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C2010-504 Migration Engine from Butterfly Software V6.05 Fundamentals

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C2010-504 exam Dumps Source : Migration Engine from Butterfly Software V6.05 Fundamentals

Test Code : C2010-504
Test appellation : Migration Engine from Butterfly Software V6.05 Fundamentals
Vendor appellation : IBM
real questions : 49 existent Questions

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IBM Migration Engine from Butterfly

IBM Buys Butterfly for automated Storage Migration | existent Questions and Pass4sure dumps

one other day, yet another acquisition through IBM. This time, the company IT functions and options issuer has its points of interest set on facts storage.

large Blue took a assassinate from snapping up large facts analytics enterprises and announced that it has obtained Butterfly, a UK-based mostly privately-held maker of storage planning and backup automation software. Butterfly could exist folded into IBM's software community, based on the groups. The deal's value and phrases are being stored confidential.

IBM sees an occasion in storage optimization options as organizations physiognomy means crunches, due to ever-becoming statistics storage demands. Exacerbating the problem are increasingly complicated storage infrastructures.

For IBM, the purchase is everyone about storage effectivity. "IBM will consume Butterfly to assist purchasers find fresh methods to pressure enhanced value from its storage software and hardware solutions," says the enterprise in press remarks.

Butterfly's tech falls in keeping with the company's "Smarter" imaginative and prescient of IT products and capabilities choices, with an emphasis on wide automation, ease of management and facts seat power effectivity. "Butterfly presents storage planning software and storage migration equipment, assisting businesses deliver space for storing, operational time, IT funds and energy consumption."

Butterfly specializes in application tackle that assist companies in talent planning, automated migration, statistics consolidation and backups. Key to those capabilities is the firm's Butterfly evaluation Engine, agentless discovery and evaluation software that provides storage administrators with a complete, non-disruptive graphic of their storage environments.

The enterprise claims that by using Butterfly evaluation Engine, agencies can fully check their storage setups, together with approaches like backup schedules and retention guidelines, in mere days rather than months the usage of tolerable auditing strategies.

This skill then opens the door to different, ROI-enhancing projects including consolidation and virtualization. In instances where migrating storage and/or backups makes feel, the company's Butterfly Storage Migration Engine (purchasable in digital and physical flavors) gives a non-disruptive, "low touch" mode of relocating data with minimal bear an repercussion on to creation techniques, claims Butterfly.

The Butterfly deal follows IBM's mammoth guess on SSD storage. In August, IBM bought Houston-based SSD Array maker Texas reminiscence techniques for an undisclosed quantity.

Pedro Hernandez is a contributing editor at, the news carrier of the IT trade facet community, the network for technology gurus. comply with him on Twitter @ecoINSITE.

The Vanishing Flights of the Monarch Butterfly | existent Questions and Pass4sure dumps

strolling around my household’s property in upstate ny ultimate summer, i realized whatever I hadn’t viewed in years: ratings of monarch butterflies flying around the milkweed that rings the perimeter of the yard. Six months later, at the recess of January, biologists attending the Trinational Monarch Science meeting, in Mexico city, tested what I and a lot of others had been seeing throughout the summer and fall: the japanese monarch inhabitants was 100 and forty-four per cent greater than it had been a 12 months past. The announcement offered a modicum of hope amid dire warnings of mass extinctions and ecological catastrophe. just two weeks earlier, the Xerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation had issued a discovering that the monarch inhabitants west of the Rockies dropped with the aid of around ninety per cent during the past year and is on the verge of collapse.

Monarch butterflies migrate. though they weigh below a gram, they trip lots of miles each and every topple to overwintering websites that supply the preempt microclimate to allow them to continue to exist for months with tiny food or water. To music these migration patterns, subject scientists had been gluing small tags on monarchs’ wings due to the fact the 19-fifties. The facts from recovered tags is continually overlaid on maps that exhibit where the butterflies are going and where they're coming from. That’s how they now know that monarchs east of the Rockies usually genesis the adventure in Canada and the higher Midwest, aiming for the Oyamel-fir forests in Mexico’s Transverse Neovolcanic Mountains. in the spring, the butterflies lay eggs in Texas before loss of life; successive generations fling northward in a configuration of relay race that follows the proliferation of milkweed, their host plant. Monarchs that start their journey west of the Rockies enact some thing identical: after wintering on the coast of California, shielded with the aid of stands of eucalyptus or Monterey pine, they movement inland to the vital Valley, however moreover north to Washington condition and southern British Columbia, and to Nevada, Arizona, Idaho, and perhaps Montana.

sooner or later in July, strolling round their pond as my dog hunted for frogs, I watched two monarchs mate overhead, and, after they separated, I adopted the female as she laid an egg on the underside of a close-by milkweed leaf. Milkweed is the monarch’s host plant since it includes a toxin it really is toxic to the butterfly’s predators. Monarch caterpillars chew the leaves and ingest the poison, so that it will present protection to the butterflies that they ultimately become. I took the leaf with the egg and introduced it internal.

four days later, the egg, which was white and about the measurement of a grain of sand, changed into long past, and in its region, barely seen, was the tiniest yellow-black-and-white caterpillar, so small that my husband had no theory where it became once I confirmed him. just a few days, a number of molts, and a few milkweed leaves later, the caterpillar was a brace of half-inch long and fattening up, following a timetable nearly as reputable as a Swiss watch. a further molt adopted, and the caterpillar unzipped, then discarded, its striped jacket. beneath, there turned into an identical one, one size larger. This Part of the metamorphosis took spot to coincide with the demise of Lincoln Brower, an emeritus professor of zoology who the times, in its obituary, rightly called the “champion of the Monarch butterfly.” I connected a small signal, which read “The Lincoln bedroom,” to the enclosure that I’d made for the caterpillar. I begun to debate with the caterpillar as Lincoln, too—an anthropomorphism that I hoped Professor Brower, with whom I’d travelled to Mexico a few times to perceive the butterflies, would bear forgiven.

In 1995, Brower, who became then on the institution of Florida, posted a paper in the Journal of the Lepidopterists’ Society, explaining that while the monarch butterfly was not an endangered species—it will probably even exist present in Hawaii, the Caribbean, Spain, Portugal, Australia and fresh Zealand—its North American migration patterns east of the Rockies were at grave possibility of disappearing. In that paper, he called it an “endangered biological phenomenon.” under two decades later, in 2013, that danger appeared to bear Come to fruition, when that winter’s monarch inhabitants coated below three acres of the Mexican forest, down from round twenty acres ten years past.

at the synchronous Monarch Science meeting, in Mexico city, when researchers pronounced that this 12 months’s migration covered six hectares, or well-nigh fifteen acres, “individuals bear been cheering,” Chip Taylor, an emeritus professor of ecology and evolutionary biology at the school of Kansas, pointed out. This yr turned into no longer simplest a banner yr for eastern monarchs, it changed into one for tagging as neatly. in line with Taylor, who, given that 1992, has hasten Monarch Watch, essentially the most prolific monarch-tagging application on the planet, four hundred thousand tags were disbursed in 2018, one and a half times as many because the 12 months earlier than. Lincoln Brower’s first-rate friend and occasional collaborator, the Mexican versifier Homero Aridjis, one other monarch champion, instructed me in an e mail that he was seeing aggregations of monarchs within the mountains near his boyhood domestic of Contepec for the first time in a decade.

although this is everyone encouraging, a solitary 12 months isn't a fashion, and scientists remain involved concerning the viability of the migration. “We should soundless rejoice the fact that they fling up to this six-hectare number, and people who live in areas where monarchs breed in fact noticed them this summer time,” Karen Oberhauser, the director of the institution of Wisconsin-Madison Arboretum, who researches monarchs, told me. “It illustrates the fact that they bear this miraculous skills.” but a population fluctuate within the antithetical direction can happen, too, she talked about. Oberhauser and her analysis buddies bear discovered that there is an underlying risk from habitat loss. (One Look at estimated that 200 and twenty three million milkweed stems had been lost within the Midwest between 2008 and 2016.) based on the world natural world Fund, six hectares is just satisfactory to preserve a feasible inhabitants in North america.

Taylor has a one-notice explanation for why 2018 became an chiefly profitable year for japanese monarchs, and why that profitable year likely portends hazardous ones to return: temperature. In March, when the monarchs arrived in Texas from Mexico, the intimate temperatures had been 5.four degrees Fahrenheit above standard, which should soundless bear blown the butterflies everyone of the approach to Kansas.The butterflies couldn’t fling farther north, even though, since it changed into too bloodless in northern Texas. “I regarded on the weather each day and that i’d say, ‘damn, that’s first rate. maintain your babies in Texas,’” Taylor mentioned. In may additionally, the temperatures had been foremost as the butterflies moved north, and they had been choicest in the summertime as monarchs unfolded across their breeding latitude. Then, within the fall, because the butterflies headed south, these numbers bear been favorable, too. “What they had this yr is every thing changed into efficacious in each of those tiers,” Taylor informed me. “here's why I dispute this is now not more likely to eddy up once more—because you’re not likely to perceive a sample like this once again.”

West of the Rockies, the variety of monarchs overwintering in California is estimated to exist round twenty thousand, down eighty-six per cent considering terminal yr, which “isn’t completely exceptional,” Emma Pelton, a researcher with the Xerces Society, instructed me. “I’ve seemed back at facts between 1980 and today, and there had been other situations the spot we’ve had a single-year drop of this magnitude. but the difference is that here's everyone in the context of a ninety-seven per cent decline since the nineteen-eighties.” The latest circumstance, Pelton delivered, is considered “a quasi-extinction.” There may additionally not exist adequate butterflies to repopulate the latitude. If that happens, there'll soundless exist western monarchs, however they will exist increasingly complicated to discover. “that could exist like losing everyone the rhinos, except the rhinos in the zoos,” Pelton talked about. “in fact, the possibility is that we’re going to lose migration.”

in many ways, the stressors compromising western monarchs are the selfsame as these affecting monarchs east of the Rockies: habitat loss both in the overwintering sites and alongside the migratory pathways; the proliferation of herbicides and insecticides, above everyone in large swaths of the agricultural Midwest and the significant Valley; and improved temperatures because of climate alternate. but delivered to these are a prolonged drought, large wildfires, and the propagation of non-native, tropical milkweed that consists of a deadly parasite. Monarchs are “a very resilient species,” Taylor referred to. “It survived long periods of negative conditions.” The question now, within the western u.s., is if the butterflies are resilient satisfactory to rebound from this benevolent of precipitous decline.

Robert Michael Pyle, the founding father of the Xerces Society and an expert on the western monarch migration, thinks that they may well be, however for an not going rationale. The western migration may well exist an accident of happenstance, and its destiny can exist tied to the destiny of the jap monarchs in the Mexican mountains. “I even bear lengthy thought that the Californian wintering monarchs may well exist an epiphenomenon—a greater or less ephemeral state, province to radical fluctuations, most likely even extinction and recolonization,” Pyle wrote in an e mail. It wasn’t except 1816 that the existence of monarchs in California entered the written list, when they had been followed with the aid of Russian naturalists on an excursion to circumnavigate the globe. prior accounts of the region, courting again to the seventeenth century, by indigenous americans, early explorers, and priests sent through the Catholic Church to set up missions, develop no mention of the butterflies, leading Pyle to intimate that the western migration “may no longer even exist that historic.”

“Lincoln Brower and i bear hypothesized that it might probably bear blinked on and off during the past, having been refreshed unintentionally incursions of Mexican monarchs pushed westerly within the spring by shifting winds,” Pyle wrote. Between 1990 and 1997, he introduced, the population of California monarchs crashed practically as severely because it did in 2018, and then recovered. “So, whereas I can not dispute no matter if the existing crash is systemic and deadly or stochastic and recoverable, i believe the latter,” he said, “and i am very hopeful that the better numbers in Mexico this iciness should exist would becould very well exist propitiously poised to assist in Californian recuperation next spring. it everyone depends upon which manner the wind blows.”

The wind turned into not blowing in any respect inner the Lincoln bedroom as the caterpillar chewed through milkweed leaves and grew proportionately. outdoor, in the yard, the butterflies and caterpillars endured to multiply, though predators were brief to determine the larvae, and the mortality fee, by means of my casual daily observations, became excessive. Then, about two weeks after emerging from his egg, Lincoln climbed to the profitable of the enclosure, secreted a white gooey liquid, connected himself to it, after which hung like a solitary missive “J.” Days later, he looked as if it would flip himself inside out after which disappeared into a green, gold-flecked chrysalis. He became long gone, though it changed into no longer limpid where, precisely, he’d long gone to.

after which I waited, checking the chrysalis obsessively, even though I knew it might exist at the least per week earlier than a butterfly emerged. Ten days later, I wakened to locate the chrysalis clear, and the black and orange of the monarch’s wings seen via it. Rebirth was imminent, or so i thought. extra ready, greater gazing, some caring—I’d had monarchs die earlier than, placing stillborn in their cradles. but, on the fourteenth day, I witnessed Lincoln damage through what now seemed to exist the thinnest of membranes, clinging to it for tosomeextent ages, his wings nonetheless tender and folded. after which, as if somebody had been pumping them up, they unfurled and began to consume shape. As they did, i realized from the absence of pheromone patches, that Lincoln changed into a she, not a he.

I asked Oberhauser, who has devoted most of her professional lifestyles to monarch butterflies, why any one may soundless keeping if the monarch inhabitants crashes, in Mexico or out West. “we will resolve a species and dispute it’s crucial because it’s a pollinator or it’s a keystone species, and if they tow it out of an ecosystem it’s going to bear everyone these dangerous, cascading effects,” she said. “Monarchs doubtless don’t bear massive-picture ecosystem magnitude. but just the incontrovertible fact that they connect individuals to nature is purpose sufficient to develop us care.” At one aspect, she instructed me, “after they lose these robust connections with nature, from the aspect of view of conservation, they lose one in everyone their most well-known strengths. When americans cease caring, things are going to accept worse lots sooner.”

once Lincoln’s wings hardened, I carried her and her bed play outside, opened the enclosure, and acquired ready for her to soar away. She didn’t. They sat peaceably for a brace of hours, both of us basking in the sun. She would flap her wings a few times and then cease, like a car engine that couldn't tosomeextent flip over. after which it did, and she took flight, landing on the department of a close-by tree. Minutes later, she soared above the house and disappeared.

IBM Acquires Butterfly software For information evaluation And superior Storage Capabilites | existent Questions and Pass4sure dumps

IBM has obtained Butterfly software, a privately held records evaluation and migration software company headquartered in Maidenhead, England. economic phrases were no longer disclosed.

Butterfly’s main feature is its capacity emigrate facts seat infrastructures. in accordance with the trade web page, it focuses on decreasing the saturate and chance of holding legacy storage and backup & recuperation environments. This makes it feasible for corporations to consolidate enterprise facts and resolve it for strategic functions.

IBM has staked its declare within the analytics market. This acquisition plays to that method.

The information follows IBM’s$1.three billion acquisition ultimate month of Kenexa, which helps agencies cull large amounts of information to develop choices and study tendencies.

IBM plans to continue its acquisition approach for analytics businesses. Its train is to generate $sixteen billion from enterprise analytics by using 2015.

an additional play here is for IBM to provide deeper capabilities it could possibly present within the storage market. Backup is a bear for corporations and evaluation should exist more and more essential as companies store an expanding quantity of statistics.

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SPIE Photonics Europe news and photos | existent questions and Pass4sure dumps

Photonics Europe in BrusselsThe SPIE Photonics Europe 2014 week ended on a high note, with two more well-received smarting Topics talks on Thursday, and numerous connections made during the week’s activities -– including fresh research partners, customers, and potential employees or employers.

As Gregory Baethge of Lovalite/Lumerical Computational Solutions spot it, "I saw people from throughout the European research community, including many developing the integrated photonics and nanophotonics that their design and simulation software is best for. Many of their customers are also giving papers here. The exhibit space plus the networking at poster sessions and receptions helped me connect face-to-face with people doing design of photonics and optoelectronics."

Follow the links below for details, or browse by day.

Thursday 17 April

Hot Topics: Marc Sciamanna on the butterfly outcome in laser diodes

Hot Topics: Michal Lipson on pushing the boundaries of silicon photonics

Wednesday 16 April

Growing markets and opportunities: industry executive briefings

Peter Peumans on integrated photonics for the life sciences

Reinhart Poprawe on 3D printing and additive manufacturing

Photonics Innovation Village winners

'Getting Hired' panel

Wednesday poster session

Tuesday 15 April

SPIE Fellows Luncheon

Hot Topics: John Sipe on classical to quantum nonlinear optics

Hot Topics: straightforward Koppens on graphene quantum nano-optoelectronics

Francesco Pavone on extending light-sheet microscopy methods

Pablo Valdes on image-guided brain tumor surgery

Ewa Goldys on hyperspectral imaging for flow cells, diagnostics

Photonics Europe Welcome Reception

Monday 14 April

SPIE society awards

Hot Topics: John Dudley on IYL2015

Hot Topics: Wolfgang Boch on Horizon 2020

Hot Topics: Raymond Beausoleil on photonics circuits

Hot Topics: Brian Wilson on nanotechnology in healthcare

SPIE Student Lunch with the Experts

SCHOTT workshop on the properties of optical glass

Anke Lohmann at SPIE Women in Optics

Monday poster session

VIP reception for conference chairs

Sunday 13 April

Student Chapter Leadership Workshop

Thursday 17 April

The butterfly effect

Marc Sciamanna of Supélec opened Thursday morning's smarting Topic session with his presentation, "The butterfly outcome in laser diode dynamics." Sciamanna's ground-breaking work in this province not only is deepening their understanding of the physics of lasers and chaos but moreover providing opportunities to translate that learning to practical applications.

Sciamanna began with a historical review on chaotic conduct and lasers including Maiman's 1961 paper which referenced erratic laser output, Lorenz's equations from 1963, and Haken's work in 1975 connecting lasers and chaos which led to the understanding that instability of laser output is driven by high pump power and high losses in the cavity.

Sciamanna observed that the conduct of diode lasers as damped nonlinear oscillators was not expected to demonstrate chaotic behavior. Despite this, work from the 1980s through 2013 demonstrated that one could drive optical chaos by current modulation, optical injection and optical feedback means.

The nature of this conduct in laser diodes and the role of polarization switching and mode hopping as well as the significance of non-orthogonal elliptically polarized states in understanding the deterministic chaos being observed was explained.

The final portion of the presentation described how to apply and optimize the phenomena to random number generators.

Pushing the boundaries

Michal Lipson from Cornell University provided Thursday's second smarting Topic presentation with her talk, "Pushing the boundaries of silicon photonics." Her exciting presentation demonstrated that rapid advances are taking spot in the province and that, with approaches to key components in place, silicon photonics is nearing entry into the semiconductor manufacturing flow.

Lipson explained that the problem being addressed is power dissipation in computers; higher bandwidth drives larger power dissipation. This power dissipation is driven at the chip flat by transmitting signals, not the computing or calculations being done by the chip, and the goal is to supplant these transmission lines-oftentimes copper interconnects-with optics.

The constraints, though, are significant since the large CMOS infrastructure dictates compatibility with traditional semiconductor processing methods including the consume of silicon.

Passive devices guiding light bear been in spot for a number of years. The challenge is to develop active devices given the CMOS processing constraints. Since silicon is a centrosymmetric crystal, its second order susceptibility vanishes so electro-optical effects needed for devices such as modulators are not present. Lipson described work from her team to circumvent this issue, leveraging previous learning that one can inject carriers to change refractive index resulting in something like an electro-optical outcome to construct a combined optical and electrical device (simply a p-i-n junction) to role as a modulator.

She moreover showed that such modulators can exist cascaded and constructed to operate at different wavelengths to allow wavelength division multiplexing thereby increasing bandwidth. The other active device needed is an isolator, which typically makes consume of magnetic materials to atomize directional symmetry. Lipson provided a description and showed the performance of a scheme developed by her team to develop optical isolators at the chip level.

Noting that the majority of work to date has been done with solitary mode light, Lipson moved on to debate multimode photonics. She illustrated how to utilize changes in silicon film thickness to modulate the efficacious index of refraction of a waveguide to allow for multimode propagation and then discussed a means to multiplex these modes.

Wednesday 16 April

Growing markets and opportunities

A day-long programme of executive briefings on the growing markets and consequent trade opportunities of photonics technologies and applications featured a distinguished panel, including Peter Hartmann (SCHOTT), Wenko Süptitz (SPECTARIS), Elisabeth Leitner (Deutsches Institut für Normung), Detlev Ristau (Laserzentrum Hannover), Augustin Grillet (Barco, Photonics21), Anthony Hillion (Aquiti Gestion), Els Van de Velde (IDEA Consult), Peter Peumans (IMEC), and Reinhart Poprawe (Fraunhofer ILT). Synopses of talks by Peumans and Poprawe follow.

Moderator Steve Anderson of SPIE presented on data developed by the society on the revenue and number of jobs generated by the core photonics components. The data compose the first report in an ongoing analysis on the size of the global photonics market, with the goal of drawing attention to the well-known contributions photonics technologies and applications develop to the economy and to people's lives. Read more in the SPIE press release.

Integrated photonics for the life sciences

Integrated photonics from silicon and silicon-oxy-nitride waveguides are enabling fresh and reduced-cost life sciences applications including sensors, next generation diagnostics, DNA sequencing, lens-free microscopy, wearable spectrometers, single-molecule fluorescence detection, and blood cell sorters that can find rare, circulating tumor cells, famous IMEC's Peter Peumans. IMEC has tenacious capability in integrated photonics fabrication and is now applying this expertise to biophotonics devices on a silicon platform.

One project is designed to extend the performance of high-throughput screening for DNA sequencing that read larger basis pairs or longer "phrases" of DNA, with parallelized solitary molecule fluorescence detection that extend accuracy and hasten by monitoring 150,000 reactions simultaneously.

Cancer tumors become far more deadly when they spread via blood, but finding and distinguishing them is difficult because a medical device must sort through billions of cells to find one circulating tumor cell. Peumans outlined how IMEC work in cell sorting and lens-free microscopy offers the occasion for significant improvements in cancer detection.

Peumans famous that early detection of unavoidable diseases can significantly reduce healthcare costs because treatments later in the disease cycle may cost over five times as much as the options available to the patient at an earlier stage.

Approximately 75% of medical keeping expenses are devoted to patients with inveterate disease, with ongoing monitoring requirements. To reduce cost and improve quality of life people generally prefer to exist at home, even with inveterate disease, so fresh methods to monitor patients and report key measurements are required.

Recent IMEC work has developed technology to consume smart phones and pads that are now ubiquitous, rather than requiring investment in fresh remote monitoring instruments. These comprehend a technical concept IMEC calls "iLab" that is being developed with Johns Hopkins University, which delivers next generation diagnostics using personal electronics.

IMEC is moreover experimenting with a wearable, high-performance spectrometer on a chip -- biophotonics on a silicon platform -- that they envision working as a wristband-style instrument.

'Bits to photons to atoms': 3D printing

The age of digital photonic production includes laser additive manufacturing, selective laser melting (SLM), laser metal Deposition (LMD) and controlled deposition of functional layers. These and related methods convert "bits to photons to atoms" in ways that reduce cost, reduce waste, and enable fresh complex forms and structures, said Reinhart Poprawe of Fraunhofer ILT.

Prototyping a fresh engine obstruct can exist achieved in four days rather than four months using additive manufacturing processes developed at Fraunhofer ILT, Poprawe said. For traditional milling of a jet engine turbine blade/hub assembly, the time may exist reduced from 180 hours to 180 minutes.

Laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT) and selective laser etching bear been demonstrated to bear gears and precise tolerance mechanisms arranged correctly from the time of manufacture. At even smaller dimensions, microfluidics devices for life sciences and healthcare can exist prototyped and delivered with greater precision and hasten than any time in history.

And, while product design complexity can exist high, unit volume or lot size can exist low using these fresh manufacturing methods. Using laser additive manufacturing - often called 3D printing - even a solitary demur may exist created for testing, not simply with plastics or polymers but with tenacious metal alloys.

Recent experiments at Fraunhofer ILT bear demonstrated that aluminum can exist significantly strengthened by specific exposure to laser light, making it more preempt for complex, high-load structures including, for example, aircraft components.

On the other extreme of durability, advancements in additive manufacturing for replacement bone structures, such as cheek bones that enact not endure high loads, can now exist manufactured with such biocompatibility that the human cadaver can grow into and throughout the implant, which itself gradually dissolves into inert components leaving behind the proper structure.

Prize winning photonics innovation

Developed as a pass to uphold and publicize research teams from universities, non-profit institutions and research centers who are working on research, fresh applications and product development, the Photonics Innovation Village brought together seven multi-lateral projects and six individual projects to showcase Europe's (and the world's) finest research programs and to hearten the transfer of optics and photonics research and technology into fresh and useful products.

The 6th edition of the Photonics Innovation Village was organized by the Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB). By taking Part in the competition, innovative researchers were able to showcase their latest research to industry innovators and other photonics visionaries.

Diane De Coster, SPIE Student Chapter president at VUB, introduced the jury comprised of Ronan Burgess, EC Photonics Unit; SPIE President Philip Stahl, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center; Peter Hartmann, SCHOTT; and Steve Anderson, SPIE. The jury's tough stint was to rank the projects, with the outcome being "incredibly close."

The top prize in the category of "Best Innovation by an Individual Researcher" went to Josep Carreras from LEDMOTIVE Technologies S.L., for "Ledmotive®: A light engine with replete spectral control."

The first runner-up was Markus Mangold from Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories Materials Science and Technology for his project "Portable mid-IR trail gas sensor for mobile applications."

Second runner-up was Christophe Caucheteur, University of Mons, Electromagnetism and Telecommunication Department, for his project, "IR radiation sensor for early fire detection."

The winners in the category of "Best Innovation by a Multilateral Project, Organisation or Company" were Gary Stevens, MINERVA, Vivid Components, FP7 project, UK, for their project "Mid- to near-IR spectroscopy for improved medical diagnostics."

The first runner-up prize went to Udo Weigel, ICFO-The Institute of Photonic Sciences / HemoPhotonics S.L., for their project, "A portable diffuse optical Neuro-Monitor."

Second runner-up was Stephan Stockel with the Institute of Physical Chemistry, Friedrich Schiller University / Leibniz Institute of Photonic Technology under the umbrella of the European Network of Excellence Photonics4Life, for their project, "The Bio Particle Explorer."

View photos of the winners in the Photonics Europe photo gallery. 

Careers in industry

Timo Mappes, Viviane Deleu, Peter Hartmann, Bob Haynsie

Careers in optics and photonics outside the academic world was the focus of the SPIE "Getting Hired" panel. Attendees scholarly about the process for getting hired at tech-based companies and non-academic jobs directly from professionals in the optics and photonics sector. Panelists, from left above, were Timo Mappes, Carl Zeiss AG; Viviane Deleu, Insel, a Ransand Company; Peter Hartmann, SCHOTT AG; and Bob Hainsey, SPIE.

Posters popping!

Wednesday saw the final poster session of the week, for conferences 9131, 9132, 9133, 9134, 9135, 9138, 9139.

Yu-Heng Wu, Tsu-Chiang Yen

Yu-Heng Wu (left), and Tsu-Chiang Yen, both from National Sun Yat-Sen University, debate their poster, "Critical slowing down in polarization switching of vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers." View more photos of Wednesday's poster session in the Photonics Europe photo gallery.

Tuesday 15 April

New Fellows, primitive friends

Valery Tuchin, Anna Mignani

Valery Tuchin, co-chair of Biophotonics: Photonic Solutions for Better Health keeping (9129); and Anna Mignani, co-chair of Optical Sensing and Detection (9141), entrap up at the SPIE Fellows Luncheon.

Four fresh Fellows they inducted into the Society:

  • Peter Hartmann of SCHOTT, for achievements in optical glass and glass ceramics
  • Ignacio Moreno of Universidad Miguel Hernández de Elche, for achievements in applications of liquid-crystal spatial light modulators in diffractive optics and polarization optics
  • Min Qiu of Zhejiang University, for achievements in nanophotonic devices based on photonic crystals, plasmonics and metamaterials
  • Detlev Ristau of Laser Zentrum Hannover, for achievements in optical coatings.
  • View more photos from the luncheon in the Photonics Europe photo gallery.

    Tuesday smarting Topics

    From classical to quantum nonlinear optics in photonic structures

    John SipeThe first speaker in Tuesday's smarting Topics session was John Sipe of the University of Toronto whose talk entitled "From classical to quantum nonlinear optics in photonic structures" illustrated the connections between classical nonlinear optics and its quantum counterpart.

    Sipe introduced his topic showing that classical phenomena such as difference frequency generation (DFG) and four-wave mixing find their quantum analogs in impulsive parametric down-conversion (SPDC) and impulsive four-wave mixing wherein one can envision the seed in classical optics being replaced by quantum fluctuations for the equivalent quantum processes. The question, then, is how to connect classical and quantum effects.

    To motivate this discussion, Sipe reminded his audience of the Einstein A and B coefficients used to picture impulsive (A) and stimulated (B) emission rates. In both cases, the system evolves from an excited to a ground condition with the emission of a photon but the stimulated case can exist understood on classical grounds whereas the impulsive case is purely a quantum effect.

    That said, measurements to determine B through classical means results in learning related to its quantum counterpart, A. Sipe demonstrated similar logic can exist applied to DFG and SPDC and illustrated the similarities in the expressions for the output power of the two phenomena.

    When analyzing this case in terms of wave functions, Sipe demonstrated that classical experiments can provide insight on the biphoton wave function. The experimental arrangement used in this case was termed ‘stimulated emission tomography' or ‘virtual tomography' as it's now known. Overall, the concept that this connection exists and can exist employed to more quickly and easily measure and understand quantum phenomena is a powerful one which could prove profitable in advancing studies of optical devices for quantum information technologies.

    Graphene quantum nano-optoelectronics: fundamentals and applications

    Frank KoppensThe second speaker in Tuesday's smarting Topics session was straightforward Koppens from the Institute of Photonic Sciences (ICFO), who presented on graphene in his talk, "Nano-optoelectronic 2D materials."

    Graphene, a solitary layer of graphite laid out on a honeycomb lattice, demonstrates high conductivity, no bandgap, and massless saturate carriers due its linear dispersion relationship at low energies. In terms of optoelectronic properties, it offers broadband absorption, hasty response, and tunable plasmonic properties along with other unique characteristics including large surface-to-volume ratio.

    Light absorption in the material has the unique assign of being independent of material constants relying solely on the fine structure constant. Adding dopants allows moving the Fermi energy and tuning of optical properties.

    Furthermore, its broadband response when coupled with patterning of given dimensions produces tenacious optical resonances at those dimensions. Being able to change the carrier density and tune plasmonic response by adjusting the Fermi flat allows for customizing electrical response. Together, these properties result in a material exemplar for applications in nanoscale optoelectronics, light harvesting, sensing, detecting, silicon photonics and nonlinear optics. Koppens' team is at the forefront of graphene research and continues their work investigating this novel material system.

    Hot topics -- in the conference rooms, too

    hot topics at Photonics Europe

    Tuesday's schedule included more smarting Topics speakers (above) but the conference rooms were moreover sedulous with talks on the latest technologies -- a sample follows.

    Extending light-sheet microscopy for whole-brain imaging

    Presenting in the Neurophotonics session of the Biophotonics: Photonic Solutions for Better Health keeping conference, Francesco Pavone of the Università degli Studi de Firenze discussed work his group has done to extend light-sheet microscopy methods.

    This technique, known for its data acquisition hasten but traditionally limited in resolution, was adapted to a confocal scheme. The resulting confocal light sheet microscopy (CLSM) mode improves image contrast and reduces image blurring.

    Coupled with image stitching software and cell counting software developed by the team, CLSM offers the talent to enact entire brain imaging and track processes. Combining CLSM with two photon fluorescence imaging and correlating the resulting images enables a study of long term projection neurons ex vivo.

    This work provides the potential for correlating solitary neuron functionality with morphology, studying plastic brain rewiring after surgery or sensory deprivation, and analyzing the sprouting response of different neuron types thereby deepening their understanding of neuron activity in the brain.

    Image-guided brain tumor surgery

    Pablo Valdes from Dartmouth College described work done in conjunction with Britton chance Award winner Brian Wilson from the University of Toronto in his presentation, "A translational paradigm for quantitative multiplexed fluorescence image guidance for brain tumor surgery." The goal of the joint research program is to improve upon the consume of fluorescence techniques in tumor detection.

    Valdes famous that today such techniques are largely qualitative relying either on microscope observation or camera image viewing to guide surgeons during procedures. This qualitative nature limits accuracies to 60-70% in identifying and removing tumors. Developing an approach to measure tissue optical properties allowing for a correction factor to exist applied to the raw fluorescence signal thereby enabling extraction of the intrinsic fluorescence moves the mode from the qualitative to the quantitative realm.

    Initial clinical results using a probe designed by the team to measure tissue properties resulted in 80-90% accuracy, a significant improvement over the accuracies obtained with purely qualitative means. Acting on feedback from clinicians who were more cozy with traditional microscopy methods, the team integrated their system into a microscope enabling 3D imaging with a 1-2 second/image capture rate.

    Valdes added that multiple biomarkers can exist used to enhance information capture and that the technique is extendable into the near IR portion of the spectrum. Future work will Look to incorporate stereoscopic methods and develop consume of endogenous markers. The work represents a significant improvement to a traditional surgical mode and the effectiveness of translational research in improving health care.

    Hyperspectral imaging for flow cells, diagnostics

    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI), widely used for decades in mineralogy, surveillance and the food industry, is now showing noteworthy swear for cell characterization -- including flow cells -- and could exist used to aid medical treatment of a wide scope of conditions. In an invited talk in the Biophotonics conference, Ewa Goldys famous that the vast scope of cell types presents a major identification challenge.

    Classic characterization techniques minister to exist behind and cumbersome, and while fluorescence typically relies on the consume of biomarkers and staining compounds, a fresh label-free approach by Goldys and her Macquarie University colleagues in Australia requires only the natural autofluorescence of biological tissue to work. Read more in the article.

    A cultural welcome

    Photonics Europe Welcome Reception

    Hundreds of attendees gathered at The Royal Museums of Fine Arts for the Photonics Europe Welcome Reception. The Museums' collections trail the history of the visual arts from the 15th to the 21st centuries.

    Monday 14 April

    Society awards and smarting Topics start the day

    Francis Berghmans

    Symposium chair Francis Berghmans, Vrije Univ. Brussel, welcomed the large throng to 2014 SPIE Photonics Europe.

    First up was the presentation of two SPIE society awards.

    SPIE President Philip Stahl presented the 2014 Britton chance Biomedical Optics Award to Brian Wilson (Ontario Cancer Institute) in recognition of his outstanding lifetime contributions to the province of biomedical optics through the development of innovative, high repercussion technologies. The award particularly honors pioneering contributions to optical methods and devices that bear facilitated advancements in biology or medicine.

    The 2014 Dennis Gabor Award was presented to Pramod Rastogi (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology) in recognition of outstanding accomplishments in diffractive wavefront technologies, especially those which further the development of holography and metrology applications; particularly his groundbreaking research in the development of high resolution and multi-component parametric phase formulation methods for the simultaneous estimation of multiple phases and their derivatives from holographic interference patterns.

    View award photos in the Photonics Europe photo gallery.

    'Window to the universe'

    John DudleyEuropean Physical Society President and SPIE Member John Dudley (Université de Franche-Comté) inaugurated the week's smarting Topics with a talk entailing plans for the International Year of Light (IYL2015) and light-based technologies. A partnership of over 100 scientific societies and organizations from more than 85 countries has successfully led an initiative to bear the year 2015 declared the International Year of Light and Light-based Technologies by the United Nations.

    Dudley stressed that this is not "business as usual." Whether in industry, academia, or government, scientists requisite to raise public and international political awareness about the significance of light for the future of global society. Advances in light-based technology are crucial for sustainable development, they open up fresh educational horizons, they preserve cultural heritage, and address issues of climate change.

    IYL2015 will raise public and international political awareness of the significance of light for the future of global society. Stating that photonics is the "window to the universe," he urged his colleagues to become involved any pass they can to spread the word about everyone of the possibilities light can bring to society. Dudley made special mention of the possibilities for developing countries. "Study after sunset is not feasible in many countries, let's attend bring light to the entire world."

    'Departure from the past'

    Wolfgang Boch, Head of Photonics Unit in the European Commission (EC), provided an overview of Horizon 2020, the fresh European Wolfgang Boschprogramme for research and innovation, highlighting the most significant novel features and what it will beimportant for photonics research, development and innovation in Europe.

    In particular the Photonics Public-Private Partnership (PPP) which has recently been launched will play an essential role in determining the research and innovation priorities for future funding rounds. The key objectives of this partnership are to consume research excellence, boost the innovation eco-system to drive Europe's competitiveness, and secure industrial leadership in this highly innovative and economically significant global photonics market; thus creating economic growth and jobs. Boch said that this application is a "departure from the past."

    New efforts will focus on solutions for society's challenges such as health and aging, energy, and climate. "A key enabling technology with enormous economical potential, photonics has achieved broad recognition in Europe," said Boch. "Photonics is central to driving innovation in the 21st century. To exploit Europe's replete potential in photonics collaboration along the value-chain and networking is crucial. The PPP with its working groups is relevant for your work and open to all. accept involved," he urged.

    Photonics circuits in the mainstream

    Raymond BeausoleilLarge-scale integration presents numerous opportunities for continued research, understanding, and eventual migration into the mainstream for photonics circuits, as demonstrated by smarting Topics speaker Raymond Beausoleil, an HP Fellow in Systems Research at HP Labs.

    Accessing resonant modes in photonic micro- and nanostructures producing increases in spectral density, energy efficiency, and local-field intensity, everyone without the consume of metal, can enable large-scale integrated photonic circuits and could introduce an optics version of Moore's Law, Beausoleil said.

    Three different domains in applying photonics to information technologies were explored in the course of the talk.

    In classical optics for classical computing, Beausoleil described the design and advantages of a photonics-based high radix switch. An integrated photonic I/O results in low power and low latency and provides a port bandwidth which is scalable with processor performance. consume of such a switch in a dense wavelength-division multiplexing (DWDM) CMOS photonics approach provides a path to scale bandwidth at merchant silicon cost.

    Beausoleil highlighted recent work in off-chip comb lasers and micro-rings as well as on-chip hybrid lasers, describing how to build a photonic ASIC, or "PhASIC," and highlighting the requisite for a photonics development kit paralleling and integrated with the traditional electronics kit to allow co-design and co-packaging.

    In quantum optics for quantum computing, Beausoleil highlighted some of the criteria for quantum technology adoption, motto it needs to exist integrated, packaged, and interconnected to enable scaling and that defect tolerance needs to moreover exist considered. Cavity quantum electrodynamics (cavity QED) in diamond was described in the context of an application to create solitary photons for entanglement which then led to work with photonic bandgap crystals.

    Beausoleil concluded with the tosomeextent paradoxical -sounding concept of using quantum optics for classical computing. Harnessing coherence effects could develop photonics circuits more efficient and effective. Implementation and trade-offs with optical switching devices were described as was a semi-classical simulation approach suitable for

    Emerging nanotechnology in healthcare

    Emerging nanotechnologies enabling fresh swear for improvements in endoscopy were outlined by smarting Topics speaker Brian Brian WilsonWilson of the Princess Margaret Cancer Centre and Technical Institute at the University of Toronto in Canada.

    Beginning with an overview of the history of endoscopy and highlighting the introduction of the optical fiber as a game-changing technology, Wilson famous that endoscopy is now ubiquitous, being used in every cadaver space for both surgical and standalone procedures. elastic and rigid endoscopes are available and capsule approaches are now gaining interest.

    Approximately 50 percent of non-skin cancers arise as thin lesions in hollow organs, and curability decreases rapidly with advancing stage, emphasizing the requisite for efficacious early detection to enable diagnosis and treatment. Wilson discussed two examples: esophageal cancer and lung cancer.

    In the former case, treatment today, due to vicissitude in seeing lesions, can consist of sampling biopsies along the length of the esophagus searching for tumors.

    In the latter, Wilson showed recent National Cancer Institute (NCI) results demonstrating a high degree of unsuitable positives implying the potential for non-essential surgical procedures.

    Both cases illustrate the requisite for minimally invasive techniques for diagnosis and treatment, and personalized treatment is another well-known factor. In terms of instrumentation, these facts translate to a requisite for better sensitivity and specificity, molecular profiling and precise guidance.

    There are several approaches to addressing this collection of medical and instrumentation needs, and Wilson focused his discussion on means to exploit other light-tissue interactions.

    Fluorescence provides high sensitivity but low specificity, Raman scattering provides high accuracy but in a point-sampling mode, and coherent backscattering, although fast, is limited in its imaging depth.

    Nanoparticles present some benefits when compared to the other methods including signal amplification for better detection, biomarker multiplexing for enhanced diagnosis and multi-functionality for improved therapeutics. In examples of nanoparticle use, Wilson highlighted the consume of a scanning-fiber endoscope developed by Eric Seibel at the University of Washington.

    General issues with nanoparticles around toxicity effects and cost were discussed, and Wilson famous that soft nanoparticles would exist more likely to exist cost efficacious than would difficult nanoparticles and, given their organic composition, Come with the added profit of being biodegradable.

    Read the article on Wilson's smarting Topics talk.

    Focus on the next generation

    SPIE President Philip Stahl wlecomed nearly 200 students and established professionals to the SPIE Student Lunch with the Experts.

    In 2013, SPIE gave out US$3.2 million in uphold of education and outreach programs including individual scholarships, travel grants for student authors to present at conferences, student chapter leader training, and lunches like today's event.

    SPIE scholarship winners

    SPIE scholarship winners gathered for a photo at the luncheon: Yevheniia Chernukha (Taras Shevchenko National Univ. of Kyiv), Valadimir Korenev (Saint-Petersburg Academic Univ. of RAS), Marianna Kovalyova (Taras Shevchenko National Univ. of Kyiv), Anastasiia Mykytiuk (Taras Shevchenko National Univ. of Kyiv), Christy Sheehy (Univ. of California, Berkeley), and Madhura Somayaji (Manipal University). You can view more photos in the Photonics Europe photo gallery.

    The trade side of the photonics industry

    Peter Hartmann

    Peter Hartmann (SCHOTT) at the SCHOTT Workshop on the properties of optical glass and special optical materials. Other industry events and sessions will provide valuable trade information and networking opportunities throughout the week.

    Academia to trade to start ups; SMEs to large corporations

    Anke LohmannInvited speaker for the SPIE Women in Optics presentation and reception Anke Lohmann (at left) with Electronics, Sensors, Photonics' learning Transfer Network (ESP KTN), UK's fastest growing ESP Community, has done it all.

    Lohmann's talk, "Linking up UK photonics industry: the learning Transfer Network and how it helps connecting organisations across the innovation supply chain," outlined how her flavor took her from applied research and product development through to the commercialization of products.

    She said, "I am passionate about technology and its significance to the UK economy. With my work at the ESP KTN I am in a position to drive this forward."

    View more photos of the Women in Optics presentation and reception at the Photonics Europe photo gallery.

    Monday posters

    Attendees enjoyed light refreshments and networked with colleagues at the poster session for conferences 9126, 9128, 9130, 9136A, 9136B, and 9141.

    Christoph Schöler

    Christoph Schöler (Westfälische Wilhelms-Univ. Münster) describes his poster, "Generation of touchstone and elegant Gaussian beams for optical micromanipulation."

    Conference chairs' gala VIP reception

    Photonics Europe Conference Chairs’ gala VIP reception

    The Concert Noble Society was founded in 1785 by Archduke Albert de Saxe-Teschen and Marie Christine of Austria, and in 1873 Leopold II asked architect Henri Beyaert to design a edifice and reception rooms to host the Belgian aristocracy. This evening's reception hosted the aristocracy of SPIE Photonics Europe! Invitees enjoyed champagne and hors d'oeuvres, while relaxing amongst the splendor of the Louis XVI style rooms.

    Sunday 13 April

    Student Chapter Leadership Workshop kicks off a sedulous week

    Margaret Ledwith

    Margaret Ledwith (shown) and Frances Mitchell, both from Innovation Academy University College in Dublin, facilitated a lively workshop focused on "re-thinking leadership in the 21st century." Nearly 70 SPIE student chapter leaders from as far away as Cameroon, Pakistan, and Colombia focused on developing key skills that they can grow and develop in order to become a fresh kind of leader for the 21st century.

    SPIE President Philip Stahl spoke to the students before their luncheon, telling them that he has been attending scientific conferences for many years and find they soundless bear a pass of energizing him. He said he always comes home with fresh ideas, fresh contacts, and the occasion to play a Part in the development of their province of science. View more photos in the Photonics Europe event photo gallery.

    Climategate 2: More ado about nothing. Again. | existent questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Geez, this again? Seriously?

    Two years ago, someone hacked into a University of East Anglia server and anonymously posted thousands of emails from climate scientists. Quickly dubbed "Climategate", global warming deniers jumped on this, trying to pointto that these scientists were engaging in fraudulent activities. However, it was limpid to anyone familiar with how research is done that this was complete and utter bilge; the scientists were not trying to screen anything, were not trying to trick anyone, and were not trying to falsely overstate the dangers of climate change.

    I wrote about this when it happened and then again quickly thereafter, showing this was just noise. Accusations of fraud were leveled at climate scientist Michael Mann, but time and again he was exonerated: like this time, and then this time, and then this time, and of course this time, and then my favorite, this time.

    Climategate was widely denounced as a manufactured controversy, except, of course, by denialists. Because they denied it. That’s axiomatic.

    However, like a bacterium festering away someplace dank and fetid, Climategate is poised to infect reality once again: The Guardian is reporting that a second cache of stolen emails has been released anonymously, and once again the cries of collusion are being heard. However, it looks like these emails aren’t really new, and were simply from the original stolen batch, but were held back until today. repartee you, the emails from the first Climategate were released prerogative before a mammoth climate conference, in an obvious attempt to derail it in the media. This fresh batch was released days before a similar conference, in what appears to exist a similar propaganda move.

    [UPDATE: Congressman Ed Markey (D-MA) has called on the US intelligence community to investigate who stole these emails. I mediate this is the prerogative move. They soundless don’t know who did this two years ago, and I’d exist fascinated to perceive who was behind it. H/T Michael Mann on Twitter.]

    Climate change denial blogs picked up on this immediately of course. There are examples in the Guardian article linked above. But this is the usual hue and cry, with nothing really new. About everyone this supposedly fresh material Michael Mann said:

    Mann called the fresh batch of emails "truly pathetic" and said they reflect desperation among climate deniers, who bear failed to pick holes in the science. "They bear instead turned to smear, innuendo, criminal hacking of websites, and leaking out-of-context snippets of personal emails in their application to try to confuse the public about the science and thereby forestall any action to combat this censorious threat."

    It’s difficult for me to wrangle against this, given what Dr. Mann has gone through the past few years. Attacked constantly, exonerated repeatedly, he knows the climate change denialist methods probably better than anyone.

    The University of East Anglia, from which the stolen emails originated, issued a press release:

    This appears to exist a carefully-timed attempt to reignite controversy over the science behind climate change when that science has been vindicated by three sever independent inquiries and number of studies – including, most recently, the Berkeley Earth Surface Temperature group.

    That terminal bit about Berkeley is from just a few weeks ago, showing once again that global warming is real, and that Dr. Mann’s results pointto that there has been a sudden, recent, and large extend in global temperatures.

    None of this comes as a amaze to any of us who bear been covering this for the past few years. I wonder, though, if the mainstream media bear scholarly their lesson? mediate Progress wonders the selfsame thing.

    So, with the babel Machine ready to wreck into replete gear, let me exist very, very clear:

    Global warming is real. Independent studies authenticate it. Vast amounts of evidence uphold it. 97% of climate scientists who study it coincide with this. It’s almost certainly caused by human activity.

    Got it?

    The evidence is overwhelming, and no amount of babel will halt that. But that’s why the babel is made, to distract you. They are long past the time when this was simple skepticism — the open and honest questioning of evidence — and are now well into full-blown denial. This second release of emails is more evidence for that, especially given the timing.

    And in some sectors that won’t develop a difference — cough cough Fox news cough cough — because they are impervious to evidence. So if this doesn’t blow over immediately — as well it probably should — then hope to perceive a lot more of this:


    Related posts:

    – Case closed: “Climategate” was manufactured– Climategate’s death rattle– fresh independent climate study confirms global warming is real– fresh study clinches it: the Earth is warming up– The global warming emails non-event

    Exploring Migration Data Using Interval‐Censored Time‐to‐Event Models | existent questions and Pass4sure dumps

    The selection of a distributional assumption suitable for modelling macroinvertebrate density data is typically challenging. Macroinvertebrate data often exhibit substantially larger variances than expected under a touchstone signify assumption, that of the Poisson distribution. Such overdispersion may derive from multiple sources, including heterogeneity of habitat (historically and spatially), differing life histories for organisms collected within a solitary collection in space and time, and autocorrelation. Taken to extreme, heterogeneity of habitat may exist argued to elucidate the frequent large proportions of zero observations in macroinvertebrate data. Sampling locations may consist of habitats defined qualitatively as either suitable or unsuitable. The former category may bow random or stochastic zeroes and the latter structural zeroes. Heterogeneity among counts may exist accommodated by treating the signify beimportant itself as a random variable, while extra zeroes may exist accommodated using zero-modified signify assumptions, including zero-inflated and two-stage (or hurdle) approaches. These and linear assumptions (following log- and square root-transformations) were evaluated using 9 years of mayfly density data from a 52km, ninth-order reach of the Upper Mississippi River (n=959). The data exhibited substantial overdispersion relative to that expected under a Poisson assumption (i.e. variance:mean ratio=23≫1), and 43% of the sampling locations yielded zero mayflies. Based on the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC), signify models were improved most by treating the signify beimportant as a random variable (via a Poisson-gamma distributional assumption) and secondarily by zero modification (i.e. improvements in AIC values=9184 units and 47–48 units, respectively). Zeroes were underestimated by the Poisson, log-transform and square root-transform models, slightly by the touchstone negative binomial model but not by the zero-modified models (61%, 24%, 32%, 7%, and 0%, respectively). However, the zero-modified Poisson models underestimated small counts (1≤y≤4) and overestimated intermediate counts (7≤y≤23). Counts greater than zero were estimated well by zero-modified negative binomial models, while counts greater than one were moreover estimated well by the touchstone negative binomial model. Based on AIC and percent zero estimation criteria, the two-stage and zero-inflated models performed similarly. The above inferences were largely confirmed when the models were used to predict values from a separate, evaluation data set (n=110). An exception was that, using the evaluation data set, the touchstone negative binomial model appeared superior to its zero-modified counterparts using the AIC (but not percent zero criteria). This and other evidence intimate that a negative binomial distributional assumption should exist routinely considered when modelling benthic macroinvertebrate data from low current environments. Whether negative binomial models should themselves exist routinely examined for extra zeroes requires, from a statistical perspective, more investigation. However, this question may best exist answered by ecological arguments that may exist specific to the sampled species and locations.

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