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CPSM1 Foundation of Supply Management

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CPSM1 exam Dumps Source : Foundation of Supply Management

Test Code : CPSM1
Test designation : Foundation of Supply Management
Vendor designation : ISM
real questions : 128 existent Questions

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ISM Foundation of Supply Management

ISM 2018: Institute for provide management declares R. Gene Richter Scholarship Recipients | killexams.com existent Questions and Pass4sure dumps

by means of SCMR workforce · can besides 10, 2018

Six outstanding school college students interested in procurement, give administration or provide chain administration are actually one step nearer to their dream careers.

these days, the Institute for provide management, the main no longer-for-income, independent resource for the provide management profession, announced the winners of this year’s R. Gene Richter Scholarships, awarded collectively with the R. Gene and Nancy D. Richter foundation. every student is receiving a $10,000 award ($5,000 for December graduates) to keep toward their senior-yr training in 2018-2019.  ISM made the announcement at its annual international conference, ISM 2018, held in Nashville from might besides 6-9. Winners include:

·      supply Edwards, Howard school

·      Taylor Harris, Arizona situation tuition

·      Justin Hyrb, Duquesne university

·      Sarah Jonckheere, Michigan situation university

·      Abrah Meyer, Iowa situation tuition

·      Matt Rowley, institution of Minnesota

“we're completely delighted to welcome these college students to their supply management group, and to supply academic, mentoring and networking alternatives to speedy-music their careers. each of them has verified the odds so as to add value to the give administration occupation, and they can breathe excited to music their progress within the years forward,” mentioned Tom Derry, CEO of ISM.

the entire Richter scholars were invited to attend ISM 2018, the main world conference for the give management career, which is attracting 3,000 contributors this 12 months. they're besides now enrolled in a discrete mentoring program, pairing them with each an government and a outdated scholarship winner. Their mentors escorted them to a Richter Awards Presentation Dinner on may 7, where they fill been the visitors of honor.

additionally, twelve months after commencement (may additionally 2020) and following completion of real-world adventure, they are going to fill the opportunity to Take portion in an invite best ExecIn: govt software for the executive leadership of the career held similtaneously with the ISM Annual conference.

The R. Gene Richter Scholarship program became based and named in reminiscence of R. Gene Richter, who turned into a galvanizing drive in the box of procurement. Richter was admired for elevating the profession to world-class stature. He led the supply organizations at the Black & Decker company, Hewlett-Packard and overseas business Machines (IBM). For greater information on the R. Gene Richter Scholarship software, consult with http://www.instituteforsupplymanagement.org/Richter or www.richterfoundation.org.

may besides 10, 2018

The exact 8 give chain administration certifications | killexams.com existent Questions and Pass4sure dumps

provide chain management is a starting to breathe sphere and a delightful profession, as a fresh survey from the affiliation for supply Chain management (APICS) create that 96 p.c of those surveyed had been extremely convinced with their career in SCM, with ordinary ranking of eight.4 out of 10. The survey besides create that it pays to salvage certified. SCM professionals with as a minimum one certification salvage paid on commonplace 19 percent greater than people who aren’t certified, and those with two or three certifications win salaries which are 39 p.c and 50 % greater than the median, respectively.

whether you’re already making a career in deliver chain administration, or are looking to damage into the field, here are eight give chain management certifications that can circular out your resume and provides you a leg up against the competition.

  • APICS certified supply Chain professional certification (CSCP)
  • APICS certified in creation and stock management (CPIM)
  • APICS provide Chain Operations Reference (SCOR-P) Endorsement
  • ISM certified expert in deliver administration (CPSM)
  • ISM certified skilled in organisation variety (CPSD)
  • SCPro Council of supply Chain management specialists (CSCMP)
  • SOLE certified professional Logistician (CPL)
  • NCMA licensed knowledgeable condense manager (CPCM)
  • APICS licensed give Chain knowledgeable certification (CSCP)

    The association for deliver Chain management (APICS) presents three certifications to exhibit your SCM talents. To breathe eligible to Take the CSCP exam, you’ll want three years related event or a bachelor’s diploma or overseas equal. To preserve the certification, you’ll necessity to win a complete of seventy five knowledgeable edifice facets each 5 years. in case your certification isn’t maintained within five years, it will expire earlier than the 10-yr sequel and you'll breathe required to retake the examination. For each year that your certification is suspended, you’ll deserve to set up an extra 15 knowledgeable edifice aspects.

    exam charge: $695 for Plus individuals, $965 for Core and non-members

    Retake charge: $450

    Renewal fee: $seventy five for participants, $a hundred and fifty for non-individuals

    Expiration: 10 years

    APICS licensed in creation and stock administration (CPIM)

    You’ll should tide two checks within three years to win your creation and stock administration (CPIM) certification from APICS, and you’ll deserve to hold your certification every five years with the aid of completing seventy five knowledgeable construction features. When because the cost, breathe sensible that you’ll fill to pay the permeate for both tests — the payment handiest applies to 1 exam at a time. just enjoy the CSCP certification, you’ll deserve to submit an additional 15 facets for each year your certification is suspended if you let it lapse.

    examination payment: $495 per examination for Plus individuals, $690 per exam for Core and non-individuals

    Retake fee: $250

    Renewal fee: $75 for members, $one hundred fifty for non-members

    Expiration: 10 years

    APICS provide Chain Operations Reference (SCOR-P) Endorsement

    The SCOR-P endorsement from APICS validates your capabilities in the deliver Chain Operations Reference (SCOR) mannequin and techniques. The SCOR model is a supply chain approach that helps hyperlink SCM to enterprise goals, metrics, processes and other interior departments and stakeholders. The examination is included within the course, which noticeably covers the SCOR model to aid you apply it to true-life deliver chain issues, assist organizational desires, enhance effectivity, prepare SCOR initiatives and implement methods. 

    exam price: The exam is protected within the course fee, which varies per software

    Retake fee: $350

    Renewal fee: N/A

    Expiration: N/A

    ISM certified expert in supply management (CPSM)

    The Institute for provide management (ISM) presents a professional in supply administration (CPSM) certification that validates your competencies on provide management features across several industries. roam three exams so that you can Take in any order — to qualify, you’ll want three years of full-time SCM experience able that isn’t clerical or support. To retain and renew your certification after 4 years, you’ll deserve to win 60 hours of accredited carrying on with education credits. in case you already passed ISM’s CPSD certification (see below), you will not necessity to Take the groundwork exam for the CPSM certification, on account that it’s included in both. if you aren’t already a member, the cost of the non-member charge for the exam besides contains twelve months of ISM Direct membership.  

    application charge: $119 for individuals, $179 for non-members

    exam charge: $229 for participants, $379 for non-participants

    Retake fee: $379

    Renewal charge: $seventy five for participants, $a hundred and fifty for non-participants

    Expiration: 4 years

    ISM licensed expert in company diversity (CPSD)

    The 2d certification from the ISM is the licensed knowledgeable organisation variety (CPSD) certification, which which you can win on exact of the CPSM certification from ISM. The CPSD certification carries two checks — however you could skip the foundational exam in case you already dangle your CPSM exam. To qualify for the exam, you’ll necessity three years of organisation variety or management event and a bachelor’s diploma, or five years of experience. To preserve your certification, you’ll deserve to finished 50 hours of accredited continuing training credit over a three-yr duration.

    software charge: $119 for individuals, $179 for non-contributors

    examination payment: $229 for individuals, $379 for non-members

    Retake fee: $379

    Renewal fee: $seventy five for members, $one hundred fifty for non-individuals

    Expiration: three years

    SCPro Council of supply Chain management specialists (CSCMP)

    The SCPro Council of supply Chain administration authorities (CSCMP) certification is pleasing in that it combines a multi-degree schooling with a 3-tiered examination system. There are three levels of SCPro certification and the first level, Cornerstones of provide Chain management, covers the basics and eight points of give chain management. at the 2d stage, analysis and software of provide Chain Challenges, you’ll breathe demonstrated in your capacity to keep SCM expertise in discrete situations. The third and final degree, Initiation of provide Chain Transformation, certifies your faculty to “positively fill an repercussion on a firm” through a fingers-on mission that demonstrates your expertise.  

    you'll should renew your certification for everybitof three ranges every three years, for you to require 60 hours of eligible professional edifice activities. you'll should complete at the least 20 hours of expert construction annually, however no greater than 30 hours per yr.

    degree 1 examination fee: $650 for individuals, $975 for non-individuals

    level 2 exam charge: $1,095 for members, $1,500 for non-members

    stage 3 examination price: N/A

    Renewal payment: $50 for contributors, $a hundred for non-individuals

    Expiration: four years

    SOLE licensed skilled Logistician (CPL)

    The international Society of Logistics (SOLE) offers a licensed professional Logistician (CPL) certification in logistics, which is a key aspect of give chain management in obvious industries corresponding to commerce, protection, federal and local executive agencies and education. The examination takes zone over a six-hour period, with three two-hour periods; you are going to necessity to tide everybitof three tests earlier than which you could win your certification.

    To qualify for the CPL exam, you’ll want as a minimum 9 years’ experience training or instructing logistics and two years’ journey in as a minimum two fields of logistics. each and every year of undergraduate accredited coursework in logistics subjects is such as 365 days of knowledgeable adventure, as much as four years. For those with a grasp’s diploma or doctoral degree, you’ll necessity 4 or three years’ additional journey, respectively.

    exam payment: $225 for contributors, $375 for non-contributors

    Retake price: $50

    Renewal price: N/A

    Expiration: doesn't expire

    NCMA certified professional condense supervisor (CPCM)

    The country wide condense management affiliation (NCMA) presents multiple certifications, together with the certified skilled condense manager (CPCM). Candidates for the exam will necessity a powerful knowing of the certified management physique of information (CMBOK), company and working towards education and at least 5 years’ event in a principal field. The NCMA besides offers a licensed Federal condense manager (CFCM) certification for these working in or with the government and a licensed business condense manager (CCCM) certification for those within the industrial business.

    application price: $210 for individuals, $410 for non-contributors

    exam payment: $125 for home, $one hundred fifty for overseas tests

    Retake payment: $one hundred for home, $a hundred thirty for alien exams

    Renewal price: $95 for contributors, $a hundred forty five non-individuals

    Expiration: 5 years


    Prestigious provide management Scholarship Doubles Award for Eligible faculty Seniors | killexams.com existent Questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Institute for give management® declares it'll award $10,000 scholarships for the R. Gene Richter Scholarship in 2018

    TEMPE, Ariz., Oct. 19, 2017 /PRNewswire/ --The Institute for give management® and the R. Gene and Nancy D. Richter foundation fill announced that they fill got doubled the celebrated, annual R. Gene Richter Scholarship for people searching for education in deliver administration, supply chain management or procurement to the volume of $10,000 ($5,000 for December graduates). historically, the organizations awarded $5,000 scholarships ($2,500 for December graduates). functions for the scholarship program are now open, and the replete scholarship software can breathe discovered here.

    "past winners of the annual R. Gene Richter Scholarship fill in fact benefited from the application's tuition assistance, executive mentoring, junior mentoring and networking," referred to Tom Derry, ISM CEO. "we are blissful to extend this 12 months's scholarship award to continue to speedy-song promising, future leaders of deliver management into the career."

    students eligible for the scholarships should breathe of their senior yr during the 2018–2019 educational year and breathe enrolled full-time in an authorized provide management software with the aim of specializing within the provide management occupation. Winners of the scholarships are awarded the $10,000 (December graduates might breathe awarded $5,000) for exhaust towards tutorial costs. moreover, students are enrolled in a mentoring software the site they are paired with both an executive in give chain management and a old scholarship winner. latest-12 months recipients are invited to attend ISM2018, Annual conference in Nashville, Tennessee, can besides 6-9, 2018. They should breathe the visitors of veneration at a special Richter Awards Presentation Dinner on Monday, may 7, 2018 and should breathe escorted to this ceremonial dinner with the aid of their mentors.

    additionally, twelve months after commencement (may additionally 2020) and following completion of precise-world experience within the box of provide chain administration, Richter students are invited to Take portion in an invitation best ExecIn: government application for the executive leadership of the profession held similtaneously with the ISM Annual conference.

    The R. Gene Richter Scholarship software become based and named in recollection of R. Gene Richter, who become a galvanizing force within the box of procurement. Richter is admired for elevating the profession to world-class stature. He led the give organizations at the Black & Decker enterprise, Hewlett-Packard and international company Machines (IBM). For more suggestions on the R. Gene Richter Scholarship application, contend with www.instituteforsupplymanagement.org/Richter or www.richterfoundation.org.

    About Institute for provide administration®

    Institute for give administration® (ISM®) serves provide management authorities in additional than 90 nations. Its 50,000 global individuals everywhere manage $1 trillion in corporate and govt supply chain procurement annually. based in 1915 because the first provide administration institute in the world, ISM is dedicated to advancing the follow of provide administration to pressure value and competitive abilities, contributing to a affluent and sustainable world. ISM leads the occupation in the course of the ISM record On business®, its extremely regarded certification programs and the ISM Mastery model™. For greater guidance, visit: www.instituteforsupplymanagement.org.

    Media contact: Riley Conover, rconover@instituteforsupplymanagement.org, 480-752-6276

    Institute for Supply Management logo. (PRNewsFoto/Institute for Supply Management)

     

    View customary content with multimedia:https://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/prestigious-deliver-administration-scholarship-doubles-award-for-eligible-college-seniors-300539755.html

    supply Institute for give administration


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    Foundation of Supply Management

    Pass 4 confident CPSM1 dumps | Killexams.com CPSM1 existent questions | http://heckeronline.de/

    Blockchain Technology — The fresh Foundation of effective & Transparent Supply Chain Management | killexams.com existent questions and Pass4sure dumps

    MEDICIBlockedUnblockFollowFollowing

    Feb 12, 2018

    Read the replete legend here.

    Consumers know surprisingly minute about most of the products in everyday use. A highly connected and extensive network of retailers, distributors, transporters, storage facilities, and suppliers stand between individuals and products they consume. An middling consumer only gets to like the cease result of design, production, delivery, and sales process of products, without ever knowing the chain of events and parties making it possible.

    Let’s learn at the flower business as an illustration of the scale and level of inefficiency of modern processes. The value of the global flower trade industry is nearly $105 billion. Around 700,000 metric tons of slice flowers are shipped each year. Shipping information passes through many hands, increasing the potential for delays in transport. One shipment can require sign-off from 30 unique organizations and up to 200 communications. A sole lost figure or late approval could leave the container stuck at port.

    The entire process can Take more than one month, but with digitization and blockchain-based process management, the container’s path can breathe traced with exceptional transparency and security, not mentioning the elimination of delays, resulting in significant cost savings for everybitof parties. Any interested party with the goal to explore a particular step in the process to execute the attribute assessment will breathe able to audit the network in which every step is verified by the material performing party.

    The above-described inefficiencies enact not cover everybitof existing issues. Sweetbridge Foundation details more pressing problems facing global supply chains today, which include:

  • Lack of liquidity: At any given moment, there are $3.9 trillion tied up in the net working capital in supply chains. Liquidity solutions are frequently expensive, tie up borrowing capacity, and are often unavailable to companies that necessity it most. Working capital optimization is a captious necessity for supply chain participants.
  • Inefficient allocation of resources: Only 75% of the $70 trillion in global supply chain assets are utilized at any given time. Factories, warehouses, planes, ships, trains, and trucks are expensive, yet there is a surprising amount of excess capacity across the extended network. Companies maintain information silos and asymmetries as a competitive odds and avoid disclosing their unused capacity. This prevents significant optimizations in supply chains.
  • High risks inherent in optimization: Organizations find it difficult to measure the performance of their systems and, consequently, to retain effective talent for the purpose of supply chain optimization. Enabling such optimization can easily lead to efficiency gains of 5 to 10% ($2.7 trillion to $5.4 trillion globally).
  • Disruptive change: Today’s disruptive pace of technological change presents existential risks for entities from everybitof industries. Current supply chain participants must extend their global agility, transparency, and efficiency to quickly respond to sudden shifts affecting today’s markets.
  • Needless to repeat, supply chain management remains one of the most complicated and impactful parts of commerce and retail, with very minute innovation brought into this seemingly unsexy industry. Fortunately, supply chain management and logistics are among the cases where blockchain technology is believed to breathe having advantages over conventional systems. The specter of benefits resulting from supply chain processes being carved into ledgers encompasses greater security, efficiency & transparency, among other things.

    In fact, as IBM emphasizes, traceability and transparency are some of the most Important foundations of logistics. Supply chain management on a distributed ledger allows for a more efficient issue tracking and resolution, reduces delays from paperwork, increases consumer and ally trust, minimizes courier costs, improves inventory management, as well as offers to reduce or completely eradicate fraud and errors. The tech corporation explains that distributed ledgers that create a permanent and shared record of every transaction associated with an asset create an unbroken chain of trust. Each record is time-stamped and appended to the event before it. With that, blockchains fill the potential to generate breakthroughs in three areas: visibility, optimization, and demand.

    Continue reading here.


    Ending Supply-Chain Slavery: Is Asia Ready? | killexams.com existent questions and Pass4sure dumps

    February 27, 2019

    By Melissa Chong

    More than 40 million people are victims of modern-day slavery. Two-thirds of them are in Asia, and most of them toil in industries deeply embedded in global supply chains. But a growing international movement is calling businesses to account for human rights, and supply-chain transparency is the fresh frontline in this ongoing battle.

    Supply-chain slavery—consumers will claim its cease  

    Speaking at a recent conference, Michael Fletcher, chief commercial officer of supermarket giant the Co-op, said that concern for the plight of supply-chain workers may breathe nearing a tipping point where consumers will claim corporate action to cease slavery, just as educated consumers began to push for a phase-out of plastics.

    We’ve near a long pass since 2010, when the intentional UN Guiding Principles on business and Human Rights (UNGPs) ended years of international stalemate over corporate responsibility. We’re entering uncharted territory, as one national government after another mandates corporate transparency on human rights in their supply chains. As of 2018, eight G20 countries had passed legislation to fight supply-chain slavery.

    First came the UK’s groundbreaking Modern Slavery Act 2015, requiring companies with annual revenues of more than £36 million to annually report the steps they fill taken to eradicate slavery and trafficking from their supply chains. It was a first in Europe and the second globally after the California Transparency in Supply Chains Act 2010.

    A year later, France passed its Duty of Vigilance Law—one of the broadest measures to date. Australia passed its own bill eventual November, the Modern Slavery Act 2018, effective in 2019, that covers an estimated 3,000 entities in Australia.

    Similar laws are already in site in the Netherlands, the United States, and the European Union, and Canada and Hong Kong may soon combine the international fraternity as well. The latter has renewed its push for a law that includes civil and criminal liabilities for individuals as well as their corporate entities.

    Will Asia breathe next?

    This movement is noiseless largely confined to the West, but Asia could breathe next.

    “It is likely to happen. Something is already taking place,” says Professor Surya Deva, Asia-Pacific representative of the United Nations Working Group on business and Human Rights. “For instance, Indonesia has already issued some regulations in the fishing sector. Thailand is another example.”

    Indeed, Thailand this month released for public comment the final draft of its National Action blueprint on business and Human Rights (NAP), begun after allegations of slavery in its fishing industry first swept the nation in 2013. Slated for launch in late 2019, and led by the Ministry of Justice, the NAP will focus on the priority areas of labor; land, the environment, and natural resources; empowering human rights defenders; and cross-border investment and multinational enterprises. Following closely behind is India, with the zero draft of its NAP out this month, and Indonesia is starting its own NAP process.

    “What is happening in Thailand and besides in India regarding national guidelines on accountable business conduct, I think, are the two biggest policy movements that may pave the pass for this sort of legislation,” says Livio Sarandrea, business and human rights advisor from UNDP, who is leading the international team helping various governments with their NAPs. “I don’t think it’s impossible that this might happen. But if it does happen, what’s even more Important is that they are serious about it and implement it.”

    Negotiations for a binding treaty

    At the United Nations, negotiations are under pass for a binding treaty requiring governments to regulate the activities of businesses under human rights law. The zero draft, released in July 2018, calls for states to execute human-rights compliance a precondition for doing business, regardless of the business case for doing so. Interestingly, discussions fill included removing the distinction between parent companies and subsidiaries, addressing the perennial difficulty of applying national laws to preclude corporate malfeasance that is often extraterritorial.

    Unlike previous attempts by the UN, Professor Deva believes this treaty has a random for success.

    First, the UNGPs are now widely accepted, providing a springboard for other initiatives. Second, states now realize that corporate misdeeds lead to negative outcomes—whether it’s tax evasion, interference in the democratic process, or long, drawn-out lawsuits. Third, an unprecedented civil society mobilization continues to set pressure on states to discontinue corporate misconduct.

    A growing civil society movement

    Over the eventual few years, there has been an observable extend in civil society activism in Asia targeting corporate human rights performance, and more actors fill joined the clarion convene for greater corporate accountability.

    “The growing civil society momentum on business and human rights is difficult to miss,” says Ismail Wolff, cofounder and executive director of ASEAN Parliamentarians for Human Rights, which recently expanded its programs to cover business and human rights issues.

    The business and Human Rights Resource Centre, an established research institute and a keen observer in this space, has eminent a similar trend. “There is a growing business and human rights movement in Asia, and they can observe this in the growing interest in forming groups to learn at business and human rights issues in the region,” says Golda Benjamin, their Southeast Asia researcher. “This growth in the movement is necessary precisely because Asia’s economic role is ever growing in the world. Asian countries’ investments outside and inside the region are expanding significantly.”

    Growing discontent 

    High-profile cases of corporate human rights abuses, from catastrophic dam collapses in Laos to forced evictions in Cambodia, factory fires in Bangladesh, and murders of human rights defenders in India, continue to fuel public outcry in Asia. Companies are sentiment the pressure to breathe transparent—and not just after the fact. In this environment, companies in Asia will enact well to breathe proactive about human rights, particularly in their supply chains, keeping an eye on feasible regulations coming their way.

    This article previously appeared, in slightly different form, on the blog of Corporate Citizenship, and is reposted here by permission.

    Melissa Chong, a 2018 Asia Foundation progress Fellow, is a consultant at Corporate Citizenship, a management consultancy specializing in sustainability and corporate responsibility, where she is an advocate for human rights in Southeast Asian businesses. She can breathe reached at melissa.chong@Corporate-Citizenship.com. The views and opinions expressed here are those of the author, not those of The Asia Foundation.


    Smart packaging: challenges and opportunities in the supply chain | killexams.com existent questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Technology

    New packaging technologies fill the faculty to monitor a product and its environment and act on any changes in the two. These innovations fill the potential to dramatically ameliorate supply chain operations, but companies must first overcome some significant challenges.

    Enhancing product traceability—or the degree to which product information and locality can breathe ascertained at any given point within the supply chain—is one of the most captious supply chain improvements that a company can make.1 Traceability ensures that every node in the supply chain can breathe confident in the authenticity of the product because it can track where the product has been. It helps members of a supply chain detect whether products did not near from the manufacturer, were diverted during transport, were introduced or re-introduced at inappropriate times and locations, or re-entered the supply chain after they were identified to fill been administered already. In other words, by improving traceability, companies are better equipped to know whether a product has been diverted, counterfeited, or otherwise tampered with during transportation and storage—serious concerns for many supply chains.

    One pass that companies can ameliorate product traceability is by using innovative fresh packaging technologies known collectively as smart packaging. Smart packaging solutions fill the potential to greatly enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of supply chains, particularly in industries such as food and beverage and pharmaceutical and health care. However, some major challenges noiseless fib in the pass of full-scale adoption of these packaging technologies. Companies should breathe well-versed in both the benefits and challenges of smart packaging before they pursue potential applications.

    What is smart packaging?

    A smart package is anything that offers "something extra" in addition to the containment of the product. These "extras" could breathe anything from extended shelf life to displays and indicators for temperature, pH, moisture, and freshness, to a tracking device. In this sense, smart packaging is closely related to other terms for innovative packaging products, such as vigorous packaging and knowing packaging.

    Active packaging: The main level of vigorous packaging technology is to sustain product attribute and prolong shelf life. vigorous packaging responds to a triggering event (such as exposure to ultraviolet light or a lessen in pressure) by releasing or absorbing substances from or into the packaged product or its surrounding environment. Typically, this involves different components,such as moisture or gas scavengers or antimicrobial films, being embedded into the packaging itself.2,3 A superior illustration of vigorous packaging is oxygen scavenger technology that is used in packaging for oxygen-sensitive products such as pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, food, and additives. Oxygen scavengers remove or lessen the level of oxygen in the package, which can succor maintain product safety and extend shelf life.

    Intelligent Packaging: According to most packaging experts, knowing packaging is mainly used "to monitor the condition of a packaged product" and to "capture and provide information on the attribute of the packaged superior during transport and storage."4 A simple definition of knowing packaging is "packaging which senses and informs." Accordingly, knowing packaging systems consist of hardware components, such as time-temperature indicators (TTI), gas detectors, freshness and/or ripening indicators, and radio frequency identification (RFID) systems.

    Smart packaging: Smart packaging has been introduced as a combination of knowing and vigorous packaging. This sort of advanced packaging system can monitor changes in a product or its environment (intelligent) and act upon these changes (active).5 It can actively monitor and control the environment of a package and communicate with an external interface (either electrical or optical).

    Smart packaging often uses sensors or smart labels to monitor product quality, storage conditions, or the outside environment.6 For example, smart packaging with TTIs can record both time and temperature and provide a partial or replete temperature history of a product.7 Another illustration is RFID-based packaging. Sensor-based RFID technology can breathe integrated into the product's packaging to track and trail the root of the product and any sources of contamination or tampering within the supply chain.

    The ultimate goals of these three packaging innovations include shelf-life extension, freshness monitoring, exchanging information on attribute with consumers, safety improvement, improving convenience, enhancing traceability, and improving targeted recalls, among others. As reported by a 2018 Market Research Future research report, the global smart packaging market is currently estimated at US$46.74 billion and is forecast to grow at a robust compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 5.16 percent from 2017 through 2023.8 The expected growth of smart packaging suggests that companies necessity to continue to learn more about these packaging innovations in order to retain pace with their competitors.

    Supply chain applications

    There are many potential applications for smart packaging in areas where traditional packaging has not been able to adequately ply heightened customer expectations and increased product complexity. Consumers are looking for cost-effective, easy-to-transport, and aesthetically pleasing packaging that not only can guaranteethe freshness and integrity of the product but besides can inform them about product history and/or condition. Smart packaging can breathe used to relay this information—sometimes through interacting with the consumer's smartphone or other device.

    In particular, there is a powerful potential for smart packaging in industry segments where traceability is a top priority, such as food and beverage and pharmaceutical and health care.

    Food supply chain: Packaging has become an essential technology in the food chain to ensure safety, avoid undesired reactions, fill consumer expectations, and extend food shelf life.9 It is not surprising, then, that the food and beverage sector is currently the largest market for smart packaging, accounting for more than 45 percent (or US$10.8 billion) of global sales in 2015.10 Indeed most smart packaging solutions were developed and targeted toward the food supply chain in an application to reduce food loss and waste.

    According to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations, each year one-third of everybitof food produced globally for human consumption—1.3 billion tons—is lost or wasted, causing massive monetary losses and squandering natural resources.11 In the United States alone, 126 million metric tons of food were wasted in 2017, with approximately 57 million tons of that squander being generated in the consumer stages of the food supply chain.12 Although everybitof actors in the food chain fill a role to play in preventing and reducing food waste, the prevalence of household squander suggests that smart packaging's faculty to reduce spoilage and extend shelf life can play a large role in addressing this problem.

    Many technologies exist today that can either track or test (but usually not both) agri-food products for contamination as they travel through the supply chain. However, these techniques are cost prohibitive, and testing slows down the supply chain since qualification and quantification tests for randomized samples are often performed through external technical and certified laboratories. Also, it is currently difficult to salvage the data related to testing and tracking to the end-user because of gaps or breaks in the data stream or an inability to participate the information with the consumer. Thus, the industry noiseless needs technologies that can seamlessly track, test, and participate data about agri-food products throughout the supply chain without requiring any significant change to the existing infrastructure. There is, for example, powerful interest in the industry in creating an effective detection and monitoring system that can provide data about any exceptions to certain sets of target markers, such as chemical, physical, or biological indicators for organic and inorganic volatile compounds and pathogens. This data could breathe used in mathematical models to generate predictions about product attribute and shelf life.

    One illustration of such a system might breathe a label-like technology that is applied to food packaging or a container and provides tracking and sensing. The data from the label would breathe uploaded on the Internet without any human intervention for information sharing and analysis. For example, smart RFID tags could breathe integrated with a sensing factor such as a chemical responsive coating, litmus paper, or conductivity electrode that would detect any changes in the food that might attest spoilage. This information would then breathe read by smart RFID tag readers, allowing the company to track not only the location of the food but besides its quality. Although RFID infrastructure is well-developed and has gained significant momentum over the eventual decade, there are currently only a few commercially available smart packaging systems that exhaust RFID tags to track and record food quality.

    Pharmaceutical and health supervision supply chain:Pharmaceutical and health supervision industries are besides large potential markets for smart packaging. As reported by the 2018 Market Research Future report, the health supervision segment accounted for around 15 percent of the global smart packaging market in 2015 and is expected to grow at a CAGR of over 12 percent from 2016 to 2024.13

    The health supervision and pharmaceutical segments are seen as a major growth market for smart packaging because there is such a mammoth necessity to ameliorate supply chain visibility in these industries. Smart packaging solutions (such as RFID-enabled packaging, Wi-Fi-enabled devices, and smart automatic dispensers) could succor companies better detect potential theft, counterfeiting, or contamination of medications. In order to ensure that patients receive authentic, attribute medications, companies must breathe able to trail the individual product back to the originating manufacturer and track and monitor the product as it leaves from and arrives at the various nodes throughout the supply chain. They besides want to observe in existent time when a product is diverted, thereby having the opportunity to intercept the shipment and remediate the risk of lost revenue due to the theft, as well as the potential to exhaust that product to create counterfeits. By providing this level of visibility and traceability, smart packaging could besides succor companies comply with government regulations and health supervision reforms.

    Smart packaging can besides breathe used to relay information to consumers to succor them better understand a product and how to interact with it safely. It can succor patients adhere to their prescribed medication regimen. Smart pill bottles, smart caps, smart automatic pill dispensers, and smart medication cabinets, for example, could communicate with the consumers' smartphones, tablets, or other Wi-Fi-enabled devices to remind them to Take their medication. These smart packaging solutions could besides supply consumers with a dosage schedule for attaining optimum results. Some examples of commercially available products include (but are not limited to) Pilleve, TAD, PillDrill, Baswen, Inpower, MedMinder, and AdhereTech.

    Smart packaging applications are not limited to the food and pharmaceutical industries. Other industries, such as personal care, automotive, and logistics, may besides beinterested in adopting smart packaging in order to ameliorate product protection and real-time tracking and to preclude incidents of thefts, diversion, organized crime, and counterfeiting.

    Challenges ahead

    In spite of the covenant of smart packaging, several challenges fib in the pass of it being more broadly adopted. Here are just a few of the major ones that companies necessity to breathe sensible of:

    Extra cost: Smart packaging solutions are not cheap, especially compared to more traditional packaging solutions such as corrugated boxes, stretch wrap, and pallets. One intuition for this extra cost is that smart packaging is not yet in the mass manufacturing stage, which would reduce its costs.

    Lack of solid business case: Furthermore, because most smart packaging products are noiseless in the early stage of development, there are no long-term proven successes. This want of data makes it difficult to develop a solid and robust commercial business model for the product. Moreover, there is not yet any sense of the total cost of ownership for smart packaging. Nor is there any comprehensive assay about the costs that the technology could Take out of the supply chain or the value it could provide. Industry needs a comprehensive end-to-end value chain study that would include the final cost of the packaging solutions, where these solutions can breathe deployed, key customers most willing to adopt fresh packaging solutions, and where the technology has the maximum potential to provide a significant impact.

    Need for fresh manufacturing techniques: Before smart packaging can breathe applied to a variety of products, manufacturers will necessity to develop techniques for fabricating such sensors and indicators that are compatible with current packaging standards. Printing is one manufacturing technique that has received significant attention from the research and manufacturing community. Researchers fill create printing methods to breathe revolutionary approaches for fabricating smart packaging due to their faculty to directly deposit electronics (for illustration sensors, batteries, RFID tags, and displays) on elastic substrates in an efficient, scalable, and cost-effective manner.14,15,16,17

    Sustainability: Many of the components of smart packaging are not completely sustainable and simply enact not suitable into the environmentally friendly, green world that customers expect. In certain cases, some of these components (for example, batteries, sensors, displays, and circuits) are challenging to recycle. Without some degree of sustainability, the potential for smart packaging's implementation in a "sustainable world" will not breathe possible. It is vital to understand and measure the environmental repercussion of smart packaging components and their long-term viability. Solutions might include the exhaust of electronics that could transmogrify natural sources of energy such as solar energy to electricity, or the application of "green" elastic electronics that are mounted on biodegradable materials, such as paper.

    Legislation: Smart packaging's complicated composition besides creates legal complexity. Because smart packaging is made up of so many different components, it is matter to more regulations and legislation than traditional packaging. Tracking and complying with these regulations will require significant time and resources from manufacturers and their customers. Moreover, as innovative solutions are developing speedily and manufacturers and customers want to incorporate these fresh technologies into their packaging, legislation frameworks necessity to breathe elastic and easily updated to uphold and retain up with this highly innovative and fast-moving sector.

    Privacy Issues: Security and data privacy issues are besides top concerns for smart packaging systems that fill real-time monitoring and tracking features. Smart packaging systems may collect sensitive nonpublic information about the customer (such as identity, behavior, location, and preferences). This information must breathe protected against theft. Cryptography systems and blockchain are among the leading potential solutions to resolve these issues. Cryptography will succor smart packaging to store information so that it cannot breathe read by anyone except the intended recipient. Blockchain is a chain of digital "blocks" that contain records of transactions. Blockchain technology will execute it difficult to tamper with a sole record without a hacker being detected.

    Next steps

    Smart packaging has powerful potential for improving supply chain effectiveness and efficiency. There are many applications that could ameliorate customer satisfaction; extend visibility; ameliorate security and reliability of supply; preclude product diversion, counterfeit, and theft; and reduce product wastage. Integrating smart packaging solutions into the existing end-to-end supply chain could succor companies extend sales by improving customer satisfaction and loyalty and reduce expenses by improving key processes, reducing theft, and managing waste.

    However, industry must overcome some significant obstacles to the implementation of smart packaging, such as lofty mass-production costs, the complexity of integrating smart devices into current packaging lines, and concerns about security, data privacy, and sustainability.

    In some cases, advanced manufacturing technologies, such as roll-to-roll printing, and the implementation of the Internet of Things and blockchain may hold the retort to these problems. But in order to address and resolve all of the fundamental issues related to implementing smart packaging, cross collaboration among every node in the industrial supply chain is needed. Experts in manufacturing, analytical science, predictive models, data analytics, criminology, and business are needed to define a systematic approach for the integration of smart packaging solutions into the supply chain. Furthermore, both academia and industry necessity to travail together to understand everybitof of the tactical and operational parts of the supply chain that will breathe impacted by this fresh technology in the long term. Organizations and research institutes (see sidebar on the Axia Institute) could strive to bridge the gap between academia and industries. In the end, companies will necessity an integrated systems approach that will succor them understand packaging trends and reconcile their packaging and supply chain to meet changing demands.

    The Axia Institute and smart packaging

    Located in Midland, Michigan, the Axia Institute is a research and education seat dedicated to developing effective and sustainable solutions to ameliorate public and private value chains.

    The Axia Institute is interested in providing innovations in smart packaging, traceability, ersatz intelligence and data analytics, security, talent development, government regulations, and standards. It fosters collaboration and an integrated systems approach to value chain optimization, and it can succor industries understanding packaging trends and reconcile their packaging and their supply chain to meet changing demands.

    At the Axia Institute, researchers are developing a large portfolio of smart packaging solutions which enhance safety and traceability. These efforts include passive RFID-based sensing technologies that enact not require any batteries and are customizable for different products. These technologies provide capabilities that proceed beyond tracking, such as sensing, serialization, and anti-tampering. The Institute is besides developing both near-field and far-field RFID sensor technologies. Axia Institute's RFID-based sensor technology can breathe integrated into packaging and allows for the seamless interrogation of products in the supply chain with minimal human interaction. One illustration is an RIFD-based smart pill bottle solution developed by the researchers at the Axia Institute. This smart pill bottle limits unauthorized access to prescription medications by biometric authentication, tracks medication distribution via RFID technology, and reduces overdose risk by dispersion of anti-tampering materials when necessary.

    Established by Michigan situation University (MSU) in 2013, the institute expands on MSU's top-ranked Supply Chain Management program. The Institute was founded by leaders in value chain creation and progress at MSU, including the Eli Broad College of Business, the College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, College of Engineering, College of sociable Science, and School of Packaging. Founding donors include The Dow Chemical Company, Dow Corning Corporation, Herbert H. & Grace A. Dow Foundation, Rollin M. Gerstacker Foundation, The Dow Chemical Company Foundation, and the Charles J. Strosacker Foundation.

    Notes:

    1. T. Kelepourist, K. Pramatari, and G. Doukidis, "RFID-enabled traceability in the food supply chain," Industrial Management & Data Systems 107, no. 2 (2007): 183-200.

    2. I.S. Arvanitoyannis and A.C. Stratakos, "Application of modified atmosphere packaging and active/smart technologies to red meat and poultry: a review," Food and Bioprocess Technology 5, no. 5 (2012): 1423-1446.

    3. P. Prasad and A. Kochhar, "Active Packing in Food Industry: A Review," Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology} 8, no. 5 (2014): 1-7.

    4. J.P. Kerry, M.N. O'Grady, and S.A. Hogan, "Past, current and potential utilisation of vigorous and knowing packaging systems for meat and muscle-based products: A review," Meat Science 74 (2006): 113-130.

    5. M. Vanderroost, P. Ragaert, F. Devlieghere, and B. De Meulenaer, "Intelligent food packaging: The next generation," Trends in Food Science & Technology 39 (2014): 47-62.

    6. Y. Wyser, M. Adams, M. Avella, D. Carlander, L. Garcia, G. Pieper, M. Rennen, J. Schuermans, and J. Weiss, "Outlook and Challenges of Nanotechnologies for Food Packaging," Packaging Technology and Science 29 (2016): 615-648.

    7. T. Janjarasskul and P. Suppakul, "Active and knowing packaging: The indication of attribute and safety," captious Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 58, (2018): 808-831.

    8. Market Research Future, Smart Packaging Market Research Report, April 2018.

    9. E. Poyatos-Racionero, J.V. Ros-Lis, J.L. Vivancos, and R. Martínez-Mañez, "Recent advances on knowing packaging as tools to reduce food waste," Journal of Cleaner Production 172 (2018): 3398-3409.

    10. Market Research Future, 2018.

    11. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, "SAVE FOOD: Global initiative on food loss and squander reduction," retrieved from http://www.fao.org/save-food/en on January 13, 2019.

    12. U.S. Food Waste-Statistics & Facts. Retrieved from https://www.statista.com/statistics/530098/weight-of-wasted-food-by-facility-us/ on August 21, 2018.

    13. Market Research Future, 2018.

    14. Y. Kim, B. Jung, H. Lee, H. Kim, K. Lee, and H. Park, "Capacitive humidity sensor design based on anodic aluminum oxide," Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical 141 (2009): 441-446.

    15. M. A. Leenen, V. Arning, H. Thiem, J. Steiger, and R. Anselmann, "Printable electronics: flexibility for the future," Physica Status Solidi (a) 206, no. 4 (2009): 588-597.

    16. T.M. Kraft, P.R. Berger, and D. Lupo, "Printed and organic diodes: devices, circuits and applications," elastic and Printed Electronics 2 (2017): 033001.

    17. J. Semple, D.G. Georgiadou, G. Wyatt-Moon, G. Gelinck, and T.D. Anthopoulos, "Flexible diodes for radio frequency (RF) electronics: a materials perspective," Semiconductor Science and Technology 32 (2017): 1-45.

     

     

    Dr. Bahar Aliakbarian is a research associate professor at the Axia Institute within the Department of Supply Chain Management and adjunct associate professor at the School of Packaging at Michigan situation University.

    bahara at msu.edu

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