C2040-410 exam Dumps Source : IBM Notes and Domino 9.0 gregarious Edition Application evolution B
Test Code : C2040-410
Test title : IBM Notes and Domino 9.0 gregarious Edition Application evolution B
Vendor title : IBM
real questions : 116 real Questions
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IBM got Lotus application again in 1995 for $3.5 billion. it's now divesting the know-how, together with six different one-time cornerstone commerce functions.
There become a time when Lotus Notes and Domino were the cornerstones of IBM's application portfolio, enabling commercial enterprise collaboration and productivity. these days are now in the past, as IBM is divesting these assets, together with a few different applications, to HCL technologies.
HCL applied sciences pays IBM $1.eight billion, with the deal expected to shut in mid-2019. apart from Notes and Domino, HCL is acquiring a few different commercial enterprise purposes, together with: Appscan for relaxed software building, BigFix for secure gadget administration, Unica (on-premises) for marketing automation, Commerce (on-premises) for omni-channel eCommerce, Portal (on-premises) for digital adventure, and Connections for workstream collaboration.
"We reckon the time is confiscate to divest these opt for collaboration, advertising and commerce application property, which can exist increasingly delivered as standalone products," John Kelly, IBM senior vice chairman, Cognitive options and research, wrote in a media advisory. " on the identical time, they conform with these items are a robust strategic fitting for HCL, and that HCL is well positioned to constrain innovation and boom for his or her consumers."
IBM has more and more been entering into cloud and synthetic intelligence over the past 4 years, and has developed up different assets that it'll headquarters of attention on.applications
most of the purposes being offered to HCL had been in the nascence received by using IBM from other carriers.
IBM bought Lotus software, maker of Notes and Domino, in 1995 for $3.5 billion, though the Lotus manufacturer wasn't dropped with the aid of IBM except 2012.
AppScan which is now being offered to HCL, become once the cornerstone of the IBM Rational application portfolio. IBM obtained the AppScan product portfolio as Part of the acquisition of safety seller Watchfire in June 2007.
BigFix turned into obtained by artery of IBM to circle into a Part of its Tivoli operations division in July 2010, whereas Unica changed into got by IBM in August 2010 for $480 million.HCL applied sciences
HCL applied sciences is based in Noida, India, and positions itself as a digital transformation company. HCL and IBM had already been partnering on lots of the acquired application belongings.
"We proceed to peer tremendous opportunities out there to expand their Mode-3 (items and structures) choices," C Vijayakumar, President & CEO, HCL technologies, wrote in a media advisory. "The items that they are buying are in gigantic starting to exist market areas enjoy security, advertising and Commerce, that are strategic segments for HCL. a lot of these products are well regarded by artery of valued clientele and located in the remedy quadrant via trade analysts."
Sean Michael Kerner is a senior editor at EnterpriseAppsToday and InternetNews.com. result him on Twitter @TechJournalist.
IBM introduced final nighttime that it is promoting the ultimate add-ons from its 1995 acquisition of Lotus to Indian firm HCL for $1.eight billion.
IBM paid $three.5 billion for Lotus lower back in the day. The mammoth items here are Lotus Notes, Domino and Portal. These were a huge a Part of IBM’s commercial enterprise enterprise for a long time, however closing year big Blue began to drag away, selling the evolution part to HCL, while retaining manage of earnings and advertising and marketing.
This announcement marks the conclusion of the road for IBM involvement. With the evolution of the platform out of its handle, and in requisite of money after spending $34 billion for pink Hat, possibly IBM conveniently determined it now not made sense to retain any a Part of this in-condominium.
As for HCL, it sees an opening to continue to construct the Notes/Domino company, and it’s seizing it with this buy. “The tremendous-scale deployments of those products supply us with a superb haphazard to attain and serve thousands of international corporations throughout a wide array of industries and markets,” C Vijayakumar, president and CEO at HCL technologies, said in an announcement announcing the deal.
Alan Lepofsky, an analyst at Constellation analysis who keeps near watch on the commerce collaboration space, says the sale could characterize a immaculate delivery for application that IBM hasn’t in fact been paying near attention to for some time. “HCL is much more drawn to Notes/Domino than IBM has been for a decade. they are investing closely, trying to rejuvenate the brand,” Lepofsky advised TechCrunch.
whereas this utility may also believe lengthy in the enamel, Notes and Domino are nonetheless in expend in many corners of the business, and here is very virtuous in EMEA (Europe, headquarters East and Africa) and AP (Asia Pacific), Lepofsky said.
He introduced that IBM seems to exist completely exiting the collaboration space with this sale. “It appears that IBM is accomplished with collaboration, out of the game,” he said.
This flood makes undergo for IBM, which is relocating in a unique course as it develops its cloud company. The red Hat acquisition in October, in particular, suggests that the company wants to embrace inner most and hybrid cloud deployments, and older application enjoy Lotus Notes and Domino don’t really play a role in that world.
The deal, which is matter to regulatory approval methods, is expected to near in the core of next yr.
IBM Domino, formally called Lotus Domino, is an internet-server and an advanced fabricated from the IBM server. This internet-server is commonly used for hosting several gregarious enterprise functions and business-stage e mail collaboration. it's regarded to exist a low-budget reply to enhance productiveness and speed up the operations.
After finishing the investigate-out process for the SSL certificates, you are going to receive an e-mail connected with a *.zip file from your certification authority. This file includes of simple, intermediate, and root certificates. You deserve to down load and extract this *.zip file in your IBM Dominoserver listing the site you propound to preserve entire your certificates.
before installation the SSL certificate, you requisite to generate a CSR (certificate Signing Request). delight click right here to generate a CSR. when you've got already generated a CSR, then proceed with the steps below:
To deploy an SSL certificate on the IBM Domino server, you should merge entire your certificates information to the equal Key Ring that changed into used to generate CSR (certificate Signing Request).
Now, proceed by inserting your certificates into the notable thing Ring in the following order:
1. RootCertificate.crt2. IntermediateCertificate.crt3. PrimaryCertificate.crtSSL certificate installing on IBM Domino
(1) Open the file ‘Domino Server certificate Administrator (CERTSRV.NSF).’ that you may find this file within the equipment database in the ‘Admin Panel’ of Notes.
(2) Now, proceed by means of clicking on install depended on Root certificate into Key Ring and enter the file identify of the key Ring that you simply created whereas generating the CSR.
(3) that you may deploy the root certificates the expend of one among right here 3 ways:
(a) with the aid of picking Root certificate file
(b) with the aid of typing the identify and location of Root certificates
(c) via settling on clipboard alternative, open your root certificate with any textual content editor copy content material of your root certificate (From originate certificates _ _ _ _ _ _ to _ _ _ _ _ conclusion certificate) and paste it within the text field.
(four) click on the Merge certificate into Key Ring button.
(5) For installation the ‘Intermediate certificates,’ open ‘set up depended on Root certificates’ in Key Ring. Now, commemorate the above technique once more and install it in to the notable thing ring.
(6) click on on ‘install certificate into Key Ring.’ Enter the file identify of your key ring after that, which changed into created while producing the CSR, and enter the direction of the certificates or you can replica and paste the content of the certificates and click on on ‘Merge certificate into Key Ring’ button.
figure 1: set up SSL certificates into Key Ring – Lotus Domino
With this, you believe got efficiently achieved the procedure of SSL certificates installation on an IBM Domino (Lotus Domino) server! chuffed setting up!
ssl ,ibm ,lotus ,domino ,ibm domino ,safety ,commercial enterprise electronic mail ,social business
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Sep 1, 2012Hugh McKellar
This marks the tenth anniversary of their Trend-Setting Products list, and as in years past, it has been assembled through consultation and collaboration with editorial colleagues, analysts, system integrators and a select group of users. They conscientiously compile the list to serve KMWorld's core constituency, their readers, and focus completely on elegant, workable, sustainable commerce value. They disregard the gimmicky software that might feature a shrewd notion but has only ephemeral importance. And although a number of the products listed here are especially well-suited, if not specifically designed, for particular perpendicular markets, they selected those whose benefits can exist realized in their readers' widely diverse environments.
The judging process is a collaborative trouble that takes many months. This year more than 700 products/product families were whittled down to the 89 listed in these pages. Each company whose products are listed below helped to define and enhance a market critically notable to their readership by listening to and working with customers. They entire picture a commitment to innovation and their customers.
We inspirit readers to ship your thoughts and suggestions to the judging panel at email@example.com.
5280 Solutions: Dynamic Payables—Web-based invoice automation solution for SharePoint.
A9, an Amazon company: Amazon CloudSearch—cloud service allowing customers to integrate scalable search into applications.
Abbyy USA: FlexiCapture 10—data capture and document processing software for turning hard-copy forms and documents into business-ready data.
Accellion, Inc.: Accellion Mobile Apps-secure, enterprise—class mobile file sharing solutions. Click here for more product details.
Access Innovations: Data Harmony 3.8—software tools for metadata management, including automatic indexing and taxonomies. Click here for more product details.
Accusoft: Prizm Content Connect—customizable, scalable content viewer. Click here for more product details.
Acquia: Dev Desktop—package that installs Acquia Drupal on Windows and Mac OS X.
Acrolinx: Acrolinx IQ—natural language processing engine enabling creation of search-ready content.
Alfresco: Alfresco in the Cloud—allows users to collaborate and share files both inside and outside the organization securely on any device.
Altep: Inspicio—legal electronic document review platform with integrated concept searching, clustering and categorization. Click here for more product details.
AnyDoc Software: CAPTUREit—standalone document capture application and Part of either end-to-end OCR or AnyDoc automated document and data capture. Click here for more product details.
Appian: Appian BPM Suite—mobile, cloud and gregarious process improvement.
ASG Software Solutions: ASG CloudFactory—comprehensive cloud management. Click here for more product details.
Attensity: Attensity Pipeline—real-time, semantically annotated gregarious media data stream for big organizations.
Attivio: active Intelligence Engine 3.0—accessible, standards-based unified information access platform.
Autonomy: IDOL 10—a solitary processing layer for audio, video, gregarious media, e-mail, Web content and structured data.
AvePoint: DocAve Content Shield for SharePoint—automating enforcement of information governance policies for tagging and classifying content. Click here for more product details.
BA Insight: Longitude Enterprise Search for SharePoint and FAST—integrated SharePoint solution that provides complete previews of search result content regardless of type or location.
Bamboo Solutions: Web Parts and Tools—portfolio to accelerate portal deployment and facilitate adoption and continued usage. Click here for more product details.
Birst: Birst Enterprise Edition—self-service commerce intelligence.
BP Logix: Process Director Cloud Edition—business intelligence to back users anticipate and predict potential problems in commerce processes.
Bridgeline Digital: iAPPS Content Manager V. 4.7—Web undergo management with internationalization capabilities for e-commerce. Click here for more product details.
Citrix: XenDesktop—desktop virtualization for on-demand service on any device.
Clarabridge: Clarabridge Enterprise—voice of the customer platform for data acquisition with linguistic processing and enterprise reporting.
Colligo Networks: Colligo Desktop for SharePoint—document, e-mail and records management solution.
Comperio Search: Comperio Front—business logic software for search solutions. Click here for more product details.
Concept Searching: Smart Content Framework—software to identify and tag content with semantic metadata and then classify it to organizational taxonomies.
Connotate: Agent Community—software and services provide an interface for highly accurate data collection.
Consona, which recently merged with CDC Software to figure Aptean: CRM Suite—knowledge management, enterprise customer relationship management, e-service and network management software.
Content Analyst: Content Analyst Analytical Technology (CAAT) V. 3.11—deep analytics for unstructured data applications, including legal document review.
Coveo: Insight Solutions—combining enterprise search and erudition management with extensive industry expertise and best practices.
Digital Reef: Digital Reef eDiscovery—enterprise-scale e-discovery platform for managing legal matters, regulatory inquiries and corporate investigations.
Discover Technologies: DiscoverPoint—automated expertise location for enterprises with big workforces.
eGain: eGain 10—complete suite of customer service and contact headquarters software to back organizations transform their traditional call centers into multichannel customer interaction hubs. Click here for more product details.
Ektron: Ektron 8.5—.NET Web content management, marketing optimization, gregarious community and e-commerce platform.
EMC: Atmos Cloud Delivery Platform—software used to deliver and manage storage-as-a-service to an Atmos storage cloud.
EntropySoft: Content Hub Platform—content connectors providing a central point of access to entire company documents, both on-premise or in the cloud. Click here for more product details.
EXSYS: Corvid—development software allowing non-programmers to easily build interactive Web applications.
Exterro: Fusion Platform—workflow-driven suite including identification, legal hold and early case assessment, collection, processing, analysis, review and production.
Findwise: Hydra—open source content processing framework for search-based applications.
FTI Technology: Ringtail 8.2—a complete e-discovery platform with integrated visual analytics and redesigned interface. Click here for more product details.
HiSoftware: Compliance Sheriff—enterprise compliance automation enabling repeatable and enforceable processes for entire types of content governance.
IBM: Content Navigator—allows users to access, manage, labor and collaborate with enterprise content directly from mobile devices and tablets.
IGLOO Software: Igloo Platform—integrated suite of content management, collaboration and enterprise gregarious networking tools.
Infotrieve: Mobile Library—fully secure, cloud-based access to enterprise content.
Integrify: Integrify 5.5—robust, scrawny commerce process management solution available as both an on-premise solution or hosted service.
IntelliResponse: IntelliResponse reply Suite—customer undergo across a variety of interaction channels, including corporate websites, agent desktops, gregarious media platforms and mobile devices.
IntraFind: iFinder—solutions and consultancy services for enterprise search, information access and text mining.
IntraLinks: IntraLinks Connect—out-of-the-box solutions to share content across the enterprise while maintaining security, control and transparency. Click here for more product details.
Jive Software: gregarious commerce Platform—comprehensive, enterprise-class tools for communication, collaboration, content creation and sharing.
K2: K2 blackpearl—BPM software for automating enterprise commerce processes and pile SharePoint applications and integrating Microsoft solutions into SAP.
KANA: KANA Enterprise Agent Desktop—allows contact headquarters agents to access the information and functionalities required to view customer information in a single, unified desktop.
Kapow Software: Katalyst 9.0—enables integration of applications and/or data sources without coding or APIs.
kCura: Relativity 7—Web-based platform providing analysis, review and production stages of the electronic discovery reference model (EDRM). Click here for more product details.
KnowledgeLake: Unify for SharePoint—permits users to wait within aboriginal applications while interacting with SharePoint. Click here for more product details.
Kofax: Kofax Web Capture—toolkit for creating Web-based applications with image viewing/scanning capabilities.
M-Files: M-Files ECM—document management integrated with Windows applications.
MarkLogic: MarkLogic 5—database for pile and deploying mammoth data applications with structured, semi-structured and unstructured information.
Metalogix: Replicator for SharePoint 5.0—enables multiserver SharePoint content synchronization. Click here for more product details.
Mindbreeze: InSite—secure, semantic software for Web search. Click here for more product details.
Moxie Software: Spaces Platform—communication and collaboration designed to connect customers and employees.
NewsGator: gregarious Sites for SharePoint 2010—social networking for SharePoint integration.
Noetix: NoetixViews Workbench—automates the creation and management of customizations to Noetix views through an intuitive user interface. Click here for more product details.
OpenText: Exceed onDemand for iPad—managed application access solution designed for enterprises.
Oracle: Oracle RightNow CX Cloud Service—combines Web, gregarious and contact headquarters experiences for unified, cross-channel service.
Pegasystems: Unified Marketing Solution—inbound tender management and outbound marketing combining predictive and adaptive analytics with commerce process management.
Percussion Software: CM1 Version 2—pure WCM software that provides users with complete functionality delivered as an easily upgradeable product.
Proofpoint: Enterprise Governance—tracks, classifies, monitors and applies policy to unstructured information across the enterprise where stored.
Q-Sensei: Q-Sensei Enterprise—multidimensional search and indexing designed to develop and deploy search-based applications. Click here for more product details.
Quest Software: Spotlight on SQL Server Enterprise—in-depth physical, cloud and virtual SQL diagnostics.
Raytion: Enterprise Search Connectors for speedily Search Server 2010 for SharePoint—native integration with SharePoint's security trimming.
Recommind: Decisiv Search—crawls and indexes information from any source, including document management systems, intranets, e-mail archives, contact management databases and websites.
Reprints Desk: Article Galaxy—journal article platform for evidence-based promotions, medical information responses, as well as scientific, technical and medical research.
RightAnswers: Unified erudition Platform—knowledge management automation and service.
Rivet Logic: Crafter Rivet Version 2.0—an end-to-end Web content and undergo management and delivery platform. Click here for more product details.
RSD: RSD GLASS—platform for managing global corporate information governance programs for electronic and physical records.
SAP: StreamWork—social software enabling information analysis to drive action through collaboration with people, data and structured commerce tools.
SAS Text Analytics: Predictive Analytics and Data Mining—suite of integrated predictive modeling processes.
SDL: SDL Tridion—complete, global Web content management solutions. Click here for more product details.
Search Technologies: Aspire—content processing system designed for search environments enabling content to exist acquired, cleaned, restructured, enriched and normalized. Click here for more product details.
Sherpa Software: Discovery Attender for Notes—federated search functionality across entire Domino databases.
Smartlogic: Semaphore—combines ontology management, classification, text mining and semantic analysis in a search application framework.
SpringCM: Mobile apps for iPad, iPhone and Android—cloud-based content and document management solutions.
StoredIQ: active Information Management Platform—open platform for in-place dynamic indexing and analysis of data.
Symantec: Endpoint Protection—antivirus software virtual and physical systems that integrate into other virus protection tools with a solitary console.
Synaptica: Synaptica Enterprise—taxonomy and metadata management software.
Traction Software: TeamPage—action tracking, Twitter-style status, threaded discussion, collaboration, gregarious networking and profound search.
Vivisimo, an IBM company: CXO—customer undergo optimization connecting customer-facing agents with information required for sales/support.
Wall Street Network: WSN Insight—knowledge management for SharePoint.
Elephants not only provide education and entertainment as zoological attractions, but also believe ecological significance as umbrella (or keystone) species, whose conservation indirectly protects others (Choudhury et al., 2008). They also believe economic import as tourist attractions and working animals. Welfare of elephants is an active zone of discussion, both in professional fields and in universal society. Although the welfare of captive elephants has been improving through husbandry initiatives and advances in erudition of veterinary supervision for these species, there remain several areas that continue to exist obstacles to optimum welfare.
Pathological foot conditions are one such problem area, thought to constitute the solitary most notable health problem of captive elephants, with up to 50% of elephants in captivity suffering from foot problems, although the actual prevalence of carious conditions remains unknown (Fowler, 2006). Accurate diagnosis is challenging, treatment is expensive and time-consuming (Lewis et al., 2010) and chronic unresponsive conditions of the feet are a major intuition for euthanasia in captivity (Csuti, Sargent & Bechert, 2008).
Some foot problems are visible externally (e.g., solar pad or cuticle lesions), enact not require diagnostic imaging, and appear to exist improving with the near-universal adoption of daily examination and foot supervision routines in elephants (Lewis et al., 2010). However, other pathological lesions—particularly those affecting the osseous structures—are challenging to identify and monitor. Originally cursory lesions may lead to further problems through ascending infection, resulting in osteomyelitis and/or infectious arthritis. Osteoarthritis (OA, also called degenerative joint disease/DJD) is commonly encountered and other problems are described.
Management conditions are thought to exist the one of the most notable factors in the evolution of distal limb osseous pathologies (Fowler, 2006; Miller, Hogan & Meehan, 2016). Osteomyelitis and septic arthritis are generally an extension of a soft tissue infection or penetrating solar trauma. difficult floors, lack of exercise, and repeated concussive forces (potentially including stereotypic behaviour; Haspeslagh et al., 2013) believe entire been proposed to contribute to the evolution of OA (Hittmair & Vielgrader, 2000) or universal musculoskeletal foot health (Miller, Hogan & Meehan, 2016) . Additionally, the conformation of the big and relatively straight limbs of elephants may predispose them to pathology (Fowler, 2006), as might the inherent biomechanics of the feet. Pathological changes believe been speculated to occur more frequently in regions that normally undergo elevated pressures (i.e., mechanical stresses) during walking; namely the distal structures of the lateral digits (Panagiotopoulou et al., 2012).
Lameness is not always an obvious feature in elephants with foot problems (Lewis et al., 2010), and radiography of the distal limb has been described to diagnose and monitor foot problems (e.g., Hittmair & Vielgrader, 2000; Siegal-Willott et al., 2008; Kaulfers et al., 2010; Mumby et al., 2013). Over the recent years advanced imaging modalities such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) believe been more commonly used in veterinary practice for musculoskeletal and other problems, but their expend for elephants is precluded by corpse size and transport issues. As a result of the limited availability of imaging, the frequencies of these bony conditions in captive elephants are unknown and they are almost certainly under-reported based on what they know in other big animals such as cows (Nigam & Singh, 1980; Kofler, Geissbühler & Steiner, 2014) or rhinoceroses (Regnault et al., 2013; Galateanu et al., 2013).
The aims of this study were to identify pathological bone lesions in the feet of captive African (Loxodonta africana Blumenbach 1797) and Asian (Elephas maximus Linnaeus 1758) elephants using post-mortem CT. They hypothesise that when there is pathological change, it will exist present in multiple feet of the identical individual and also that there will exist multiple kinds of pathological change, which may exist due to shared predisposing factors (e.g., management conditions, as above) and/or altered use. By exploring the locations of pathological changes, they further hypothesise that foot regions typically exposed to elevated pressures (i.e., lateral digits) are predisposed to developing lesions. When assessing any structures for pathology it is essential that the clinician is alert of ordinary anatomical variation, therefore, they also picture other osseous features that likely picture non-pathological, variable distal limb anatomy.Materials and Methods
CT scans of 52 cadaver feet (16 right fore, 12 left fore, 14 right hind, 10 left hind) from 21 captive elephants (seven African Loxodonta africana, and 14 Asian Elephas maximus) were evaluated for evidence of pathology. entire elephants were adult or near-adult: ranging from 17 to 61 years old. Feet or CT scans were donated to the Royal Veterinary College from various sources (zoos and safari parks) in the European Union. Data on morbidity and mortality was later compiled from an online database (http://www.elephant.se/) as well as from donating institutions, and details on the individual elephants are summarised in Table 1.Table 1:
Details of seven African (Loxodontaafricana) and 14 Asian (Elephas maximus) elephants in this study.Asterisks indicate elephants known to believe foot or locomotor problems. ‘Feet scanned’ indicates how many feet had available CT scan data, ‘Reason for death/euthanasia’ details the intuition of death (from donating institutions or the online database http://www.elephant.se/). Elephant Feet scanned Reason for death/euthanasia Sex Age (years) African1 4 ? M 19 African2 4 Euthanasia (vaginal/urogenital tract disease) F 24 African3 1 ? M 27 African4 1 Disease (infection, gastrointestinal, unspecified mechanical abnormality) M 28 African5 1 ? F 30 African6 4 Disease (suspected cardiac disease) F 32 African7 2 Disease (unspecified) M 32 Asian1 2 ? M 17 Asian2* 1 Euthanasia (forelimb lameness) M 17 Asian3* 4 Euthanasia (arthritis and aggression) F 26 Asian4 3 ? F 40 Asian5* 4 Euthanasia (foot abscess) F 35 Asian6 2 ? M 40 Asian7* 1 Euthanasia (chronic arthritis) F 40 Asian8 3 ? F 42 Asian9* 2 Disease (osteomyelitis and foot disease) F 52 Asian10 2 Euthanasia (unspecified illness) M 50 Asian11 1 Euthanasia (unspecified) F 50 Asian12 4 Euthanasia (unspecified) F 55 Asian13 2 Sudden collapse F 61 Asian 14 4 ? ? ?
The following distal limb structures were assessed on the CT scans for entire five digits (denoted DI to DV by convention); the carpometacarpal (CMC) or tarsometatarsal (TMT) joints, metapodial (metacarpal/metatarsal) bones, paired proximal sesamoids, metacarpophalangeal (MCP) or metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joints, proximal and distal interphalangeal (PIP and DIP) joints, phalangeal bones, and surrounding soft tissues. Lesions were identified and interpreted by a big animal veterinary radiologist and resident (J.D. and R.W.), and categorised in consensus using an established scheme previously used for elephants and rhinoceroses (Regnault et al., 2013). This grading scheme is provided in Table 2. Severity of each lesion was graded as slight, moderate, or severe (grades 1, 2 or 3 respectively; view Table 2 for grading criteria).Table 2:
Grading scheme used for categorising pathological changes in this study.Lesion type Changes observed Severity Mineralisation Mineral opacity within soft tissues at a site far-off to other osseous structures Slight = solitary short linear foci, occasionally coalescing moderate = multiple linear or irregularly shaped mineral attenuating areas severe = extensive mineralisation, frequently linear coalescing mineral structures, elongated Osteitis Disruption of ordinary trabecular bone pattern, mottled appearance, multiple hypoattenuating foci, loss of parts of bone, destruction of ordinary bone outline, periosteal current bone formation Slight/Moderate/Severe based on extent of changes Enthesopathy Discrete current bone formation at attachment sites of tendons and ligaments Slight/Moderate/Severe: based on size and extent of the mineral attenuation at the site of the soft tissue structures insertion onto the bone, if multiple sites affected in the identical bone then interpretation based on entire affected sites for overall grade. Cyst-like lesions Well-defined radiolucencies (with hyperattenuating rim) Grade based on size (not measured), small/medium/large (observer experience-based only) Fractures Sclerotic linear areas, may exist with current bone formation at bone surface (old), linear hypoattenuation (acute) Not graded (just present/absent) Osteoarthritis Discrete current bone at periarticular surface, subchondral bone sclerosis, narrowing or obliteration of joint space, subchondral lysis, widening of joint space Mild: miniature pointed periarticular osteophytes, mild increased bone attenuation or thickening of the subchondral bone plate Moderate: Multiple medium sized periarticular osteophytes, evidence of widening or narrowing of the joint space not considered to exist related to limb position only, thickening of the subchondral bone and adjacent increased mineral attenuation. Severe: Numerous and extensive periarticular osteophytes, marked narrowing of the articular space, marked subchondral bone thickening/hyperattenuation. Infectious arthritis Florid current bone formation at periarticular surface, subchondral bone lysis, widening of joint space, subchondral bone sclerosis, narrowing or obliteration of joint space Slight/Moderate/Severe based on extent of changes Remodelling Enlargement of vascular channels and synovial fossae, irregular contour to the osseous structures away from the joint surfaces and not considered entheseophyte formation, sometimes profound excavations in the bone, alterations in shape of a bone. Subjective scale of the overall shape of the bone, degree of periosteal change identified, alterations in the cortices. No fixed categorical variables. Subluxation Loss of articular surface contact between the bones forming a joint Not graded (just present/absent)
The degree of ossification of “predigits” (prepollex/prehallux, or radial/tibial sesamoids; e.g., Hutchinson et al., 2008; Hutchinson et al., 2011) was also noted, and categorised as: non-ossified (code 0), minimally ossified (code 1), moderate ossification embedded in (presumably) cartilaginous soft tissue (code 2), or extensively ossified solitary structure (code 3). Anatomical variability in the proximal sesamoid bones was described.
For analysis, each pathology category was expressed as the number of affected structures per foot e.g., if osseous cyst-like lesions were observed only in metacarpals III and IV, the foot would believe two affected structures. For the more frequently observed pathological categories (remodelling, enthesopathy, osseous cyst-like lesions and osteoarthritis), a generalised estimating equation (GEE) was used to test age, sex, foot type (fore or hind), and species (Asian or African) as predictors on the amount of observed pathology (modelled as count data with a negative binomial distribution). The models ran as multi-variable negative binomial regressions with backwards selection. For statistical assessment, significance was set at p = 0.05. Multiple feet from the identical elephant were treated as repeated measures. Similar GEE models were hasten for sesamoid fusion, and atypically-shaped and multipartite phalanges (though only with Asian elephants for the latter, as no African elephants had multipartite phalanges). A GEE (ordinal logistic) model was also used to test whether species was a significant predictor of degree of predigit ossification (modelled as categorical data), and then separately within each species as bi-variable models to test if age and foot type were significant predictors. Statistical analyses were performed in IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows (Version 24.0).
To examine whether elephants with pathological lesions in one foot were more likely to believe lesions in other feet, they compared the proportion of elephants with one vs. two or more feet diagnosed with pathology (only for the 15 elephants with scans of multiple feet, and pathology in at least one foot) for entire categories.Results Pathological changes
All of the elephant feet in this study (i.e., entire adults and near-adults) were observed to believe pathology of some type under their grading scheme. However, the majority of these lesions (63%) were grade 1, thus considered to exist clinically insignificant or anatomical variants. They considered lesions of grade 2 or 3 (moderate and marked/severe) likely to picture clinically significant pathology. Based on this assessment, only grade 2 and 3 lesions were analysed further below. Forty seven of 52 feet (21/21 elephants) were establish to contain pathological changes graded moderate (2) or greater. Percentages are reported for descriptive purposes.
The most frequent change observed was remodelling, especially observed as bone surface irregularities (Figs. 1A and 1D), representing 31% of entire pathologies observed (see Table 3 for breakdown). Remodelling was present in 18 out of 21 elephants (39/52 feet). Commonly remodelled bones were the metapodials (with 31% of entire remodelling observed here), proximal phalanges (30%), sesamoid bones (16%) and middle phalanges (8%). Commonly affected digits were DIII (27% of remodelling), DIV (25%), DV (21%) and DII (17%), whilst DI appeared least affected (10%). A GEE (negative binomial model) establish that observed remodelling increased with age (p = 0.01 in the final univariate model); age remained significant (p = 0.03) after accounting for species (p = 0.2), sex (p = 0.8), and foot type (fore vs. hind; p = 0.7) in the multivariable modelling. For the affected elephants with multiple feet scanned, remodelling was commonly observed in multiple feet (10/13 elephants with two or more affected feet, with only three elephants having a solitary foot affected).Figure 1: Sagittal CT slices of digits in elephant feet, exhibiting pathological changes. (A) Remodelling of the metacarpal (arrow) and fracture of the middle phalanx (filled arrowhead) in DIV of the right hind foot of ‘Asian8’. (B) Enthesopathy of the proximal sesamoid (filled arrowhead) and evidence of DJD (osteophytes, altered joint spacing) at the proximal and middle interphalangeal joints (arrows) in DIV of the right forefoot of ‘Asian10’. (C) Focal hyperattenuating region (arrow) and misshapen, scalloped proximal phalanx (filled arrowhead) in DII of the right forefoot of ‘Asian13’. (D) Remodelling of the bones (arrow), subluxation of the proximal interphalangeal joint (unfilled arrowhead) and soft tissue mineralisation (filled arrowheads) in DIII of the right hind foot of ‘Asian4’. Table 3:
Summary of Grade 2 + pathological lesions detected in this study.In the first column, “Af” and “As” with numbers correspond to their elephant subjects from Table 1; also “Path,” number of unique pathology categories observed per individual elephant, and asterisks indicate elephants known to believe foot or locomotor problems. Second column: “Foot”: LH, left hind; LF, left fore; RH, right hind; RF, right fore. Elephant Foot Calcification Osteitis Enthesophyte Cyst Fracture OA Infectious OA Remodelling Subluxation Misc. Af1 Path: 2 LF 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 LH 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 RF 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 RH 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Af2 Path: 2 RH 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 RF 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 LF 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 LH 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Af3 Path: 7 RH 6 3 7 3 0 6 2 8 0 0 Af4 Path: 1 RF 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Af5 Path: 5 LF 4 0 6 6 0 7 0 9 0 0 Af6 Path: 5 LF 0 0 1 3 0 2 0 3 0 0 LH 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 1 0 0 RF 0 0 1 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 RH 0 1 2 6 0 1 0 3 0 0 Af7 Path: 3 RF 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 LF 0 0 2 3 0 0 0 3 0 0 As1 Path:3 RF 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 LF 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 As2* Path: 6 RH 2 0 8 1 1 1 0 8 0 0 As3* Path: 4 LF 0 0 8 2 0 0 0 9 0 0 LH 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 RF 0 0 8 1 0 1 0 4 0 0 RH 0 0 3 3 0 4 0 2 0 0 As4 Path: 8 LF 0 1 4 3 0 3 0 4 0 0 RF 9 0 7 3 0 4 0 4 0 0 RH 6 5 10 11 0 9 2 12 1 0 As5* Path: 4 LF 0 0 2 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 LH 0 0 9 1 0 2 0 6 0 0 RF 0 0 9 1 0 0 0 6 0 0 RH 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 As6 Path: 3 LF 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 RF 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 As7* Path: 6 RF 0 2 4 1 0 1 1 5 0 0 As8 Path: 7 LH 0 0 12 6 0 7 0 12 0 0 RF 3 2 7 2 0 3 1 5 0 0 RH 0 0 4 4 0 3 0 7 0 0 As9* Path: 8 LH 6 1 3 2 0 2 1 6 1 0 RH 0 0 3 0 0 3 0 4 1 0 As10 Path: 4 RF 0 0 12 3 0 10 0 20 0 0 RH 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 3 0 0 As11 Path: 2 RH 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 4 0 0 As12 Path: 6 LF 1 0 6 0 0 3 0 9 2 0 LH 4 0 5 0 0 1 0 8 1 0 RF 2 0 13 2 0 3 0 13 0 0 RH 2 0 2 1 0 0 0 5 1 0 As13 Path: 9 LH 3 0 5 3 1 1 0 4 0 0 RF 1 0 7 6 0 6 1 8 1 2 As14 Path: 7 LF 3 4 9 5 0 6 3 14 0 0 LH 0 0 3 3 0 1 0 5 0 0 RF 3 2 7 4 0 6 2 11 0 0 RH 0 0 1 7 0 1 0 4 0 0 Total: 55 21 204 113 2 98 13 237 9 3 755 observations (7%) (3%) (27%) (15%) (0.3%) (13%) (2%) (31%) (1%) (0.4%)
The second most commonly identified pathology was enthesopathy (Fig. 1B), representing 27% of entire pathologies observed (Table 3). Enthesopathy was present in 18/21 elephants (43/52 feet). Commonly affected regions were the metapodial bones (32%), proximal phalanges (27%), sesamoids (21%) and CMC/TMT joints (18%). Commonly affected digits were DIII (27%), DIV (24%), DV (23%) and DII (19%), whilst DI appeared least frequently affected (6%). A GEE (negative binomial model) establish enthesopathy was more commonly observed in Asian compared to African elephants (p = 0.001 in the final univariate model); species remained significant (p = 0.03) after accounting for age (p = 0.3), sex (p = 0.6), and foot type (p = 0.8) in the multivariable modelling. For the affected elephants with multiple feet scanned, enthesopathy was almost always observed in multiple feet (13/14 elephants with two or more affected feet versus one elephant with only a solitary foot affected).Figure 2: Transverse CT slices of digits in elephant feet, exhibiting pathological changes. (A) Multiple osseous cyst-like lesions in metacarpal (filled arrowhead) in DV of the right hind foot of ‘African2.’ (B) Solitary osseous cyst-like lesions in the proximal phalanges (filled arrowheads) of DIII and DIV of the left forefoot of ‘African6.’ (C) Soft tissue mineralisation on the palmar aspect of digits (filled arrowheads) in the right forefoot of ‘Asian4’. (D) Osteitis of the proximal phalanx (arrow) and infectious osteoarthritis of the proximal interphalangeal joint (filled arrowhead) in DIV of the left forefoot of ‘Asian14.’
Osseous cyst-like lesions of bone (Figs. 2A and 2B) represented 15% of entire pathologies observed (Table 3), present in 20/21 elephants (39/52 feet). Commonly affected structures were the metapodial (56%) and proximal phalangeal bones (28%). Commonly affected digits were DIV (27%), DIII (24%), DII (21%) and DV (19%), whilst DI appeared least affected (10%). A GEE (negative binomial model) establish that osseous cyst-like lesions were more commonly observed in females compared to males (p = 0.01 in the final univariate model); sex remained significant (p = 0.03) after accounting for species (p = 0.3), age (p = 0.5) and foot type (p = 0.2) in the multivariate modelling. For the affected elephants with multiple feet scanned, osseous cyst-like lesions were generally observed in multiple feet (10/15 elephants with two or more affected feet, versus five elephants with only a solitary foot affected).
Osteoarthritis (OA; Fig. 1B) represented 13% of entire pathologies observed (Table 3), present in 14/21 elephants (28/52 feet). Commonly affected joints were the carpometacarpal/tarsometatarsal joints (46%), metacarpophalangeal/metatarsophalangeal joint (36%), and proximal interphalangeal joint (10%). Commonly affected digits were DIII (28%), DIV (25%), DII (24%) and DI (12%), whilst DV appeared least affected by OA (11%). A GEE (negative binomial model) establish that OA increased with age (p = 0.02 in the final univariate model); age remained significant (p = 0.05) after accounting for foot type (p = 0.6), sex (p = 0.6), and species (p = 0.9) in the multivariate modelling. For the affected elephants with multiple feet scanned, OA was almost always observed in multiple feet (9/10 elephants with two or more affected feet, versus one elephant with only a solitary foot affected).
Soft tissue mineralisation (Figs. 1D and 2C) represented 7% of entire pathologies observed (Table 3), present in 9/21 elephants (17/52 feet). These mineralisations were identified having similar interdigital, frequently linear structure in entire limbs. For the affected elephants with multiple feet scanned, mineralisation was generally observed in multiple feet (4/6 elephants with two or more feet affected, versus two elephants with only a solitary foot affected).
Osteitis (Fig. 2D) represented 3% of entire pathologies observed (Table 3), present in 7/21 elephants (9/52 feet). Commonly affected regions were the proximal and middle phalanges (33% and 29% of observations, respectively), metapodials (24%), and sesamoids (14%). Commonly affected digits were DIV (48% of osteitis observed here), DIII (38%), whilst DV (10%) and DII (5%) appeared least affected. DI was not affected in any limb studied. For the affected elephants with multiple feet scanned, osteitis was observed roughly equally affecting multiple feet versus just one foot (2/5 elephants versus three elephants, respectively).
Infectious osteoarthritis (Fig. 2D) represented 2% of entire pathology observed (Table 3), present in 7/21 elephants (8/52 feet), or 13 joints in total. In 7/8 feet, bone(s) adjacent to the affected joints were also observed with osteitis. Commonly affected joints were the MCP/MTP (46%), PIP (38%) and souse joints (15%). Commonly affected digits were DIV (54%), DIII (38%) and DV (8%). DI and DII were unaffected in any limb. For the affected elephants with multiple feet scanned, infectious OA was generally only observed in one foot (5/6 elephants with a solitary affected foot, versus only one elephant with multiple feet affected).
Subluxation (Fig. 1D) of a joint represented 1% of entire pathology observed (Table 3), present in five out of 21 elephants (8/52 feet). The MCP/MTP, PIP and souse joints were equally affected. Digits were also fairly equally affected. For the affected elephants with multiple feet scanned, subluxation was observed roughly equally affecting multiple feet versus just one foot (two elephants versus three elephants, respectively). Complete luxation was not observed in any joint in this study.
Fractures (Fig. 1A) represented <1% of entire pathology observed (Table 3), present in only 3/21 elephants (3/52 feet). Two of the fractures were identified in the distal phalanx of DIII, and one was of the middle phalanx of DIV.
In addition to the categories of pathology listed in Table 2, they observed focal hyperattenuating (i.e., highly dense) regions within the medullary cavities of long bones (Fig. 1C) in two out of 21 elephants (2/52 feet). Three hyperattenuating regions were observed in total: two in the metacarpals of digit III (different feet of different elephants), and one in the proximal phalanx of digit II.
In this study, multiple types of pathology were identified in most feet: out of 52 feet, two were observed with entire nine pathological categories listed in Table 2, two feet with eight categories, three feet with seven categories, seven feet with six categories, 12 feet with five categories, six feet with four categories, three feet with three categories, and eight feet with two categories. Only three feet were observed with a solitary category of pathology, and six feet (11.5% of limbs) had no evidence of pathology.Anatomical variations
In the CT images evaluated, the configuration of the proximal sesamoid bones was variable: they were sometimes present as a pair, commonly fused together (appearing as a solitary bone), and occasionally absent from scans altogether (i.e., not visible as either an ossified bone or as an obvious soft tissue structure; Figs. 3A and 3D).Figure 3: Transverse CT slices of elephants’ feet, showing the sesamoids. (A) Completely unossified prepollex (red box) in the right forefoot of ‘Asian4.’ Note also the solitary sesamoid of DI (arrow) and the paired proximal sesamoids of other digits (filled arrowheads). (B) Sparsely mineralised prepollex (red box) in right forefoot of ‘African6.’ (C) Medium-sized, discrete ossification of the prepollex (red box) in right forefoot of ‘African2.’ Note also the larger lateral sesamoid of DV (filled arrowhead) compared to the medial sesamoid. (D) big ossification bounding the outer edges of the prepollex (red box) in right forefoot of ‘Asian12.’ Often, the middle of the predigit will remain partially unossified resulting in a rod-like appearance. Note also fusion of the paired proximal sesamoids (filled arrowheads) in DII–DIV, compared to the unfused sesamoids in (A).
In digit I, the sesamoids often had the appearance of a solitary bone (42/52 feet); very occasionally they appeared as a fused pair (3/52 feet), and in only one foot appeared as an unfused pair. The digit I sesamoids were always present in African elephants, but were sometimes missing in the hind feet of Asian elephants (absent in 6/14 Asian elephants, or 8/35 hind feet).
In their sample of African elephants, the sesamoid bones in the other digits were almost always paired; only two feet out of 17 had fused sesamoids (in digits III and IV in one hind foot, and digit V in another elephant’s forefoot). In Asian elephants the appearance of sesamoids in the other digits varied much more. In digit II, 22 were fused, 12 were paired, and one appeared single. In digit III, 26 were fused, eight were paired, and one was lytic and difficult to assess. In digit IV, 24 were fused, 10 paired, and one absent. In digit V, 12 were fused, 22 paired, and one appeared single. In both species, the lateral sesamoid of digit V was sometimes appreciably larger than the medial sesamoid (Fig. 3C). A GEE (negative binomial model) establish that species was a statistically significant predictor (p < 0.0005 in both the multivariate and final univariate model) of amount of sesamoid fusion (i.e., number of fused pairs per foot, not distinguishing which pairs), with Asian elephants possessing more fused sesamoids than African elephants. Sex (p = 0.9), foot type (p = 0.4), and age (p = 0.7) were not significant.
Ossified predigits (i.e., radial/tibial sesamoids associated with digit I) were more frequently identified in Asian than African elephants. In African elephants, 9/17 feet (3/7 elephants) had evidence of ossified predigits, compared to 27/35 feet (13/14 elephants) in Asian elephants. The extent of ossification was lower in African elephants: seven predigits were minimally ossified and two had intermediate ossification, versus one minimally ossified predigit, six with intermediate ossification, and 20 extensively ossified predigits in Asian elephants. device 3 shows the different degrees of predigit ossification observed. A GEE (repeated measures ordinal logistic model) establish that species was a statistically significant predictor of presence and extent of predigit ossification (p = 0.009). Within each species, neither age (p < 0.9 in African elephants and p = 0.5 in Asian elephants) nor foot type (fore versus hind; p < 0.9 for African elephants and p = 0.7 for Asian elephants) were establish to exist statistically significant predictors of predigit ossification.
We observed multipartite distal phalanges (Fig. 4) in 36 digits of 23 feet (12 elephants; entire Asian). Most were bipartite (27/36), but some were tripartite (9/36). Multipartite distal phalanges were most frequently identified in DV (16/36), DIII (9/36), DIV (6/36), and DII (5/36). DI had none. A GEE (negative binomial model) establish that, within Asian elephants, neither age, sex nor foot type were statistically significant predictors of multipartite distal phalanges (p = 0.3, p = 0.1, p = 0.1 respectively).Figure 4: Three-dimensional reconstructions from CT scans. (A) Dorsal view of the left forefoot of ‘Asian5’, showing tripartite distal phalanx of DIII (arrows; also CT appearance inset) and misshapen middle phalanges of DII and DIV (unfilled arrowheads). The middle phalanx of DII is wedge shaped, whilst that of DIV is wedged-shaped with a scalloped distal aspect and missing distal phalanx (filled arrowhead). (B) Dorso-lateral view of the right hind foot of ‘Asian9’ showing the bipartite distal phalanx (arrow) and missing middle phalanx (filled arrowhead) of DV.
We observed 25 atypically shaped phalanges in 17 feet of 11 elephants (10 Asian and one African). Affected bones were most often middle phalanges (23/25 bones), but one proximal and one distal phalanx were also observed to believe atypical shapes. The shape of the bones varied, but most appeared wedge-shaped (Fig. 4A) due to relative shortening of the bone’s abaxial aspect and/or mediolateral narrowing (18/25 bones). Others appeared very rounded with loss of the typical rhomboidal shape (5/25 bones), and occasionally bones had a scalloped appearance of the articular surface (2/25 bones; view Figs. 1C and 4A). Atypically shaped phalanges were most often observed in DIV (11/25 bones) and DII (9/25 bones), with fewer seen in DI (3/25 bones) and DV (2/25 bones). No atypically shaped bones were observed in DIII. A GEE (negative binomial model) establish age (p = 0.002), species (p = 0.02) and foot type (p = 0.01) to exist statistically significant predictors of atypically-shaped phalanges, being more frequent in younger elephants, Asian elephants, and hind feet (20 bones in 12 hind feet vs five bones in five forefeet) in multivariate modelling. Sex was not significant (p = 0.8).
Phalangeal number varied between digits and feet. entire African elephants had only the proximal phalanx in DI of their forefeet, and no phalangeal bones visible in DI of their hind feet. The distal phalanx of DII was occasionally absent (2/10 African forefeet and 3/7 hind feet). The distal phalanx was always absent from DV in entire African elephant feet. Subjectively, Asian elephants appeared to exhibit slightly more variability in phalangeal number. entire Asian elephants lacked at least the middle phalanx in DI of their forefeet, however some also lacked the distal phalanx (9/18 Asian forefeet), and one foot lacked entire phalanges in DI. In the hind feet of Asian elephants, some lacked only the distal phalanx from digit I (2/17 hind feet), some also lacked the middle phalanx (4/17), and most lacked entire three (11/17). In DII, 1/17 hind feet was missing a middle phalanx and 1/17 was missing a distal phalanx. In DIII, 1/18 forefeet was missing a distal phalanx. In DIV, 4/18 forefeet were missing the distal phalanx and 1/18 forefeet was missing entire three phalanges (suspected digital amputation, given the CT appearance). In DV, 3/18 forefeet and 11/17 hind feet were missing the middle phalanx (Fig. 4B), whilst 1/17 hind feet was missing both middle and distal phalanges.Discussion
All elephants and almost entire feet in this study were establish with lesions likely to picture clinically notable pathology. The elephants in their study are a biased population in this regard—though intuition of death was not always clearly specified, it appears at least five of the 21 elephants died or were euthanised in Part due to foot or joint problems. Despite this, their findings reinforce the longstanding concern that foot problems are frequent causes of morbidity and mortality in captive elephants (Steel, 1885; Fowler, 2001; Luikart & Stover, 2005; Siegal-Willott, Alexander & Isaza, 2012).
In addition to foot problems that are widely acknowledged in the literature on elephant pathologies (OA, infectious OA, osteitis, fractures and subluxation), they believe observed remodelling of bones, enthesopathy, osseous cyst-like lesions, soft tissue mineralisation and hyperattenuating bone foci. They also establish atypically shaped and absent phalanges, though any pathological significance of these features is unclear. Most of the elephant feet in this study had several pathological diagnoses (Table 3), supporting the notion that the different types of pathology believe common causes, and/or that the establishment of one disease process may predispose elephants to developing others. For many types of pathology, multiple feet from the identical elephant were affected, consistent with a generalised predisposition (e.g., husbandry, obesity; view also Miller, Hogan & Meehan, 2016) rather than singular cause. Most of their findings generally descend into three (sometimes overlapping) categories: lesions related to weight-bearing and loading of tissues, lesions related to ascending infection, and variable anatomy with unclear pathological significance.
Loading appears to believe a significant influence on the evolution of pathology. A big proportion of the identified pathology was concentrated on the lateral three digits (remodelling, enthesopathy, osteitis, and infectious OA) or middle three digits (OA and osseous cyst enjoy lesions); digits III and IV being the common denominator in both cases. The corpse weight of elephants is thought to exist principally borne by the middle three digits (DII, DIII, and DIV) (Siegal-Willott, Alexander & Isaza, 2012), with the lateral three digits (DIII, DIV, DV) typically experiencing the greatest pressures during walking (Panagiotopoulou et al., 2012). ornery to expectations, they did not find the forelimbs to exist significantly more affected by pathology than the hind limbs (Hittmair & Vielgrader, 2000), despite presence a greater proportion of bodyweight (−60%; Genin et al., 2010). However, pressures on the forefeet are only higher in some instances and regions (Panagiotopoulou et al., 2012). Additionally, the digital cushions and predigits vary between fore and hind feet (Weissengruber, 2006; Hutchinson et al., 2011), and the limbs may exist used differently in different styles of locomotion or other behaviours, potentially resulting in different patterns of loading between feet.
In OA, the link to increased or altered loading (via obesity or impecunious conformation) is fairly well established, though other factors (including trauma) may exist involved (Fowler, 2006; Siegal-Willott, Alexander & Isaza, 2012). For other (putative) types of pathology, such as remodelling, enthesopathy and soft tissue mineralisation, the link to big or abnormal loads is hypothesised from other species. Enthesopathy in humans can exist seen in degenerative, inflammatory or metabolic diseases (Ruhoy, Schweitzer & Resnick, 1998), and with aging (Shaibani, Workman & Rothschild, 1993). But animal models demonstrate that enthesopathy can also occur without tendon microtears or inflammation and may exist an adaptive response to loading (Benjamin, Rufai & Ralphs, 2000). Remodelling and enthesopathy are both frequently observed in rhinos and thought to reflect tissue loading (Regnault et al., 2013; Galateanu et al., 2013; Stilson, Hopkins & Davis, 2016). The linear appearance and the location of soft tissue mineralisation in their elephants intimate that the digital flexor tendons are the affected structures. Mineralisation of the profound digital flexor tendon in horses has been observed as a response to chronic injury (Dyson, 2003b), and universal mineralisation has been described as a feature of tendinopathy (tendon disease arising from overuse) and following trauma in other species (O’Brien et al., 2012). The magnitude of load experienced by structures may exist a factor (especially in OA and remodelling, which both expand with increasing age and therefore presumably corpse weight), as might the type of loading; e.g., altered locomotion or long periods of standing. As elephants are both very big and long-lived, they may exist more predisposed to loading-associated pathology and/or bone remodelling (perhaps including the variable sesamoid and phalangeal bone appearances described below) compared with other species. Indeed, as ossification of the foot and other limb bones tends to originate relatively late in elephants (Hautier et al., 2012) and their growth plates also mind to near late in life (uncertain and variable timing but roughly at 8–20 years of age; Roth, 1984; Siegal-Willott et al., 2008), the growth patterns of elephant feet (and perhaps limbs more generally) may leave them more vulnerable to accumulation of pathologies, although much more research is required to test this speculation.
Osteitis and infectious OA often result from spreading soft tissue infections, or penetration of a exotic expostulate into the foot (Fowler, 2006). Their study establish the proximal bones and joints to exist more affected, compared to the distal and middle phalanges more often reported in other studies (Fowler, 2006 citing Gage, 1999 and Hittmair & Vielgrader, 2000); this manifest discrepancy might exist best explained by variability and sample sizes in both cases.
We observed subluxation and fracture, which may result from trauma but may also sometimes exist incidental findings (for example, fracture of the distal phalanx in elephants; Fowler, 2006). Post-mortem fracture or manipulation of bones out of congruency also cannot exist ruled out. Interestingly, they frequently observed multipartite distal phalanges that loom very similar to fractured phalanges but that they inferred to exist a discrete entity, based on the lack of callus or bone reaction. The phalanges resembled the incompletely ossified distal phalanges observed radiographically in juvenile Asian elephants (Siegal-Willott et al., 2008). The affected elephants in their study were also entire Asian (no African), and the distal phalanges of the lateral digits (DV and to a lesser degree, DIV) were most frequently observed to exist multipartite. enjoy Siegal-Willott et al. (2008), they establish bipartite phalanges (called ‘unilateral wing lucencies’) more common that tripartite phalanges (‘bilateral wing lucencies’). They observed multipartite distal phalanges in elephants up to 55 years old, and so it seems that the ossification centres of these bones may not always fuse with age (similar to multipartite sesamoids). They concede that the distinction between fracture and a congenitally multipartite bone can exist subtle (or even impossible with chronic fractures; Morandi, 2012), and that the pathological significance of either condition appears negligible in the distal phalanx.
It is notable that veterinarians and radiologists are alert of such apparently ordinary anatomical variations and incidental lesions when evaluating pathology in the feet. Best-known amongst these is variable phalangeal number, especially in DI and DV (Ramsay & Henry, 2001; Fowler, 2006; Hutchinson et al., 2008; Siegal-Willott, Alexander & Isaza, 2012). Their data also champion this longstanding observation of elephants, and confirm that digits II, III and IV generally believe three phalanges (although exceptions existed, especially amongst Asian elephants). Atypically shaped phalanges are another source of anatomical variation observed in this study.
Sesamoid bones also had variable appearances—not only the proximal sesamoid bones (generally paired bones in other species but which may exist fused or asymmetrical in elephants), but also the predigits. These mistaken ‘sixth toes’ appear to exist modified sesamoids that start out as cartilaginous rods but may later ossify (Hutchinson et al., 2011). In their elephant sample (with sample overlap from those of Hutchinson et al., 2011), the predigits ranged from completely non-ossified (visible as a hollow cartilaginous rod), to miniature and patchy regions of mineral attenuation, to big discrete pieces of bone, to long, elaborate and jointed structures curving around to the back of the foot. Within the identical animal, the degree of mineralisation in pairs of forefeet or hind feet was consistent, but could vary between fore and hind limbs.
We establish that Asian elephants showed a greater current towards ossification of the predigits. Presence of sesamoid bones at joints has been linked to increased OA by some studies (e.g., Pritchett, 1984; Hagihara et al., 1993), though not others (e.g., Muehleman, Williams & Bareither, 2009). The workable link to OA in humans has prompted the hypothesis that sesamoids may predispose joints to developing disease, or that both OA and sesamoids are linked by an underlying process (i.e., current for endochondral ossification; Sarin et al., 1999). Although they did not find significantly more OA in Asian compared to African elephants, they did find more enthesopathy, more sesamoid fusion, and multipartite distal phalanges (indicating multiple unfused ossification centres). Along with their greater predigit ossification, these findings lead us to speculate that Asian elephants might believe an increased current for endochondral ossification (in their distal limbs) than African elephants. This could interpret some differences in disease prevalence and bone anatomy.
Of their findings, only the osseous cyst-like lesions and hyperattenuating regions enact not clearly fitting into the categories of lesions related to loading, infection, or incidental finding/variable anatomy. Osseous cyst-like lesions may exist secondary to OA, osteochondrosis (particularly if subchondral), ischaemic necrosis, haemorrhage, or vascular malformation (Carlson & Weisbrode, 2006). enjoy their elephants, sex-based biases in cyst prevalence believe been renowned in humans (O’Donnell, 2009) and some other animals (Craig, Dittmer & Thompson, 2016). The hyperattenuating regions resemble enostoses (benign foci of dense bone), which are sometimes associated with lameness in horses (Dyson, 2003a). The intuition is unknown, but contributing factors may comprise excess dietary calcium (Carciofi & enact Prado Saad, 2008).Conclusions
Though a miniature proportion of their elephants were previously known to believe foot or joint problems, the generally elevated level of pathology establish in their study highlights the requisite for continuing vigilance regarding elephant foot health. They should not exist complacent with lack of lameness or externally manifest signs. A comprehensive evaluation of foot health in elephants should therefore comprise ‘baseline’ foot radiographs to establish the ‘normal’ anatomy for that individual, and annual assessment thereafter using radiographic protocols with standard views optimal for the detection of pathological lesions (Mumby et al., 2013). In addition, weight management, regular exercise, a immaculate and confiscate environment (with minimal time spent on difficult surfaces; Miller, Hogan & Meehan, 2016), and other measures to preclude over-loading, injury and infection should not exist overlooked.Supplemental Information Raw data (lesions graded from CT scans)
Sheet 1 is the raw collected data, sheet 2 contains a summary of the elephants, predigits, sesamoids and grade 2 + pathology, sheet 3 contains the raw data for misshapen or missing phalanges.
Which stocks believe virtuous potential for upside this year? What industries and trends should investors exist watching? Which CEOs are on the red seat? And which stocks should investors avoid?
Aaron Bush, Matt Argersinger, Jason Moser, and Ron Gross debate 20 potential investing opportunities in the year ahead and deserve some rash predictions. Plus, they debate Apple's latest stumble and upcoming IPOs we're excited to see.
A complete transcript follows the video.
This video was recorded on Jan. 4, 2019.
Chris Hill: It's the Motley Fool Money radio show! I'm Chris Hill. Joining me in studio this week, senior analysts Matt Argersinger and Aaron Bush. ecstatic current Year, gentlemen! It's their 2019 preview. We've got stocks to watch, stocks to avoid, CEOs on the red seat, and more. And, of course, a few rash predictions, as always.
Before they net to the 2019 preview, though, I contemplate they believe to talk about Apple (NASDAQ: AAPL). Shares of Apple falling 10% on Thursday after CEO Tim Cook warned investors first quarter revenue was going to exist about $5 [billion to] $8 billion lower than previously expected. Several reasons for that, Matty. The trade war in China, the economic slowdown in China, the battery replacement program that they had eventual fall. This was silent a pretty shocking development.
Matt Argersinger: Lots of touching parts, but you're right. This was pretty bad. If you perceive back to their guidance in early November, looking for between $89 [billion and] $93 billion in revenue. To arrive in, then, at $84 billion, $5 billion below the low cessation of your guided range, that's a problem. CEO Tim Cook said that really 100% of the miss was due to China and a contraction in the smartphone market there. That's a suited excuse. It's probably the right excuse. Investors believe been questioning whether or not the iPhone, especially the latest versions of the iPhones with the elevated charge tags, could really penetrate the highly competitive smartphone market in China. I contemplate we're starting to view the fact that no, that's not really the case.
Aaron Bush: I don't contemplate it's that surprising, actually, that Apple has China issues. I was just thinking back, four years ago, when Matt and I were talking about China in the context of their Supernova portfolio, talking about opportunities and concerns, China was a mammoth thing they were talking about. At the time, they realized that China is a mammoth opening simply because how many people are in that country, but they didn't necessarily hope it to play out the identical artery as it did in the U.S. Since then, the stock is about roughly flat with the market, which is interesting.
I contemplate they started to view the cracks in the foundation about two years ago. About that time is when I started studying Tencent, which owns WeChat. It made me realize that iOS is far less notable in China because WeChat is an in-app operating system that people enact everything in. So, the identical type of competitive edge that Apple would believe in the U.S. with iMessage, Notes, various services, that doesn't exist in China. It showed in the data. At the time, the retention rate, people who would believe an iPhone that would buy another iPhone, outside of China it was over 80%. In China, it was 50%, which is essentially a coin flip.
I contemplate now, because of the economic turbulence that's starting to happen, trade wars, slowdown, we're starting to view that play out at an accelerated rate. People who would exist the Apple buyers either already own them or did own them. Upgrade cycles are longer, and retention is silent sub-optimal. Apple just has mediocre market share, and I contemplate that's not necessarily going to change.
Argersinger: I agree. As long as the iPhone is such a big Part of Apple's core business, they can talk about services entire they want, but this is silent a product that's about 70% of revenue and the majority of operating profits.
Now, I will boom this, because we're positive people here at the Fool. Coming into this report, Apple was already down about 40% from its high. Granted, it had a horrible day this week that took it down even further. But even at the reduced earnings estimates now, you're looking at a stock that's only trading about 11 to 12 times earnings. Certainly below the mediocre market multiple. Now, if earnings arrive down further, the stock could certainly result suit. But it's difficult not to call it cheap right now.
Hill: That's the thing. Tim Cook talked about how he hadn't seen the December numbers, therefore there's no artery he's seen the January numbers, because they're not in yet. Their first-quarter report comes out in early February. If you're looking at this stock, and you're thinking, "Boy, it looks cheap," enact you buy here? Or you want to view what the actual numbers are before you setaside down a petite money to buy some stock?
Bush: Oh, I don't know. It sounds enjoy another coin flip to me. They don't really know. I enact contemplate that the valuation is well compelling. You're betting that iPhone sales stabilize, and you're betting that the services segment can become much more than 15% of revenue, which it is now. I contemplate that most people contemplate that is the case. Or, at least around here, that's the bullish stance.
Personally, I believe some more questions. When you believe a monopoly taking 30% of every solitary transaction that goes on your ecosystem, regulatory issues will one day exist a concern. The identical thing that we've seen with Alphabet, the identical thing they view with Facebook (NASDAQ: FB). One day, those identical headlines are going to exist going on with Apple, too. And then the services narrative will slowly not appear so Amazing anymore.
Hill: Alright, let's net to their 2019 preview. Aaron, I'm going to start with you. What is one industry you're going to exist watching this year?
Bush: I'm really interested to exist watching the ride sharing industry. With Uber and Lyft, and maybe even DiDi, which is in China, IPO-ing in 2019, it's really exciting that public market investors will finally believe access to this new, massive, quickly growing industry. I'm excited to view what the numbers perceive like. They probably won't exist considerable from a profitability perspective. But thinking about transportation as a service, and what that means beyond just ride sharing, what it means for logistics with food, and are they going to buy more bike and scooter companies? That type of thing. I'm really interested to hear more about that longer-term game plan. We'll learn a lot about that in 2019.
Hill: Matty, what about you?
Argersinger: It's always interesting, but I contemplate especially so this year, I'm going to exist watching the gregarious network, gregarious media space. We're already seeing for the first time ever a real, legitimate slowdown in user growth and usage rates, especially if you perceive at the core Facebook platform. My questions are, how does Facebook, how does Twitter, how do these companies unravel for entire the privacy risks that people appear to exist crook alert of these days that they weren't alert of years before? How enact they preclude entire the vile and deceptive conduct without damaging free speech and liberty of expression on the platforms? These are mammoth challenges. Throwing money and bodies as we've seen Facebook do, I'm not positive that's going to unravel it. It's going to engage a lot of innovation. I don't doubt Facebook and Twitter can enact it, but I contemplate there's a real haphazard they actually view a tipping point in 2019 where the powerful network sequel that has sucked in so many users over the years to these platforms starts to weaken, and they start to view meaningful declines in time spent on the platforms. I contemplate it'll intuition a reset of the businesses.
Hill: In terms of trends, Aaron, what's got you excited in 2019?
Bush: Augmented reality. I contemplate it's been a long time since we've had a mammoth current consumer-facing technology to invest in. I believe a hunch that AR, and probably VR associated with it, is going to exist one of the next mammoth waves, even though some of the hype around it seems to believe fizzled out. I might exist off by one year, but 2019 could exist the year in which suited AR products are revealed by at least one major tech company, probably Apple. For Apple, it makes sense. They've been acquiring companies with AR tech since 2013. They released their AR kit, their developer toolkit in late 2017. They believe entire the pieces in place, controlling the hardware and the software, plus the developer community to deserve it happen. They probably recognize that winning over the AR market might exist as mammoth of a deal one day as winning the smartphone wars was.
I'm a bit iffy on timing, but I'm really excited to view the pieces start to arrive together. You never know; Apple might believe a mammoth AR glasses or something announcement and late 2019.
Argersinger: So you're maxim Apple has a chance?
Bush: I'm maxim that they requisite to enact this. Technology is going to shift past smartphones. Services won't exist enough. Fingers crossed.
Hill: The cash that Apple has on the equipoise sheet, that probably also helps them sleep at night.
Argersinger: It helps a petite bit.
Hill: In terms of trends, Matty, what about you?
Argersinger: Big trend this year, the past year already but even bigger now this year, sports betting taking off. I've been known to site a wager or two in my time. I contemplate there are broader implications for the economy. The world is far more efficient, far more innovative when it becomes gamified. A competitive marketplace of ideas and dollars that are wagered, inefficiencies mind to net streamlined out.
It's interesting. If you fade back to this fall, you could site real money on which party was going to lead the House of Representatives after the November election. You could believe placed money on where Amazon (NASDAQ: AMZN) was going to open its second headquarters. They talked about that on the show. Imagine betting on things enjoy what the weather is going to exist enjoy tomorrow, who's going to succeed Warren Buffett as CEO of Berkshire Hathaway (NYSE: BRK-A) (NYSE: BRK-B), what's the over and under on the minutes it's going to engage for Domino's (NYSE: DPZ) to deliver my pizza. These might appear enjoy silly things to wager on, but when you're wagering real dollars at scale, it tends to exist incredibly informative to the marketplace. It makes the economy more efficient. I'm excited about entire the innovations that I contemplate are going to arrive out of sports betting, especially when it becomes so much more of a mobile application.
Hill: One of the ripple effects that they saw in 2018 in terms of sports betting and the legalization played out in media. In the subsequent months, pretty much every major network, both on the regional level and on the national level, started to roll out programming aimed specifically at betting.
Argersinger: Absolutely. You view it entire the time now.
Hill: Aaron Bush, what is a stock -- or an industry; you can fade broad if you want -- in terms of upside for investors? Let's kisser it, it's been a volatile yoke of months here. We're looking for some upside. What enact you have?
Bush: I'm going to fade mammoth and then narrow down. Software-as-a-service. The past two years believe been huge for emerging software companies. But I enact contemplate this is an instance in which winners will preserve on winning, and a lot of these stocks believe been beaten down in the recent turmoil, too. Unlike the consumer-facing innovation, which is occurring mainly in start-ups and the massive tech companies, there are tons of considerable options to invest in miniature and mid-cap software companies with lots of elbowroom to multiply. Some of these will circle into the next Oracle (NYSE: ORCL) or Salesforce (NYSE: CRM). A basket of three stocks that I believe super-high conviction in that I contemplate will enact well in 2019, definitely beyond: Twilio (NYSE: TWLO), which is a leading communications platform; Alteryx (NYSE: AYX), which is a leading data blending and analytics platform; and MongoDB (NASDAQ: MDB), which is a next-gen database services company. entire of these companies are growing super-fast, are preeminent in what they do, believe very petite competition. At scale, they're going to exist producing ridiculous amounts of cash flow. I'm super excited to view what these companies do, even though they've already been hyped in the past years.
Hill: Also, a fun basket of names. It's fun to boom Twilio. What about you, Matt?
Argersinger: I'm going to jump artery out and talk about an entire sector. real estate has really underperformed recently thanks to, as you'd expect, higher interest rates. Homebuilders especially believe been really hit hard. But the sector itself is what you want to believe some exposure to over the next few years. Despite what the conventional thinking might be, real estate actually does quite well in periods of higher interest rates, higher inflation. One safe, cheap artery to play it is to buy the Vanguard real Estate ETF, ticker VNQ. It pays a nice 4% dividend yield, gives you a broad exposure to a bunch of publicly traded real estate companies and REITs. I contemplate it has a real haphazard of outperforming the S&P over the next few years.
Hill: On the other side of the spectrum, it can exist a stock to avoid, or maybe just one to believe on a really short leash. In terms of that category, Aaron, where are you?
Bush: I contemplate the marijuana industry is super-interesting, but it was so hyped in 2018, I contemplate 2019 is going to bring disaster to investors investing for the most Part in that industry, but especially in the companies that were the most hyped, enjoy Canopy Growth (NYSE: CGC), Tilray (NASDAQ: TLRY), Aurora Cannabis (NYSE: ACB). If you're investing in those, watch out, 2019 is almost definitely going to exist a scabrous year.
Argersinger: It was funny, Aaron and I talked back in the fall. They both said watch out. As soon as cannabis gets legalized in Canada, which was mid-October, you could almost draw a straight line from that point on. That was the peak of a lot of these stocks. They're down huge since then, even more so than the market we've seen. It's funny, it was one of the easiest calls I contemplate you could believe made. And it silent has more to go.
Hill: It was consuming in Part because it wasn't just individual investors who were excited about this. They saw major companies, consumer brands that everybody knows, investing hundreds of millions, and in some cases billions of dollars.
Argersinger: Coke, Philip Morris. Amazing.
Hill: What enact you believe on a short leash?
Argersinger: You can probably guess. I'm going to boom Facebook needs to exist kept on a short leash, if not avoided altogether. entire the problems I mentioned regarding the gregarious networking space -- the stock charge looks cheap. You can call it that. If you assume that they're going to continue to grow their advertising revenue at a similar pace, or even slightly slower pace, yes, the stock looks very, very compelling. I just contemplate there's going to exist a mammoth reset in expectations across the space. I believe mammoth questions about whether Facebook can effectively monetize Instagram and WhatsApp without damaging user experience. And I'm not even getting into the leadership questions you believe to believe right now around ticket Zuckerberg and Sheryl Sandberg. I just contemplate you can enact better elsewhere. Don't try to tangle Facebook, even though it's a snazzy title with now a cheap valuation.
Hill: This happens at this time every year: Investors and particularly the commerce media start to perceive ahead in terms of private companies going public. Despite the volatility that we've seen recently, you've got executives on Wall Street saying, "Actually, that might accelerate plans for private companies to fade public." In 2019, some of the best-known names, Aaron -- Uber, Slack, Airbnb, Lyft. Is there one that you're either really hoping goes public, or you're just interested to net your hands on the S-1 filing?
Bush: I hope Stripe goes public sooner or later. It might not IPO this year. They're a payment platform that makes it super light for companies to sell things online. Their developer tools are known to exist excellent. They continue to roll out current solutions. The founder and CEO, Patrick Collison, seems to exist a super-thoughtful. It wouldn't dumbfound me if one day, because this market is so big, buying things online, that Stripe becomes a larger payments company than PayPal (NASDAQ: PYPL). I contemplate that's super-fascinating. right now, they believe a market cap of about $20 billion, so I would esteem for them to fade public sooner than later [laughs], before they start hitting the upper tens of billions in their valuation.
Hill: enact you contemplate they're at the point now where they're artery past the acquisition standpoint?
Bush: It would exist a mammoth acquisition. I doubt it would happen, at least from another payments company. I wager they'll fade solo public.
Hill: Matty, what are you interested to net your hands on?
Argersinger: You mentioned it, Airbnb. My wife and I believe actually been Airbnb hosts for over a decade now. What you believe is essentially the world's largest, most expansive hotel company that really doesn't own any of its rooms. It's fascinating to me. It has somewhere on the order of 5 million listings, 150 million users in near to 200 countries. It has a profound network effect, maybe actually the strongest in the world. I contemplate we're going to realize that. I don't know what the market cap is going to exist when it becomes public, but just in terms of elbowroom count and customer count, it's bigger than entire the major publicly traded hotel companies combined.
Hill: OK, I really wasn't expecting that at the end. I'm assuming the reply is yes. enact you believe a suited rating? What kind of rating enact you have.
Argersinger: They have almost a five-star rating across their listings.
Hill: Nice! I'm not surprised, but I'm very pleased for you. entire right, we've got just a yoke of minutes left before they wrap up. They enact this every year -- rash predictions. deserve them reckless. They don't believe to exist about business, although they can exist about business. You can fade off the board to sports, pop culture, whatever. Aaron, what enact you have?
Bush: Even though the Chinese trade wars and economic slowdowns will continue to generate headlines, I predict that in 2019, we'll view the largest technology acquisition in which a Chinese company buys a U.S. company. I don't know if that's Tencent buying one of the mammoth three video game companies, maybe Alibaba acquires eBay as a artery to net into U.S. e-commerce. Maybe DiDi, which is larger than Uber at their eventual valuation, acquires Lyft as a artery to net to the U.S. markets and net a partnership with Waymo. I don't know. There are consuming possibilities.
Hill: That would exist fascinating! Matty, what about you?
Argersinger: I contemplate Warren Buffett's going to buy an airline.
Hill: [laughs] Really?
Argersinger: Berkshire Hathaway already owns major stakes in entire the major U.S. airlines. The industry has changed. Consolidation has made this much more a value creator than a value destroyer. You believe a tough airline enjoy Delta that's actually been assigned an investment-grade credit rating. It's buying back shares and paying a dividend, and the valuation is very cheap. This is a different industry now. Much enjoy how Buffett viewed the railroads 10 or 15 years ago, I contemplate he views the identical with airlines today.
Hill: That would exist maybe the greatest instance of someone taking emotion out of investing, when you contemplate back on how much Buffett used to openly abominate the airlines as an industry.
Argersinger: Oh, absolutely!
Hill: Alright, Matt Argersinger, Aaron Bush, guys, thanks for being here! ecstatic current Year!
Coming up: Their 2019 preview rolls on with Ron Gross and Jason Moser. Thanks for being here, gents!
Ron Gross: How are you doing, Chris?
Hill: I'm doing well! The 2019 preview rolls on. real quick, though. They talked about Apple at the top of the show. Jason, any thoughts in terms of one of the largest companies in America and where it is right now?
Jason Moser: As Aaron was saying, I'm really surprised that people are surprised by this. It's not something that I'm entire that taken back by. In November, they were talking about Apple's chip suppliers ratcheting back their guidance, which was more or less implying that there may exist some weakness in iPhone performance enjoy we're seeing. Granted, they appear to exist holding China accountable for most of this. But it entire makes total sense. As iPhones net better, they eventual longer, you don't believe to upgrade as much. They can only raise prices so far until consumers become a petite bit more sensitive. Everybody wants to just net on Apple's case here and predict that this may exist the nascence of the end. But let's exist clear, it's silent Apple. They're silent selling millions upon millions of devices. They lost control of the conversation a petite bit because they're not going to exist announcing those unit sales anymore. But there are a number of different ways they can win. It's not going to exist just services. Services will believe to exist Part of it. But when you perceive at services, other devices, the portfolio of wearables, you can't discount the potential mammoth acquisition at some point or another, either, with that equipoise sheet. It's entire like, just engage a step back here...
Gross: I'm entire for the take-a-step-back approach. I contemplate that makes suited sense. I'm going to exist really curious to view if Warren Buffett and Berkshire Hathaway are buying stock during this era of weakness. I would exist one of those analysts that would recommend that investors engage a position at these levels. Eleven to 12 times forward earnings, there's not a lot of growth built into the stock at this price, and they've got a lot of ways they can win.
Moser: And let's remember, too, they believe a all generation of smartphone users that haven't bought smartphones yet. There are going to exist plenty of opportunities to net current smartphones in current consumers' hands, and there's a brand loyalty there that's quite impressive.
Hill: Ron, let's net to the preview. When you contemplate about 2019, what's your biggest question as an investor?
Gross: My biggest question is, will value investing surge from the dead? As most of us are aware, growth has nicely outperformed value over the last, let's call it a decade. Not just a few months here and there, but quite a few years. FAANG stocks are perhaps the most obvious examples of growth stocks that believe led the way. Obviously, we've had an extended bull market. That tends to favor growth stocks. So, my mammoth question is, enact they view a resurgence of interest in stocks that are considered value? Growth often does underperform in suffer markets. If, perhaps, they are entering a suffer market, are they going to view a sustained suffer market, then one would hope value to arrive back into vogue. But, you know what? They haven't seen it anytime in recent past.
Hill: What about you, Jason?
Moser: We've talked a lot about Disney (NYSE: DIS) and their pace to over-the-top distribution. They own Part of Hulu, which I contemplate they've done a suited job pile out, especially with that live Hulu offering. ESPN+ seems enjoy it's gaining some traction. And now, Disney+ is going to exist their service that launches sometime in 2019. They talked before on the shows, they really requisite to deserve positive they execute there. I enact contemplate that's a compelling product. It's going to engage a lot of content away from other streaming partners, namely Netflix (NASDAQ: NFLX). I find it consuming to view that the shows on Netflix that garner the most views as a percentage are entire shows that are not Netflix shows. I contemplate that's telling. Netflix is silent having to setaside up a lot of money to net content that people want to see, and Netflix is not the one producing that content. They still, believe a petite ways to fade in succeeding on that original content front to warrant entire of that money that they're spending. I contemplate that Disney+ is going to reemphasize the competitive edge that they believe there in that intellectual property. I'm excited to view how that product arrives. I'm certain that they will at least exist testing it in their house, if not becoming full-fledged subscribers, unless they really drop the ball.
Hill: Wasn't there a minor freak-out in the Netflix universe when they said they weren't going to renew the demonstrate Friends?
Gross: In my household, for sure.
Moser: That is something that they requisite to pay attention to. As a percentage of views, Friends is No. 2 on the list just behind The Office. When you perceive at that list of the shows that are garnering the most views on Netflix, it takes you back, not a lot of their original content is on that list. It just tells you they silent believe a petite ways to go.
Hill: What's a trend you're excited about this year, Ron?
Gross: It piggybacks off of what Jason was just discussing. 5G technology, fifth generation wireless cellular technology, is coming, and it's coming pretty quickly. It's going to exist pretty exciting. It's going to deserve devices more capable of accessing the internet, it's going to deliver much faster speed than 4G -- some boom 20 to 100 times faster than 4G. Lots of companies are going to benefit here. The most common names would be AT&T, Verizon, T-Mobile. But I contemplate Nokia, even Apple will benefit as people upgrade to 5G-enabled phones. It's going to exist a really exciting trend to watch from an investment perspective, but also from a consumer perspective, because I contemplate we'll entire benefit.
Moser: I'm joyful you mentioned Apple there. That's another point with 5G. I contemplate they're going to exist a petite bit behind others in getting their devices up to speed. But once that does happen, that's going to exist another yeast there in the upgrading.
For me, I'm excited about podcasts and where podcasts are heading.
Gross: unblushing plug!
Moser: I'm not going to just pat ourselves on the back here too much, but it's worth noting that you and Mac and their partners here, you had the senses to deserve some early bets in this market back in 2010 and 2011. And lo and behold, now, in 2019, we've got a full-fledged family of podcasts. They're doing very well. We've seen Sirius XM acquire Pandora, noting in their call that, to their dismay, they passed on podcasts for a while. They admitted that mistake, and they're going to start putting some resources into podcasts and pile out that environment.
I contemplate we're in a day and age now where Netflix really changed the game for content for people being able to watch what they want, when they want, and where they want. Now, we're seeing the identical thing play out on the audio side. We're able to give people what they want, where they want it, when they want it. It's nice to exist a Part of it.
Hill: Let's talk stocks. Ron, whether it's an industry or a specific stock, what enact you contemplate is poised for upside this year?
Gross: An industry I'm looking at, it's a sector-slash-industry. I'm not ready to call the mammoth R-word yet, recession. I'm not freaking people out yet.
Hill: You are a petite bit, by maxim that.
Gross: I contemplate it's notable to believe some allocation to some defensive stocks in the environment that they may exist approaching. So, when I contemplate of companies in those sectors, I would boom some utilities might exist a suited wager right here. Some of the discounters, in fact, discount retailers. Costco, Dollar Tree, Walmart would exist some nice stocks, defensive stocks to believe as they enter an economy that might not exist as robust as it has been.
Hill: What about you, Jason?
Moser: I don't want to time when a recession might hit, because really, that's inferior for everybody, but I enact contemplate they are entering a era where banks are going to believe some opportunities to boost their earnings a petite bit as interest rates continue to nudge upward. In particular, I'm looking more at miniature banks, and one we've talked about before, Ameris Bancorp (NASDAQ: ABCB). This stock has a tremendous risk-reward scenario playing out here. The stock is now trading around 15 times earnings. They recently announced this merger with loyalty Bank in Georgia. It's about a $750 million deal. Given that Ameris is about a $1.5 billion company, you can see, it means a lot. The market rightly sold the stock off. There's some skepticism there. That's rolling in a mammoth acquisition. But they're two very similar cultures. It gives Ameris tremendous exposure to the valuable Atlanta market. It's also going to back grow that asset and deposit base, particularly in a era where a lot of these banks are competing for getting those deposit bases. So, to me, this could play out enjoy the McCormick thing. recall when McCormick acquired RB Foods? The market thought, "Whoa, this is a mammoth one to digest here," and they held off for a yoke of quarters to view how things worked out. Lo and behold, it worked out pretty well. The stock recovered nicely. I contemplate they could exist looking at the identical thing here with Ameris if they execute this acquisition well.
Hill: Ron, if defensive stocks believe you interested, what's at the other cessation of the spectrum? What are you avoiding this year?
Gross: Specifically, I believe one stock in mind. I arrive back to it often. It's Fitbit (NYSE: FIT). I've really never been excited and probably will never exist excited about this one. They entered the smartwatch market in 2018. I give it to them, they've done pretty well. But this is a formidably competitive market, with the likes of Apple, for one, right there behind them. You even believe some Chinese upstarts that could exist a problem, as well. I don't view Fitbit being the company that is constantly able to innovate, either engage market share or shield market share. I'd exist really mindful about this one.
Hill: What about you, Jason?
Moser: Zillow (NASDAQ: Z) (NASDAQ: ZG). I've changed my tone on this company over the past year. I used to exist excited about the potential there. I feel enjoy they've failed to convince me of the sustainability here. They're yet to become meaningfully profitable at all. Now, in this most recent quarter, they setaside in their shareholder letter that Zillow Group has entered a era of transformational innovation. To me, that's code for "We're not going to exist profitable anytime soon." For a company enjoy this, a company that's been around for a while in such a mammoth market opening as their housing market, they should not exist entering this period. They should exist coming out of this period. I contemplate that's what they were trying to enact over these past few years. This instant offers business, it's not up their alley. Buying homes and renovating them and selling them, it's not scalable. There are a lot of people out there doing it. I don't know that they believe any real edge there. suited will now represents essentially half of the total assets on the equipoise sheet.
It's not a inferior company. I'm just disappointed in the artery they've executed. They silent believe a ways to fade before they net to meaningful profitability.
Hill: One of the things that ties these two businesses together, Fitbit and Zillow, is the word "optionality" has been used in connection to both of these businesses. They were seen as, "They believe options, in terms of where they can go." Optionality is something they enjoy to view as investors, but Ron, it almost seems enjoy optionality works better if you've got one dependable cash cow in your portfolio.
Gross: You nailed it. Optionality is considerable for additional upside. Maybe you can't even view the different options that a company might believe three to five years down the road. But if they don't believe that profitable cash flood producing segment of the company, then you're relying on entire of the value of that company being in the optionality category, and that's just too much risk for me.
Hill: Guys, 2019 has just begun, but The Motley Fool is already looking for summer interns in investing, editorial, software development, and much more. Come, expend the summer!
Gross: combine us!
Hill: combine us here at Fool global headquarters this summer. fade to careers.fool.com for entire the information and to apply to exist a summer intern here. That's careers.fool.com.
Happens every year, Jason. There are a few CEOs who are on the red seat. We're long-term investors, but let's kisser it: Over the long term, if you're not delivering, that means in the short term, you're on the red seat. What enact you have?
Moser: In 2018, I certainly had Kevin Plank of Under Armour on the red seat. He's not off yet. I'm calling him out again. While they are seeing signs that he is embracing relying more on his team, particularly the CFO and COO of the company, Frisk and Bergman, when you perceive at the expectations we've had for this commerce over the course of the eventual several years, as it's been a recommendation in a number of their services, this has been a phenomenal disappointment. The real disappointing Part there is, they were essentially self-inflicted. They just made some inarticulate investments for the sake of growing as opposed to making suited strategic decisions and letting the growth arrive from making suited decisions.
I contemplate he's on the right track. They requisite to deserve positive that team stays intact here. If they view that CFO or COO leave, they believe a really mammoth problem. But at this point, with the market seeming enjoy it wants to recover, if they don't believe a recession, this is a company that should exist performing a lot better than it is today.
Hill: What about you, Ron?
Gross: I think Wells Fargo's CEO, Timothy Sloan, probably should go. He was probably the wrong preference from the net go, as he's been at the company during entire of the controversies. Having taken over the CEO role in 2016, he's really not done anything to circle the tide. From an operations perspective, the company's not really doing very well. From a controversy perspective as well, things don't appear to exist getting better. I contemplate it's time for some outside blood to arrive in and right the ship.
Hill: I contemplate back to eventual year's show. I mentioned that John Flannery, who was CEO of universal Electric at the time, I mentioned that he was certainly a CEO to watch because I thought he was laying entire his cards on the table. I thought, "Boy, this is going to exist a really consuming company to watch." In hindsight, I probably should believe said he was on the red seat. I didn't contemplate he was on the red seat! Then he didn't deserve it to the cessation of the year.
Gross: That's how it goes!
Hill: As I talked about with Matt Argersinger and Aaron Bush, it's consuming to view not only the companies being named in the private market as potential IPOs this year, but the possibility that the recent volatility we've seen might accelerate those IPOs in the first six months of 2019. Whether it's the S-1 that you're interested to perceive at, or a company where you just think, "I want this thing to fade public now so I can net a few shares," what's on your radar, Jason?
Moser: One that probably a lot of people are thinking won't cessation up by IPO-ing. I hope it does. SpaceX, Elon Musk's rocket company. They're set to raise $500 million at a $30.5 billion valuation shortly. To me, space is one of these markets, one of these trends that's going to open up a lot of fascinating investment opportunities over the course of the next decade and beyond. I contemplate SpaceX is going to exist a Part of that.
One thing that SpaceX is doing today is this project called Starlink. Essentially, the notion is looking to build out a constellation of satellites entire over the globe in low orbit that will basically exist able to beam high-speed internet connection to every corner of the globe. It seems enjoy he's getting buy-in from entire the regulators. We've seen what he's been able to enact here in the rocket launches that believe taken site thus far.
I contemplate this is a fascinating company. It's going to tender a lot of opportunities. If they enact net a haphazard to view it fade public, I more than likely would want to own a few shares just to exist a Part of it. But, I'd really want to read that S-1.
Hill: enact you think Tesla shareholders are interested for the prospect of Elon Musk at the helm of yet another public company?
Moser: Maybe they redeem that for another show. [laughs]
Hill: Ron, what about you?
Gross: A favorite company in my household is fast-casual Mediterranean restaurant Cava. They recently acquired publicly traded Zoes Kitchen. I'll give them a petite time to digest that acquisition, determine what they want to enact with entire the Zoes locations. But then, let's engage the all darn thing public. Some considerable capital that they can expend for growth to engage the world by storm and expand the concept.
Hill: Have they given any more color on what they project to enact with those locations? I remember, they talked about that acquisition on this show. The only thing that surprised me was the fact that they appear like, "No, we're not necessarily going to circle these entire into Cavas." I contemplate their universal reaction was, why not?
Gross: I've seen more along the lines of making some menu changes, changes to the artery the kitchen operates to exist more efficient and believe offerings that are more appealing to the consumer.
Hill: Alright, just a yoke of minutes left. rash predictions for 2019. What enact you have, Jason?
Moser: I was thinking about going with the Red Sox repeating as World string champions. Then I thought about it -- that's not that far-fetched, really. I'm calling it, they're going to repeat. That's not my rash prediction.
I'll fade with a more business-related memoir here. I was talking earlier about the potential acquisitions that Apple could exist looking at here. What would discontinue them from wanting to acquire Square (NYSE: SQ). You want to perceive at expanding your commerce and becoming a petite bit more of an integral Part of the commerce scene here, not only domestically, but globally. I contemplate Square and Apple believe a lot in common. They're both in the commerce of developing glossy hardware that people enjoy to use, generating some pretty tough brand loyalty there. Then, they know, of course, the payments space is one that's growing very quickly.
I'm not maxim it'll happen, but it's certainly an acquisition that Apple would exist capable of executing. Maybe it will happen.
Gross: I went a petite off the rails here. There's going to exist more definitive signs of previous life discovered on Mars in 2019. That's going to build off of the labor done by the Mars Curiosity Rover that, earlier in 2018, establish some organic molecules. We'll device out where those actually came from and build on that. There aren't going to exist any signs of actual Martians running around --
Hill: Or will there?
Gross: -- but I contemplate we're going to view signs of some previous life.
Moser: Alright, rash prediction No. 2: Ron Gross and Jason Moser will exist heading up the current Motley Fool Space Investing service to launch either late 2019 or 2020.
Gross: [laughs] Sell that short.
Hill: I'm just going to boom that regardless of where free agent Bryce Harper ends up, the Washington Nationals are going to the World Series.
Moser: Wow! That is reckless!
Gross: I'll engage that bet.
Hill: Ron Gross, Jason Moser, guys, thanks for being here! That's going to enact it for this week's edition of Motley Fool Money. Their engineer is Dan Boyd. Producer Mac Greer on a well-deserved vacation this week. I'm Chris Hill. Thanks for listening! We'll view you next week!
John Mackey, CEO of all Foods Market, an Amazon subsidiary, is a member of The Motley Fool's board of directors. Suzanne Frey, an executive at Alphabet, is a member of The Motley Fool's board of directors. Aaron Bush owns shares of Alphabet (C shares), Alteryx, Amazon, Apple, Facebook, MongoDB, Netflix, PayPal Holdings, Square, Tesla, Twilio, Twitter, Under Armour (A Shares), Under Armour (C Shares), Walt Disney, Zillow Group (A shares), and Zillow Group (C shares). Chris Hill owns shares of Amazon, eBay, PayPal Holdings, Under Armour (A Shares), Under Armour (C Shares), and Walt Disney. Jason Moser owns shares of Alphabet (C shares), Amazon, Apple, McCormick, PayPal Holdings, Square, Twitter, Under Armour (A Shares), Under Armour (C Shares), and Walt Disney. Matthew Argersinger owns shares of Alphabet (C shares), Amazon, Delta Air Lines, MongoDB, Netflix, Square, Tesla, Twilio, Twitter, Under Armour (C Shares), Walt Disney, and Zillow Group (A shares) and has the following options: long January 2019 $15 calls on Twitter. Ron Gross owns shares of Alphabet (C shares), Amazon, Apple, Berkshire Hathaway (B shares), Costco Wholesale, Facebook, Square, and Walt Disney. The Motley Fool owns shares of and recommends Alphabet (A shares), Alphabet (C shares), Alteryx, Amazon, Apple, Berkshire Hathaway (B shares), Facebook, Fitbit, MongoDB, Netflix, PayPal Holdings, Salesforce.com, Square, Tesla, Twilio, Twitter, Under Armour (A Shares), Under Armour (C Shares), Walt Disney, Zillow Group (A shares), and Zillow Group (C shares). The Motley Fool owns shares of Delta Air Lines and Oracle and has the following options: long January 2020 $150 calls on Apple, short January 2020 $155 calls on Apple, long January 2020 $30 calls on Oracle, short January 2019 $82 calls on PayPal Holdings, and short January 2019 $80 calls on Square. The Motley Fool recommends Costco Wholesale, eBay, McCormick, T-Mobile US, and Verizon Communications. The Motley Fool has a disclosure policy.
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