to Suzanne Gorman, treasurer of the pecuniary Services ISAC.
"Think about it this way: A bank or brokerage house experiencing a major attack would want to know if others in their industry were also being targeted; an attack against the U.S. pecuniary sector demands different responses than an attack on a single organization," Gorman says. "However, there's a ensnare -- no bank or brokerage wants to let the world know about their security problems. The ISAC provides a forum for safely and anonymously sharing information among a community of organizations who are competitors in other trade situations."
The cost to combine an ISAC varies. Most pervade annual fees of between $5,000 and $10,000 to fund their activities.
Predictive Systems, which runs a number of the industry ISACs, offers a "Corporate ISAC" program to allow larger organizations to build internal information sharing and analysis centers. The Corporate ISAC program includes data feeds from Predictive's @lertnet network of industry, law enforcement and government information sources. A Web portal allows distribution of security information and tracking of fixes. Predictive's data feeds include risk ratings for each reported vulnerability, and their analysts provide additional background materials and weed out hoaxes. Pricing for the Corporate ISAC program depends on the options chosen.
The FBI's InfraGard program offers businesses a forum for sharing information on cyberthreats and security solutions. InfraGard is sprint out of the FBI's 56 realm offices via local chapters. As with the ISACs, InfraGard members report incidents to a central clearinghouse, which processes and distributes information.
"The purpose of InfraGard is to salvage private sector companies talking to each other about physical and cyberthreats," says Thomas J. Van Nuys, supervisory special agent in pervade of domestic terrorism for the FBI's Chicago realm office. "The FBI provides resources and information, such as alerts from the National Information Protection heart (NIPC) and other sources. We're trying to salvage rid of the misconception that the FBI sits on information."
To combine InfraGard, apply at a local FBI realm office. Applicants are theme to a background check. "We don't want to pass InfraGard information to terrorists or criminals," Van Nuys says.
No matter which sources of information your organization uses, the key to making the most of them is consistent monitoring. Checking the "threat radar" for potential problems should exist just as much of a allotment of your daily routine as checking system logs and making backups. In larger organizations, this monitoring assignment may exist assigned to an information security department. Smaller companies may not hold a full-time, dedicated security staff.
In this case, IT management will necessity to settle who's amenable for monitoring security information, how it will exist distributed and how it will exist evaluated.3. Assess the Information
Alerts -- even alerts about vulnerabilities in your systems -- don't disclose you everything you necessity to know. Assessing the even of the threat to your organization -- hence the even of response -- must exist an integral allotment of your vulnerability management strategy.
Say you've spotted a potential problem while searching SecurityFocus -- a new, remotely exploitable vulnerability that could provide an attacker with root-level access to the operating system of your Apache Web server. Before you start notifying systems administrators and downloading patches, you hold some analysis to do.
The answers to the following questions determine if you should ignore a given vulnerability, establish it on the "To Do" list or drop everything and ring everysingle hands on deck:
A buffer overflow flaw in the Solaris and AIX server operating systems, which was announced ultimate December, illustrates several of the points these questions raise:
Your phone is ringing. It's The Boss. A fresh vulnerability has been reported on CNN. Systems everysingle over the Internet are being scanned for the problem by interested script-kiddies, and a number of Web sites hold been defaced. "What are they doing about this?" she asks.
It will exist a lot easier to manipulate the boss' muster if you are practicing pleasurable vulnerability management -- chances are, you've already dealt with the problem or determined it has no impact on your network. That kind of peace of intelligence depends on implementing the ultimate allotment of your vulnerability management process: the action design for response. The template for this design should include the following:
Prioritizing spend of organization resources is crucial, says @stake's Goldsmith. "You necessity to peek at your trade needs and the characteristics of the vulnerability. If you are dealing with a remotely exploitable bug, you might want to schedule your business-critical Internet-facing systems for patching first to reduce the overall risk even as quickly as possible."
Different courses of action are viable in each case, depending on the available options, urgency of the problem and available resources:
Apply a patch. Most vendor-supplied vulnerability alerts will include software patches or upgrades to eradicate the security problems. It may exist tempting to just apply the patch, but hasty action can lead to further headaches. Vendors are usually under a lot of pressure to salvage security patches out as quickly as viable and may not hold fully tested them. A buggy patch could transfigure a potential threat into a true problem. Microsoft, for example, had to supplant several flawed patches ultimate year -- twice in one case, because the replacement patch was also flawed.
Patching presents system administrators and trade managers with a number of thorny issues. The problem system may become more vulnerable while it's being worked on. Many patches require systems to exist rebooted -- and managers may exist reluctant to gain their key systems unavailable during the trade day. Deploying a patch on a big number of systems -- say, everysingle of your desktops -- may exist disruptive. Plus, the presence of patched and unpatched systems on the same network may lead to incompatibility issues. Several vendor tools automate the deployment of patches and fixes to address this potential problem.
In the most extreme cases, patches to fix one security issue may occasions another, more earnest (and undocumented) vulnerability. "Sometimes you can abolish the patient with the medicine," says the NRDC's Francis.
The two keys to successfully deploying patches are (1) testing the fresh software in an environment similar to your production networks before rolling it out, and (2) getting cooperation from the line trade managers whose departments are affected by the update. For many organizations, predeployment testing is a particular problem, since it requires additional time, people and technology. As systems grow more complex, developing plans that test everysingle of an application's functions becomes more difficult and time-consuming. Many organizations hold chosen to compromise, using limited deployment of patches for earnest issues in production.
While most security vulnerabilities will exist remedied with a patch or software update, there are other actions you can purchase to reduce your risk until fresh software can exist properly tested and deployed:
Turn off vulnerable services at the host even if they aren't needed.
Hopefully, you hardened your systems a long time ago, perhaps when you installed them. However, unneeded services can exist overlooked. For example, the infamous IIS Remote Data Service vulnerability create in 1998 uses a feature providing access to SQL databases from Microsoft's IIS Web server to execute privileged commands. Many Webmasters who didn't necessity to access SQL data could hold avoided defacements of their sites simply by turning this feature off.1
Adjust system configurations to remove the vulnerability. You may exist able to mitigate risk by changing the route a vulnerable service is configured. For example, a recently reported vulnerability in Lotus' Domino Server allowed nonprivileged users to access a file called the Web Administrator Template and gain super-user access to the server. The problem could exist easily fixed by changing the permissions on the offending file or removing it from the publicly accessible allotment of the server.
Adjust firewall rules to prevent access to vulnerable systems or services. Sometimes, unpatched systems can exist protected by blocking access to the vulnerable service at the perimeter of your network until fixes can exist made. Of course, this won't repel the inside attacker, and shutting down external access to vulnerable services may not exist practical -- an SMTP server becomes pretty useless if it can't accept mail from the outside world.
Use other perimeter defenses. The ultimate few major Internet-wide security events (Nimda, Goner) used e-mail as a significant transport vector. Many organizations filter e-mail attachments with suspicious file types (like .scr or .vbs). Another approach to this problem is to drop messages with content that matches known infected messages. For example, the message carrying the Goner virus had a number of signatures to key on -- the file attachment named "Gone.scr" and distinctive phrases, such as "I'm in a hurry."
As networks salvage more complex, with fresh and upgraded software adding functionality, each day will bring fresh vulnerabilities to check out. Many of these vulnerabilities will spawn potentially hazardous exploits, making a coherent, consistent vulnerability management strategy an even more vital allotment of your security toolkit.
About the author:Al Berg, CISSP, is a contributing editor for Information Security and a technical director in the corporate information security department of a firm providing data processing services to the pecuniary industry. He has written numerous articles on information security and lectured worldwide on infosec topics.
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