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one of the vital insidious barriers to constant birth (and to continuous circulation in software birth frequently) is the works-on-my-computer phenomenon. any person who has worked on a software progress crew or an infrastructure advocate crew has experienced it. any individual who works with such teams has heard the phrase spoken throughout (attempted) demos. The problem is so orthodox there’s even a badge for it:
possibly you've got earned this badge yourself. I Have a couple of. you'll want to discern my trophy room.
There’s a longstanding lifestyle on Agile teams that may additionally Have originated at ThoughtWorks around the turn of the century. It goes infatuation this: When someone violates the historical engineering principle, “Don’t enact the leisure stupid on goal,” they should pay a penalty. The penalty might breathe to drop a dollar into the group snack jar, or some thing an cross lot worse (for an introverted technical category), infatuation standing in entrance of the crew and singing a tune. To clarify a failed demo with a glib “<shrug>Works on my desktop!</shrug>” qualifies.
it may possibly not breathe feasible to retain away from the difficulty in everything situations. As Forrest Gump observed…smartly, you understand what he noted. but they can reduce the issue by using paying attention to a number of evident issues. (yes, I understand “glaring” is a breathe watchful for expend advisedly.)Pitfall #1: Leftover Configuration
difficulty: Leftover configuration from previous drudgery enables the code to drudgery on the construction ambiance (and perhaps the peruse at various ambiance, too) while it fails on other environments.Pitfall #2: development/look at various Configuration Differs From production
The options to this pitfall are so corresponding to those for Pitfall #1 that I’m going to group both.
answer (tl;dr): Don’t reuse environments.
ordinary condition: Many developers installation an environment they infatuation on their laptop/desktop or on the group’s shared progress environment. The environment grows from challenge to challenge as greater libraries are introduced and greater configuration options are set. now and again, the configurations combat with one one other, and groups/people regularly Make steer configuration adjustments reckoning on which assignment is energetic in the meanwhile.
It doesn’t hook lengthy for the building configuration to turn into very diverse from the configuration of the target creation ambiance. Libraries which are existing on the construction outfit can also not exist on the production system. You may rush your endemic checks assuming you’ve configured issues the identical as production simplest to find later that you’ve been using a unique version of a key library than the one in creation.
refined and unpredictable ameliorations in behavior turn up throughout construction, examine, and construction environments. The circumstance creates challenges now not handiest everything through construction however additionally during creation aid drudgery when we’re making an attempt to breed suggested behavior.
answer (long): Create an remoted, committed building atmosphere for every project.
There’s multiple functional strategy. which you can likely consider of a number of. listed below are a couple of possibilities:
All those options gained’t breathe feasible for each imaginable platform or stack. select and choose, and roll your own as appropriate. In generic, everything these items are fairly effortless to enact in case you’re engaged on Linux. everything of them can also breathe completed for other *nix techniques with some effort. Most of them are reasonably convenient to enact with windows; the best theme there's licensing, and in case your industry has an commercial enterprise license, you’re everything set. For different systems, similar to IBM zOS or HP NonStop, await to enact some hand-rolling of tools.
anything else that’s feasible to your situation and that helps you seclude your progress and check environments might breathe beneficial. in case you can’t enact everything these items for your condition, don’t breathe troubled about it. simply enact what that you can do.Provision a fresh VM in the community
if you’re working on a computer, desktop, or shared progress server running Linux, FreeBSD, Solaris, home windows, or OSX, then you definitely’re in first rate form. you can expend virtualization utility akin to VirtualBox or VMware to win up and split down endemic VMs at will. For the much less-mainstream platforms, you can also ought to build the virtualization device from supply.
One issue I usually advocate is that developers cultivate an perspective of laziness in themselves. neatly, the remedy sort of laziness, it is. You shouldn’t feel completely chuffed provisioning a server manually greater than as soon as. Make the exertion everything over that first provisioning pastime to script the stuff you learn along the manner. then you definitely won’t necessity to recollect them and iterate the identical mis-steps once again. (smartly, unless you savour that kind of thing, of direction.)
as an instance, here are a couple of provisioning scripts that I’ve win a hold of after I vital to install building environments. These are everything in keeping with Ubuntu Linux and written in Bash. I don’t understand if they’ll aid you, however they drudgery on my laptop.
in case your company is operating RedHat Linux in construction, you’ll probably want to modify these scripts to rush on CentOS or Fedora, so that your progress environments may breathe moderately nigh to the target environments. No massive deal.
in case you want to breathe even lazier, which you could expend a device infatuation Vagrant to simplify the configuration definitions to your VMs.
yet another factor: something scripts you write and whatever definition info you write for provisioning tools, preserve them below edition wield along with every assignment. Make certain whatever is in version wield for a given assignment is everything fundamental to drudgery on that project…code, tests, documentation, scripts…everything. here's rather important, I feel.Do Your construction in a Container
a technique of isolating your progress environment is to rush it in a container. many of the tools you’ll examine for those who search counsel about containers are in reality orchestration outfit intended to capitalize us maneuver discrete containers, customarily in a construction atmosphere. For endemic construction purposes, you truly don’t necessity that a lot performance. There are a couple of functional containers for this purpose:
These are Linux-based. no matter if it’s purposeful so you might containerize your construction environment is contingent upon what applied sciences you need. To containerize a building ambiance for another OS, equivalent to home windows, may additionally no longer breathe worth the exertion over simply working a full-blown VM. For other platforms, it’s likely inconceivable to containerize a construction environment.improve in the Cloud
here's a relatively fresh alternative, and it’s feasible for a limited set of applied sciences. The skills over constructing a local construction atmosphere is for you to arise a fresh environment for every task, guaranteeing you received’t Have any add-ons or configuration settings left over from outmoded work. listed here are a few alternate options:
predict to peruse these environments enhance, and prognosticate to peruse extra gamers in this market. investigate which applied sciences and languages are supported so discern no matter if one of these might breathe a proper on your wants. as a result of the rapid tempo of alternate, there’s no sense in checklist what’s obtainable as of the date of this text.Generate peruse at various Environments on the waft as a Part of Your CI build
after you Have a script that spins up a VM or configures a container, it’s light so as to add it to your CI build. The abilities is that your exams will rush on a pristine environment, without a probability of fake positives due to leftover configurations from previous versions of the utility or from other purposes that had up to now shared the identical static verify environment, or as a result of examine information modified in a outdated examine run.
Many people Have scripts that they’ve hacked as much as simplify their lives, however they may also now not breathe proper for unattended execution. Your scripts (or the tools you expend to interpret declarative configuration standards) necessity to breathe capable of rush with out issuing any prompts (equivalent to prompting for an administrator password). They also should breathe idempotent (it truly is, it gained’t enact any damage to rush them assorted times, within the case of restarts). Any runtime values that must breathe supplied to the script must breathe attainable via the script because it runs, and not require any manual “tweaking” just before each and every run.
The theory of “producing an atmosphere” might also sound infeasible for some stacks. hook the suggestion greatly. For a Linux atmosphere, it’s relatively universal to create a VM every time you want one. For other environments, you may now not breathe capable of enact just that, however there may well breathe some steps which you could hook according to the common suggestion of growing an environment on the fly.
as an example, a group working on a CICS application on an IBM mainframe can outline and start a CICS ambiance any time through running it as a yardstick job. in the early Nineteen Eighties, they used to enact that routinely. because the Eighties dragged on (and persevered through the Nineties and 2000s, in some corporations), the realm of corporate IT grew to breathe more and more bureaucratized except this potential became taken out of developers’ arms.
strangely, as of 2017 very few progress groups Have the alternative to rush their own CICS environments for experimentation, construction, and introductory checking out. I exclaim “strangely” as a result of so many different features of their working lives Have more suitable dramatically, while that factor seems to Have moved in retrograde. They don’t Have such issues working on the front conclusion of their functions, but once they circulation to the returned conclusion they plunge through a shape of time warp.
From a purely technical factor of view, there’s nothing to cease a construction group from doing this. It qualifies as “producing an atmosphere,” for my part. which you can’t rush a CICS outfit “within the cloud” or “on a VM” (as a minimum, not as of 2017), however that you may apply “cloud pondering” to the problem of managing your components.
in a similar fashion, that you can exercise “cloud pondering” to other supplies to your atmosphere, as neatly. expend your fancy and creativity. Isn’t that why you chose this bailiwick of work, in spite of everything?Generate construction Environments on the waft as Part of Your CD Pipeline
This suggestion is fairly an cross lot the identical as the outmoded one, apart from that it happens later within the CI/CD pipeline. once you Have some shape of automatic deployment in region, that you may lengthen that system to encompass instantly spinning up VMs or instantly reloading and provisioning hardware servers as Part of the deployment procedure. At that point, “deployment” in reality capacity developing and provisioning the target ambiance, as hostile to stirring code into an latest environment.
This strategy solves a couple of issues beyond yardstick configuration modifications. for example, if a hacker has brought anything else to the creation environment, rebuilding that ambiance out-of-source that you just manage eliminates that malware. americans are discovering there’s cost in rebuilding construction machines and VMs often notwithstanding there are not any changes to “installation,” for that rationale in addition to to obviate “configuration glide” that occurs once they keep adjustments over time to a long-working instance.
Many companies rush home windows servers in creation, primarily to steer third-birthday party packages that require that OS. a controversy with deploying to an latest home windows server is that many functions require an installer to breathe latest on the goal example. frequently, tips protection individuals glower on having installers obtainable on any creation instance. (FWIW, I consider them.)
in case you create a home windows VM or provision a windows server on the waft from controlled sources, then you definately don’t want the installer as soon as the provisioning is comprehensive. You won’t re-install an utility; if a metamorphosis is essential, you’ll rebuild the complete example. that you can set together the ambiance before it’s attainable in production, after which delete any installers that had been used to provision it. So, this approach addresses more than just the works-on-my-computer issue.
When it involves lower back-conclusion programs infatuation zOS, you gained’t breathe spinning up your personal CICS regions and LPARs for production deployment. The “cloud considering” in that case is to Have two identical creation environments. Deployment then becomes a reckon of switching site visitors between both environments, instead of migrating code. This makes it less difficult to invoke construction releases devoid of impacting customers. It also helps alleviate the works-on-my-computing device issue, as trying out late in the start cycle happens on a accurate construction environment (despite the fact that customers aren’t pointed to it yet).
The commonplace objection to here's the permeate (it is, costs paid to IBM) to steer twin environments. This objection is always raised by means of people who Have not completely analyzed the prices of everything the prolong and transform inherent in doing things the “historical approach.”Pitfall #three: unpleasant Surprises When Code Is Merged
issue: distinctive teams and people deal with code verify-out and verify-in in various ways. Some checkout code as soon as and modify it during the path of a venture, maybe over a epoch of weeks or months. Others consign petite alterations generally, updating their endemic copy and committing adjustments time and again per day. Most teams plunge somewhere between those extremes.
often, the longer you maintain code checked out and the more adjustments you are making to it, the better the chances of a crash in the event you merge. It’s also doubtless that you will Have forgotten precisely why you made each cramped change, and so will the other americans who've modified the identical chunks of code. Merges may also breathe a hassle.
during these merge routine, everything other cost-add drudgery stops. everyone is making an attempt to drudgery out a way to merge the alterations. Tempers flare. every person can declare, precisely, that the system works on their computer.
answer: a simple solution to retain away from this kind of thing is to consign petite alterations frequently, rush the peruse at various suite with everything and sundry’s adjustments in region, and hook permeate of minor collisions rapidly earlier than remembrance fades. It’s noticeably much less traumatic.
The better Part is you don’t want any special tooling to enact this. It’s simply a query of self-discipline. on the other hand, it most efficient takes one particular person who maintains code checked out for a very long time to mess each person else up. breathe watchful about that, and kindly aid your colleagues establish first rate habits.Pitfall #4: Integration mistakes discovered Late
issue: This difficulty is akin to Pitfall #3, however one stage of abstraction higher. besides the fact that a crew commits petite alterations commonly and runs a comprehensive suite of computerized checks with each commit, they may also event immense considerations integrating their code with other add-ons of the answer, or interacting with different purposes in context.
The code may also drudgery on my computing device, as well as on my team’s integration examine atmosphere, however as soon as they hook the subsequent step forward, everything hell breaks unfastened.
solution: There are a few options to this issue. the first is static code analysis. It’s becoming the norm for a constant integration pipeline to include static code analysis as Part of every build. This occurs earlier than the code is compiled. Static code analysis outfit investigate the supply code as text, looking for patterns which are ordinary to effect in integration mistake (among different issues).
Static code evaluation can notice structural complications within the code equivalent to cyclic dependencies and exorbitant cyclomatic complexity, in addition to other basic issues infatuation inanimate code and violations of coding requirements that are likely to raise cruft in a codebase. It’s just the sort of cruft that causes merge hassles, too.
A linked recommendation is to hook any warning degree blunders from static code evaluation outfit and from compilers as existent mistakes. collecting warning stage errors is a marvelous strategy to emerge as with mysterious, unexpected behaviors at runtime.
The 2d solution is to integrate add-ons and rush automatic integration verify suites frequently. set up the CI pipeline in order that when everything unit-level checks move, then integration-stage tests are executed immediately. Let screw ups at that flat smash the construct, simply as you enact with the unit-level checks.
With these two strategies, that you can detect integration mistake as early as feasible within the birth pipeline. The prior you learn an issue, the less difficult it's to fix.Pitfall #5: Deployments Are Nightmarish All-night Marathons
issue: Circa 2017, it’s nevertheless yardstick to learn agencies the status people Have “unencumber parties” whenever they install code to creation. unlock parties are only infatuation every-evening frat parties, best devoid of the enjoyable.
The issue is that the primary time applications are accomplished in a construction-like atmosphere is when they're done in the actual creation environment. Many issues most efficient approach into sight when the team tries to set up to creation.
Of direction, there’s no time or finances allotted for that. people working in a rush may additionally win the outfit up-and-working somehow, but often on the permeate of regressions that pop up later in the shape of construction advocate considerations.
And it’s everything as a result of, at every stage of the birth pipeline, the system “worked on my laptop,” whether a developer’s desktop, a shared test ambiance configured differently from creation, or some other unreliable atmosphere.
answer: The respond is to configure each atmosphere throughout the start pipeline as nigh to construction as viable. prerogative here are chummy instructions that you just may wish to modify depending on endemic cases.
when you've got a staging atmosphere, instead of twin construction environments, it is going to breathe configured with everything internal interfaces are alive and external interfaces stubbed, mocked, or virtualized. although this is so far as you hook the thought, it will doubtless win rid of the want for unencumber events. but if that you could, it’s respectable to proceed upstream within the pipeline, to in the reduction of sudden delays in promoting code alongside.
check environments between construction and staging should quiet breathe running the equal edition of the OS and libraries as construction. They may quiet breathe remoted on the applicable boundary in keeping with the scope of trying out to breathe carried out.
initially of the pipeline, if it’s viable, strengthen on the identical OS and equal orthodox configuration as creation. It’s probably you would not Have as an cross lot remembrance or as many processors as in the production atmosphere. The construction ambiance also enact not necessity any are alive interfaces; everything dependencies exterior to the utility should breathe faked.
At a minimal, in shape the OS and unlock flat to production as closely as that you would breathe able to. as an example, in case you’ll breathe deploying to home windows Server 2016, then expend a windows Server 2016 VM to rush your brief CI build and unit peruse at various suite. home windows Server 2016 is according to NT 10, so enact your progress drudgery on home windows 10 because it’s additionally in accordance with NT 10. similarly, if the creation ambiance is home windows Server 2008 R2 (in line with NT 6.1) then develop on home windows 7 (also in response to NT 6.1). You received’t breathe in a position to win rid of each configuration change, but you will breathe in a position to avoid the majority of incompatibilities.
comply with the equal rule of thumb for Linux targets and building techniques. as an instance, if you will installation to RHEL 7.3 (kernel edition three.10.x), then rush unit checks on the identical OS if viable. in any other case, search for (or construct) a edition of CentOS in accordance with the identical kernel edition as your construction RHEL (don’t assume). At a minimum, rush unit checks on a Linux distro based on the identical kernel edition because the target construction instance. enact your progress on CentOS or a Fedora-primarily based distro to lower inconsistencies with RHEL.
if you’re using a dynamic infrastructure administration approach that comprises building OS circumstances from supply, then this problem turns into plenty less complicated to handle. that you would breathe able to construct your building, examine, and construction environments from the equal sources, assuring version consistency throughout the delivery pipeline. however the fact is that very few groups are managing infrastructure in this approach as of 2017. It’s greater doubtless that you just’ll configure and provision OS instances based on a broadcast ISO, after which deploy programs from a personal or public repo. You’ll should pay nigh consideration to versions.
if you’re doing construction drudgery on your personal computing device or desktop, and also you’re the expend of a cross-platform language (Ruby, Python, Java, etc.), you could believe it doesn’t depend which OS you use. You might Have a pleasant building stack on home windows or OSX (or anything) that you’re cozy with. however, it’s a marvelous concept to spin up a local VM operating an OS that’s nearer to the construction ambiance, simply to steer limpid of sudden surprises.
For embedded building where the progress processor is distinctive from the goal processor, include a assemble step for your low-stage TDD cycle with the compiler alternate options set for the target platform. this can expose mistake that don’t ensue for those who compile for the construction platform. every so often the identical edition of the identical library will exhibit different behaviors when carried out on discrete processors.
a different recommendation for embedded construction is to constrain your building atmosphere to Have the equal reminiscence limits and different aid constraints because the target platform. that you would breathe able to capture positive kinds of mistakes early by doing this.
For one of the crucial older returned terminate structures, it’s feasible to enact building and unit testing off-platform for convenience. pretty early in the delivery pipeline, you’ll are looking to add your supply to an ambiance on the target platform and construct and examine there.
for instance, for a C++ application on, say, HP NonStop, it’s convenient to enact TDD on whatever endemic ambiance you admire (assuming that’s feasible for the classification of utility), using any compiler and a unit testing framework infatuation CppUnit.
in a similar fashion, it’s convenient to enact COBOL construction and unit testing on a Linux illustration the expend of GnuCOBOL; a lot quicker and more convenient than using OEDIT on-platform for excellent-grained TDD.
however, in these circumstances, the goal execution ambiance is very distinctive from the building atmosphere. You’ll necessity to pastime the code on-platform early within the birth pipeline to win rid of works-on-my-computer surprises.abstract
The works-on-my-desktop problem is likely one of the leading factors of developer stress and lost time. The leading judgement behind the works-on-my-laptop issue is differences in configuration throughout construction, test, and construction environments.
The primary suggestions is to evade configuration variations to the extent possible. hook pains to Make certain everything environments are as comparable to production as is practical. Pay attention to OS kernel types, library models, API versions, compiler types, and the types of any home-grown utilities and libraries. When variations can’t breathe averted, then Make breathe watchful of them and deal with them as hazards. Wrap them in check instances to deliver early warning of any issues.
The 2nd suggestion is to automate as tons checking out as feasible at diverse stages of abstraction, merge code commonly, build the utility frequently, rush the computerized examine suites generally, install often, and (where feasible) construct the execution atmosphere generally. this may aid you realize complications early, while the most fresh changes are nevertheless sparkling for your mind, and while the concerns are nevertheless minor.
Let’s fix the world in order that the next technology of software developers doesn’t understand the phrase, “Works on my computer.”
Now that they now Have spent a while on account that a orthodox UNIX kernel, the outfit of the change, and a few of the challenges confronted through the kernel designers, let's flip their attention to the specifics of the HP-UX kernel.
The present liberate of the Hewlett-Packard HP-UX operating gadget is HP-UX eleven.i (the actual revision number is eleven.11). They breathe watchful of the present release, however as many production methods are nonetheless operating HP-UX 10.20 and HP-UX 11.0, where commandeer they are attempting to cover material germane to those releases as well.
The HP-UX kernel is a set of subsystems, drivers, kernel information constructions, and capabilities that has been developed and modified for the past two decades. This legacy has yielded the kernel they current in this e-book. over the years, nearly no a Part of the kernel has long gone undisturbed: the engineers and programmers at HP Have proven an unwavering commitment to the continuous process-improvement cycle that defines the HP-UX kernel. The authors of this publication tip their collective hat to their continuing efforts and vision.
In its latest incarnation HP-UX runs basically on systems constructed on the Hewlett-Packard Precision architecture processor family. This turned into now not always the case. Early versions ran on workstations designed on the Motorola 68xxx household of processors. As in the past when HP-UX turned into ported to the HP-PA RISC chip set, today they are on the brink of an additional port of this working system to an rising fresh platform: the Intel IA-64 processor household. during this e-book, they breathe watchful of the HP PA-RISC implementation.
HP received Voltage safety in April 2015, rebranding the platform as "HP safety Voltage." The product is a information encryption and key generation respond that contains tokenization for shielding sensitive enterprise information. The HP safety Voltage platform comprises a lot of products, akin to HP SecureData enterprise, HP SecureData Hadoop, HP SecureData funds and so on. this article focuses on HP SecureData enterprise, which contains HP layout-maintaining Encryption (FPE), HP comfy Stateless Tokenization (SST) know-how, HP Stateless Key management, and information covering.Product features
HP SecureData commercial enterprise is a scalable product that encrypts each structured and unstructured data, tokenizes statistics to retain away from viewing by using unauthorized users, meets PCI DSS compliance requirements, and provides analytics.
The heart of HP SecureData commercial enterprise is the Voltage SecureData management Console, which provides centralized policy management and reporting for everything Voltage SecureData systems. a different element, the Voltage Key management Server, manages the encryption keys. coverage-managed utility programming interfaces permit endemic encryption and tokenization on numerous platforms, from safety counsel and adventure managers to Hadoop to cloud environments.
The platform employs a unique procedure referred to as HP Stateless Key management, which faculty keys are generated on demand, in response to coverage stipulations, after clients are authenticated and licensed. Keys can breathe regenerated as necessary. using stateless key management reduces administrative overhead and charges by using casting off the key store -- there isn't any necessity to store, retain track of and back up each key it really is been issued. Plus, an administrator can link HP Stateless Key administration to a company's identity administration gadget to implement function-based mostly access to data on the box stage.
FPE is in line with superior Encryption commonplace. FPE encrypts statistics devoid of altering the database schema, however does Make minimal alterations to purposes that deserve to view cleartext records. (in lots of instances, most efficient a solitary line of code is modified.)
HP SecureData enterprise's key management, reporting and logging techniques advocate valued clientele meet compliance with PCI DSS, medical insurance Portability and Accountability Act and Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act, in addition to state, national and European records privacy laws.
HP SecureData commercial enterprise is suitable with essentially any kind of database, including Oracle, DB2, MySQL, Sybase, Microsoft SQL and Microsoft Azure SQL, among others. It helps a wide selection of working techniques and structures, including windows, Linux, AIX, Solaris, HP-UX, HP NonStop, Stratus VOS, IBM z/OS, Amazon net features, Microsoft Azure, Teradata, Hadoop and many cloud environments.
groups that implement HP SecureData industry can are expecting to Have full conclusion-to-conclusion records protection in 60 days or less.Pricing and licensing
prospective shoppers ought to contact an HP earnings representative for pricing and licensing counsel.assist
HP presents universal and top class capitalize for everything HP protection Voltage items. tolerable aid contains access to the solutions portal and online capitalize requests, the online capabilities base, e-mail aid, enterprise hours cellphone aid, 4-hour response time and a aid desk kit.
premium aid comprises the identical features as ordinary assist, however with 24x7 cellphone aid and a two-hour response time.
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NEW ORLEANS, June 3, 1997 — Microsoft Corp. and DGM & S Telecom, a leading international supplier of telecommunications software used in network applications and systems for the evolving distributed intelligent network, Have teamed up to bring to market signaling system 7 (SS7) products for the Microsoft® Windows NT® Server network operating system. DGM & S Telecom is porting its OMNI Soft Platform™to Windows NT Server, allowing Windows NT Server to deliver services requiring SS7 communications. Microsoft is providing technical advocate for DGM & S to develop the OMNI Soft Platform and Windows NT Server-based product for the public network.
The SS7 network is one of the most faultfinding components of today’s telecommunications infrastructure. In addition to providing for basic call control, SS7 has allowed carriers to provide a large and growing number of fresh services. Microsoft and DGM & S are working on signaling network elements based on Windows NT Server for hosting telephony services within the public network. The result of this collaborative exertion will breathe increased service revenues and lowered costs for service providers, and greater flexibility and control for enterprises over their network service and management platforms via the easy-to-use yet powerful Windows NT Server environment.
“Microsoft is excited about the opportunities that Windows NT Server and the OMNI Soft Platform will tender for telecom outfit suppliers and adjunct processor manufacturers, and for service providers to develop fresh SS7-based network services,”said Bill Anderson, director of telecom industry marketing at Microsoft.“Windows NT Server will thereby drive faster development, further innovation in service functionality and lower costs in the public network.”
Microsoft’s collaboration with DGM & S Telecom is a key component of its strategy to bring to market platforms and products based on Microsoft Windows NT Server and independent software vendor applications for delivering and managing telecommunications services.
Major hardware vendors, including Data universal Corp. and Tandem Computers Inc., endorsed the OMNI Soft Platform and Windows NT Server solution.
“With its tall degree of availability and reliability, Data General’s AViiON server family is well-suited for the OMNI Soft Platform,”said David Ellenberger, vice president, corporate marketing for Data General.“As Part of the strategic relationship they Have established with DGM & S, they will advocate the OMNI Soft Platform on their Windows NT-compatible line of AViiON servers as an model solution for telecommunications companies and other large enterprises.”
“Tandem remains the benchmark for performance and reliability in computing solutions for the communications marketplace,”said Eric L. Doggett, senior vice president, universal manager, communications products group, Tandem Computers.“With Microsoft, Tandem continues to extend these fundamentals from their NonStop Kernel and UNIX system product families to their ServerNet technology-enabled Windows NT Servers. They are pleased that their key middleware partners such as DGM & S are embracing this strategy, laying the foundation for application developers to leverage the price/performance and reliability that Tandem and Microsoft bring to communications and the Windows NT operating system.”
The OMNI Soft Platform from DGM & S Telecom is a family of software products that provide the SS7 components needed to build robust, high-performance network services and applications for expend in wireline and wireless telecom signaling networks. OMNI Soft Platform offers a multiprotocol environment enabling accurate international operations with the coexistence of global SS7 variants. OMNI Soft Platform accelerates deployment of telecommunications applications so that service providers can respond to the ever-accelerating demands of the deregulated telecommunications industry.
DGM & S Telecom foresees expanding market chance with the emergence of the“programmable network,”the convergence of network-based telephony and enterprise computing on the Internet.
In the programmable network, gateways (offering signaling, provisioning and billing) will allow customers to interact more closely with, and capitalize more from, the power of global signaling networks. These gateways will provide the channel to services deployed in customer premises equipment, including enterprise servers, PBXs, workstations, PCs, PDAs and smart phones.
“The programmable network will breathe the terminate of one-size-fits-all service and will spawn a fresh industry dedicated to bringing the power of the universal commercial computing industry to integrated telephony services,”said Seamus Gilchrist, DGM & S director of strategic initiatives.“Microsoft Windows NT Server is the key to future mass customization of network services via the DGM & S Telecom OMNI Soft Platform.”
Wide scope of Service on OMNI
A wide ranges of services can breathe provided on the OMNI Soft Platform, including wireless services, 800-number service, long-distance caller ID, credit card and transactional services, local number portability, computer telephony and mediated access. OMNI Soft Platform application programming interfaces (APIs) are found on the higher layers of the SS7 protocol stack. They include ISDN User Part (ISUP), Global System for Mobile Communications Mobile Application Part (GSM MAP), EIA/TIA Interim yardstick 41 (IS-41 MAP), Advanced intelligent Network (AIN) and intelligent Network Application Part (INAP).
The OMNI product family is
Global. OMNI provides standards-conformant SS7 protocol stacks. OMNI complies with ANSI, ITU-T, Japanese and Chinese standards in addition to the many other national variants needed to enter the global market.
Portable. Service applications are portable across the platforms supported by OMNI. A wide scope of computing platforms running the Windows NT and UNIX operating systems is supported.
Robust. OMNI SignalWare APIs advocate the progress of wireless, wireline, intelligent network, call processing and transaction-oriented network applications.
Flexible. OMNI supports the rapid creation of distributed services that operate on simplex or duplex hardware. It supports a loosely coupled, multiple computer environment. OMNI-Remote allows front-end systems that need signaling capability to deploy services using the client/server model.
DGM & S Telecom is the leading international supplier of SignalWare™, the telecommunications software used in network applications and systems for the evolving intelligent and programmable network. DGM & S Telecom is recognized for its technical innovations in high-performance, fault-resilient SS7 protocol platforms that enable high-availability, open applications and services for single- and multivendor environments. Founded in 1974, DGM & S Telecom offers leading-edge products and solutions that are deployed
throughout North America, Europe and the Far East. DGM & S is a wholly-owned subsidiary of Comverse-Technology Inc. (NASDAQ“CMVT”).
Founded in 1975, Microsoft (NASDAQ“MSFT”) is the worldwide leader in software for personal computers. The company offers a wide scope of products and services for industry and personal use, each designed with the mission of making it easier and more enjoyable for people to hook edge of the full power of personal computing every day.
Microsoft and Windows NT are either registered trademarks or trademarks of Microsoft Corp. in the United States and/or other countries.
OMNI Soft Platform and SignalWare are trademarks of DGM & S Telecom.
Other product and company names herein may breathe trademarks of their respective owners.
Note to editors : If you are interested in viewing additional information on Microsoft, delight visit the Microsoft Web page http://www.microsoft.com/presspass/ on Microsoft’s corporate information pages. To view additional information on DGM & S, delight visit the DGM & S Web page at (http://dgms.com/)
One of the most insidious obstacles to Continuous Delivery (and to continuous flood in software delivery generally) is the works-on-my-machine phenomenon. Anyone who has worked on a software progress team or an infrastructure advocate team has experienced it. Anyone who works with such teams has heard the phrase spoken during (attempted) demos. The issue is so common there’s even a badge for it:
Perhaps you Have earned this badge yourself. I Have several. You should discern my trophy room.
There’s a longstanding tradition on Agile teams that may Have originated at ThoughtWorks around the turn of the century. It goes infatuation this: When someone violates the ancient engineering principle, “Don’t enact anything stupid on purpose,” they Have to pay a penalty. The penalty might breathe to drop a dollar into the team snack jar, or something much worse (for an introverted technical type), infatuation standing in front of the team and singing a song. To accountfor a failed demo with a glib “<shrug>Works on my machine!</shrug>” qualifies.
It may not breathe feasible to avoid the problem in everything situations. As Forrest Gump said…well, you know what he said. But they can minimize the problem by paying attention to a few obvious things. (Yes, I understand “obvious” is a word to breathe used advisedly.)Pitfall #1: Leftover Configuration
Problem: Leftover configuration from previous drudgery enables the code to drudgery on the progress environment (and maybe the test environment, too) while it fails on other environments.Pitfall #2: Development/Test Configuration Differs From Production
The solutions to this pitfall are so similar to those for Pitfall #1 that I’m going to group the two.
Solution (tl;dr): Don’t reuse environments.
Common situation: Many developers set up an environment they infatuation on their laptop/desktop or on the team’s shared progress environment. The environment grows from project to project as more libraries are added and more configuration options are set. Sometimes, the configurations combat with one another, and teams/individuals often Make manual configuration adjustments depending on which project is lively at the moment.
It doesn’t hook long for the progress configuration to become very different from the configuration of the target production environment. Libraries that are present on the progress system may not exist on the production system. You may rush your local tests assuming you’ve configured things the identical as production only to learn later that you’ve been using a different version of a key library than the one in production.
Subtle and unpredictable differences in behavior occur across development, test, and production environments. The situation creates challenges not only during development but also during production advocate drudgery when we’re trying to reproduce reported behavior.
Solution (long): Create an isolated, dedicated progress environment for each project.
There’s more than one practical approach. You can probably consider of several. Here are a few possibilities:
All those options won’t breathe feasible for every conceivable platform or stack. Pick and choose, and roll your own as appropriate. In general, everything these things are pretty light to enact if you’re working on Linux. everything of them can breathe done for other *nix systems with some effort. Most of them are reasonably light to enact with Windows; the only issue there is licensing, and if your company has an enterprise license, you’re everything set. For other platforms, such as IBM zOS or HP NonStop, await to enact some hand-rolling of tools.
Anything that’s feasible in your situation and that helps you seclude your progress and test environments will breathe helpful. If you can’t enact everything these things in your situation, don’t worry about it. Just enact what you can do.Provision a fresh VM Locally
If you’re working on a desktop, laptop, or shared progress server running Linux, FreeBSD, Solaris, Windows, or OSX, then you’re in marvelous shape. You can expend virtualization software such as VirtualBox or VMware to stand up and split down local VMs at will. For the less-mainstream platforms, you may Have to build the virtualization implement from source.
One thing I usually recommend is that developers cultivate an attitude of laziness in themselves. Well, the prerogative benign of laziness, that is. You shouldn’t feel perfectly delighted provisioning a server manually more than once. hook the time during that first provisioning exercise to script the things you learn along the way. Then you won’t Have to recollect them and iterate the identical mis-steps again. (Well, unless you Enjoy that sort of thing, of course.)
For example, here are a few provisioning scripts that I’ve approach up with when I needed to set up progress environments. These are everything based on Ubuntu Linux and written in Bash. I don’t know if they’ll capitalize you, but they drudgery on my machine.
If your company is running RedHat Linux in production, you’ll probably want to adjust these scripts to rush on CentOS or Fedora, so that your progress environments will breathe reasonably nigh to the target environments. No immense deal.
If you want to breathe even lazier, you can expend a implement infatuation Vagrant to simplify the configuration definitions for your VMs.
One more thing: Whatever scripts you write and whatever definition files you write for provisioning tools, retain them under version control along with each project. Make certain whatever is in version control for a given project is everything necessary to drudgery on that project…code, tests, documentation, scripts…everything. This is rather important, I think.Do Your progress in a Container
One way of isolating your progress environment is to rush it in a container. Most of the tools you’ll read about when you search for information about containers are really orchestration tools intended to capitalize us manage multiple containers, typically in a production environment. For local progress purposes, you really don’t necessity that much functionality. There are a couple of practical containers for this purpose:
These are Linux-based. Whether it’s practical for you to containerize your progress environment depends on what technologies you need. To containerize a progress environment for another OS, such as Windows, may not breathe worth the exertion over just running a full-blown VM. For other platforms, it’s probably impossible to containerize a progress environment.Develop in the Cloud
This is a relatively fresh option, and it’s feasible for a limited set of technologies. The edge over building a local progress environment is that you can stand up a fresh environment for each project, guaranteeing you won’t Have any components or configuration settings left over from previous work. Here are a couple of options:
Expect to discern these environments improve, and await to discern more players in this market. Check which technologies and languages are supported so discern whether one of these will breathe a proper for your needs. Because of the rapid pace of change, there’s no sense in listing what’s available as of the date of this article.Generate Test Environments on the waft as Part of Your CI Build
Once you Have a script that spins up a VM or configures a container, it’s light to add it to your CI build. The edge is that your tests will rush on a pristine environment, with no casual of fake positives due to leftover configurations from previous versions of the application or from other applications that had previously shared the identical static test environment, or because of test data modified in a previous test run.
Many people Have scripts that they’ve hacked up to simplify their lives, but they may not breathe suitable for unattended execution. Your scripts (or the tools you expend to interpret declarative configuration specifications) Have to breathe able to rush without issuing any prompts (such as prompting for an administrator password). They also necessity to breathe idempotent (that is, it won’t enact any harm to rush them multiple times, in the case of restarts). Any runtime values that must breathe provided to the script Have to breathe obtainable by the script as it runs, and not require any manual “tweaking” prior to each run.
The concept of “generating an environment” may sound infeasible for some stacks. hook the suggestion broadly. For a Linux environment, it’s pretty common to create a VM whenever you necessity one. For other environments, you may not breathe able to enact exactly that, but there may breathe some steps you can hook based on the universal notion of creating an environment on the fly.
For example, a team working on a CICS application on an IBM mainframe can define and start a CICS environment any time by running it as a yardstick job. In the early 1980s, they used to enact that routinely. As the 1980s dragged on (and continued through the 1990s and 2000s, in some organizations), the world of corporate IT became increasingly bureaucratized until this capability was taken out of developers’ hands.
Strangely, as of 2017 very few progress teams Have the option to rush their own CICS environments for experimentation, development, and initial testing. I exclaim “strangely” because so many other aspects of their working lives Have improved dramatically, while that aspect seems to Have moved in retrograde. They don’t Have such problems working on the front terminate of their applications, but when they split to the back terminate they plunge through a sort of time warp.
From a purely technical point of view, there’s nothing to discontinue a progress team from doing this. It qualifies as “generating an environment,” in my view. You can’t rush a CICS system “in the cloud” or “on a VM” (at least, not as of 2017), but you can apply “cloud thinking” to the challenge of managing your resources.
Similarly, you can apply “cloud thinking” to other resources in your environment, as well. expend your fancy and creativity. Isn’t that why you chose this bailiwick of work, after all?Generate Production Environments on the waft as Part of Your CD Pipeline
This suggestion is pretty much the identical as the previous one, except that it occurs later in the CI/CD pipeline. Once you Have some shape of automated deployment in place, you can extend that process to include automatically spinning up VMs or automatically reloading and provisioning hardware servers as Part of the deployment process. At that point, “deployment” really means creating and provisioning the target environment, as opposed to stirring code into an existing environment.
This approach solves a number of problems beyond simple configuration differences. For instance, if a hacker has introduced anything to the production environment, rebuilding that environment out-of-source that you control eliminates that malware. People are discovering there’s value in rebuilding production machines and VMs frequently even if there are no changes to “deploy,” for that judgement as well as to avoid “configuration drift” that occurs when they apply changes over time to a long-running instance.
Many organizations rush Windows servers in production, mainly to advocate third-party packages that require that OS. An issue with deploying to an existing Windows server is that many applications require an installer to breathe present on the target instance. Generally, information security people glower on having installers available on any production instance. (FWIW, I harmonize with them.)
If you create a Windows VM or provision a Windows server on the waft from controlled sources, then you don’t necessity the installer once the provisioning is complete. You won’t re-install an application; if a change is necessary, you’ll rebuild the entire instance. You can prepare the environment before it’s accessible in production, and then delete any installers that were used to provision it. So, this approach addresses more than just the works-on-my-machine problem.
When it comes to back-end systems infatuation zOS, you won’t breathe spinning up your own CICS regions and LPARs for production deployment. The “cloud thinking” in that case is to Have two identical production environments. Deployment then becomes a matter of switching traffic between the two environments, rather than migrating code. This makes it easier to implement production releases without impacting customers. It also helps alleviate the works-on-my-machine problem, as testing late in the delivery cycle occurs on a existent production environment (even if customers aren’t pointed to it yet).
The habitual objection to this is the cost (that is, fees paid to IBM) to advocate twin environments. This objection is usually raised by people who Have not fully analyzed the costs of everything the delay and rework inherent in doing things the “old way.”Pitfall #3: Unpleasant Surprises When Code Is Merged
Problem: Different teams and individuals wield code check-out and check-in in various ways. Some checkout code once and modify it throughout the course of a project, possibly over a epoch of weeks or months. Others consign petite changes frequently, updating their local copy and committing changes many times per day. Most teams plunge somewhere between those extremes.
Generally, the longer you retain code checked out and the more changes you Make to it, the greater the chances of a crash when you merge. It’s also likely that you will Have forgotten exactly why you made every cramped change, and so will the other people who Have modified the identical chunks of code. Merges can breathe a hassle.
During these merge events, everything other value-add drudgery stops. Everyone is trying to figure out how to merge the changes. Tempers flare. Everyone can claim, accurately, that the system works on their machine.
Solution: A simple way to avoid this sort of thing is to consign petite changes frequently, rush the test suite with everyone’s changes in place, and deal with minor collisions quickly before remembrance fades. It’s substantially less stressful.
The best Part is you don’t necessity any special tooling to enact this. It’s just a question of self-discipline. On the other hand, it only takes one individual who keeps code checked out for a long time to mess everyone else up. breathe watchful of that, and kindly capitalize your colleagues establish marvelous habits.Pitfall #4: Integration Errors Discovered Late
Problem: This problem is similar to Pitfall #3, but one flat of abstraction higher. Even if a team commits petite changes frequently and runs a comprehensive suite of automated tests with every commit, they may undergo significant issues integrating their code with other components of the solution, or interacting with other applications in context.
The code may drudgery on my machine, as well as on my team’s integration test environment, but as soon as they hook the next step forward, everything hell breaks loose.
Solution: There are a couple of solutions to this problem. The first is static code analysis. It’s becoming the norm for a continuous integration pipeline to include static code analysis as Part of every build. This occurs before the code is compiled. Static code analysis tools examine the source code as text, looking for patterns that are known to result in integration errors (among other things).
Static code analysis can detect structural problems in the code such as cyclic dependencies and tall cyclomatic complexity, as well as other basic problems infatuation inanimate code and violations of coding standards that watch to multiply cruft in a codebase. It’s just the sort of cruft that causes merge hassles, too.
A related suggestion is to hook any warning flat errors from static code analysis tools and from compilers as existent errors. Accumulating warning flat errors is a noteworthy way to terminate up with mysterious, unexpected behaviors at runtime.
The second solution is to integrate components and rush automated integration test suites frequently. Set up the CI pipeline so that when everything unit-level checks pass, then integration-level checks are executed automatically. Let failures at that flat smash the build, just as you enact with the unit-level checks.
With these two methods, you can detect integration errors as early as feasible in the delivery pipeline. The earlier you detect a problem, the easier it is to fix.Pitfall #5: Deployments Are Nightmarish All-Night Marathons
Problem: Circa 2017, it’s quiet common to find organizations where people Have “release parties” whenever they deploy code to production. Release parties are just infatuation all-night frat parties, only without the fun.
The problem is that the first time applications are executed in a production-like environment is when they are executed in the existent production environment. Many issues only become visible when the team tries to deploy to production.
Of course, there’s no time or budget allocated for that. People working in a rush may win the system up-and-running somehow, but often at the cost of regressions that pop up later in the shape of production advocate issues.
And it’s everything because, at each stage of the delivery pipeline, the system “worked on my machine,” whether a developer’s laptop, a shared test environment configured differently from production, or some other unreliable environment.
Solution: The solution is to configure every environment throughout the delivery pipeline as nigh to production as possible. The following are universal guidelines that you may necessity to modify depending on local circumstances.
If you Have a staging environment, rather than twin production environments, it should breathe configured with everything internal interfaces live and external interfaces stubbed, mocked, or virtualized. Even if this is as far as you hook the idea, it will probably eliminate the necessity for release parties. But if you can, it’s marvelous to continue upstream in the pipeline, to reduce unexpected delays in promoting code along.
Test environments between progress and staging should breathe running the identical version of the OS and libraries as production. They should breathe isolated at the commandeer boundary based on the scope of testing to breathe performed.
At the birth of the pipeline, if it’s possible, develop on the identical OS and identical universal configuration as production. It’s likely you will not Have as much remembrance or as many processors as in the production environment. The progress environment also will not Have any live interfaces; everything dependencies external to the application will breathe faked.
At a minimum, match the OS and release flat to production as closely as you can. For instance, if you’ll breathe deploying to Windows Server 2016, then expend a Windows Server 2016 VM to rush your quick CI build and unit test suite. Windows Server 2016 is based on NT 10, so enact your progress drudgery on Windows 10 because it’s also based on NT 10. Similarly, if the production environment is Windows Server 2008 R2 (based on NT 6.1) then develop on Windows 7 (also based on NT 6.1). You won’t breathe able to eliminate every solitary configuration difference, but you will breathe able to avoid the majority of incompatibilities.
Follow the identical rule of thumb for Linux targets and progress systems. For instance, if you will deploy to RHEL 7.3 (kernel version 3.10.x), then rush unit tests on the identical OS if possible. Otherwise, peruse for (or build) a version of CentOS based on the identical kernel version as your production RHEL (don’t assume). At a minimum, rush unit tests on a Linux distro based on the identical kernel version as the target production instance. enact your progress on CentOS or a Fedora-based distro to minimize inconsistencies with RHEL.
If you’re using a dynamic infrastructure management approach that includes building OS instances from source, then this problem becomes much easier to control. You can build your development, test, and production environments from the identical sources, assuring version consistency throughout the delivery pipeline. But the reality is that very few organizations are managing infrastructure in this way as of 2017. It’s more likely that you’ll configure and provision OS instances based on a published ISO, and then install packages from a private or public repo. You’ll Have to pay nigh attention to versions.
If you’re doing progress drudgery on your own laptop or desktop, and you’re using a cross-platform language (Ruby, Python, Java, etc.), you might consider it doesn’t matter which OS you use. You might Have a nice progress stack on Windows or OSX (or whatever) that you’re cozy with. Even so, it’s a marvelous concept to spin up a local VM running an OS that’s closer to the production environment, just to avoid unexpected surprises.
For embedded progress where the progress processor is different from the target processor, include a compile step in your low-level TDD cycle with the compiler options set for the target platform. This can expose errors that don’t occur when you compile for the progress platform. Sometimes the identical version of the identical library will exhibit different behaviors when executed on different processors.
Another suggestion for embedded progress is to constrain your progress environment to Have the identical remembrance limits and other resource constraints as the target platform. You can snare certain types of errors early by doing this.
For some of the older back terminate platforms, it’s feasible to enact progress and unit testing off-platform for convenience. Fairly early in the delivery pipeline, you’ll want to upload your source to an environment on the target platform and build and test there.
For instance, for a C++ application on, say, HP NonStop, it’s convenient to enact TDD on whatever local environment you infatuation (assuming that’s feasible for the kind of application), using any compiler and a unit testing framework infatuation CppUnit.
Similarly, it’s convenient to enact COBOL progress and unit testing on a Linux instance using GnuCOBOL; much faster and easier than using OEDIT on-platform for fine-grained TDD.
However, in these cases, the target execution environment is very different from the progress environment. You’ll want to exercise the code on-platform early in the delivery pipeline to eliminate works-on-my-machine surprises.Summary
The works-on-my-machine problem is one of the leading causes of developer stress and lost time. The main occasions of the works-on-my-machine problem is differences in configuration across development, test, and production environments.
The basic recommendation is to avoid configuration differences to the extent possible. hook pains to ensure everything environments are as similar to production as is practical. Pay attention to OS kernel versions, library versions, API versions, compiler versions, and the versions of any home-grown utilities and libraries. When differences can’t breathe avoided, then Make note of them and handle them as risks. Wrap them in test cases to provide early warning of any issues.
The second suggestion is to automate as much testing as feasible at different levels of abstraction, merge code frequently, build the application frequently, rush the automated test suites frequently, deploy frequently, and (where feasible) build the execution environment frequently. This will capitalize you detect problems early, while the most recent changes are quiet fresh in your mind, and while the issues are quiet minor.
Let’s fix the world so that the next generation of software developers doesn’t understand the phrase, “Works on my machine.”
January 24, 2000Web posted at: 12:11 p.m. EST (1711 GMT)
by John Bass and James Robinson, Network World Test Alliance
(IDG) -- It everything boils down to what you're looking for in a network operating system (NOS).
Do you want it lean and flexible so you can install it any way you please? Perhaps administration bells and management whistles are what you necessity so you can deploy several hundred servers. Or maybe you want an operating system that's robust enough so that you sleep infatuation a baby at night?
The marvelous advice is that there is a NOS waiting just for you. After the rash of recent software revisions, they took an in-depth peruse at four of the major NOSes on the market: Microsoft's Windows 2000 Advanced Server, Novell's NetWare 5.1, Red Hat Software's Linux 6.1 and The Santa Cruz Operation's (SCO) UnixWare 7.1.1. Sun declined their invitation to submit Solaris because the company says it's working on a fresh version.
Microsoft's Windows 2000 edges out NetWare for the Network World Blue Ribbon Award. Windows 2000 tops the bailiwick with its management interface, server monitoring tools, storage management facilities and security measures.
However, if it's performance you're after, no product came nigh to Novell's NetWare 5.1's numbers in their exhaustive file service and network benchmarks. With its lightning-fast engine and Novell's directory-based administration, NetWare offers a noteworthy ground for an enterprise network.
We found the latest release of Red Hat's commercial Linux bundle led the list for flexibility because its modular design lets you pare down the operating system to suit the stint at hand. Additionally, you can create scripts out of multiple Linux commands to automate tasks across a distributed environment.
While SCO's UnixWare seemed to lag behind the pack in terms of file service performance and NOS-based administration features, its scalability features Make it a stout candidate for running enterprise applications.The numbers are in
Regardless of the job you saddle your server with, it has to accomplish well at reading and writing files and sending them across the network. They designed two benchmark suites to measure each NOS in these two categories. To reflect the existent world, their benchmark tests consider a wide scope of server conditions.
NetWare was the hands-down leader in their performance benchmarking, taking first status in two-thirds of the file tests and earning top billing in the network tests.
Red Hat Linux followed NetWare in file performance overall and even outpaced the leader in file tests where the read/write loads were small. However, Linux did not accomplish well handling large loads - those tests in which there were more than 100 users. Under heavier user loads, Linux had a inclination to discontinue servicing file requests for a short epoch and then start up again.
Windows 2000 demonstrated poor write performance across everything their file tests. In fact, they found that its write performance was about 10% of its read performance. After consulting with both Microsoft and Client/Server Solutions, the author of the Benchmark Factory testing implement they used, they determined that the poor write performance could breathe due to two factors. One, which they were unable to verify, might breathe a feasible performance problem with the SCSI driver for the hardware they used.
More significant, though, was an issue with their test software. Benchmark Factory sends a write-through flag in each of its write requests that is putative to occasions the server to update cache, if appropriate, and then coerce a write to disk. When the write to disk occurs, the write call is released and the next request can breathe sent.
At first glance, it appeared as if Windows 2000 was the only operating system to honor this write-through flag because its write performance was so poor. Therefore, they ran a second round of write tests with the flag turned off.
With the flag turned off, NetWare's write performance increased by 30%. This test proved that Novell does indeed honor the write-through flag and will write to disk for each write request when that flag is set. But when the write-through flag is disabled, NetWare writes to disk in a more efficient manner by batching together contiguous blocks of data on the cache and writing everything those blocks to disk at once.
Likewise, Red Hat Linux's performance increased by 10% to 15% when the write-through flag was turned off. When they examined the Samba file system code, they found that it too honors the write-through flag. The Samba code then finds an optimum time during the read/write sequence to write to disk.
This second round of file testing proves that Windows 2000 is contingent on its file system cache to optimize write performance. The results of the testing with the write-through flag off were much higher - as much as 20 times faster. However, Windows 2000 quiet fell behind both NetWare and RedHat Linux in the file write tests when the write-through flag was off.
SCO honors the write-through flag by default, since its journaling file system is constructed to maximize data integrity by writing to disk for everything write requests. The results in the write tests with the write-through flag on were very similar to the test results with the write-through flag turned off.
For the network benchmark, they developed two tests. Their long TCP transaction test measured the bandwidth each server can sustain, while their short TCP transaction test measured each server's faculty to wield large numbers of network sessions with petite file transactions.
Despite a poor showing in the file benchmark, Windows 2000 came out on top in the long TCP transaction test. Windows 2000 is the only NOS with a multithreaded IP stack, which allows it to wield network requests with multiple processors. Novell and Red Hat exclaim they are working on integrating this capability into their products.
NetWare and Linux also registered stout long TCP test results, coming in second and third, respectively.
In the short TCP transaction test, NetWare came out the limpid winner. Linux earned second status in spite of its need of advocate for abortive TCP closes, a way by which an operating system can quickly split down TCP connections. Their testing software, Ganymede Software's Chariot, uses abortive closes in its TCP tests.Moving into management
As enterprise networks grow to require more servers and advocate more terminate users, NOS management tools become crucial elements in keeping networks under control. They looked at the management interfaces of each product and drilled down into how each handled server monitoring, client administration, file and print management, and storage management.
We found Windows 2000 and NetWare provide equally useful management interfaces.
Microsoft Management Console (MMC) is the glue that holds most of the Windows 2000 management functionality together. This configurable graphical user interface (GUI) lets you snap in Microsoft and third-party applets that customize its functionality. It's a two-paned interface, much infatuation Windows Explorer, with a nested list on the left and selection details on the right. The console is light to expend and lets you configure many local server elements, including users, disks, and system settings such as time and date.
MMC also lets you implement management policies for groups of users and computers using lively Directory, Microsoft's fresh directory service. From the lively Directory management implement inside MMC, you can configure users and change policies.
The network configuration tools are found in a part application that opens when you click on the Network Places icon on the desktop. Each network interface is listed inside this window. You can add and change protocols and configure, enable and disable interfaces from here without rebooting.
NetWare offers several interfaces for server configuration and management. These tools tender duplicate functionality, but each is useful depending from where you are trying to manage the system. The System Console offers a number of tools for server configuration. One of the most useful is NWConfig, which lets you change start-up files, install system modules and configure the storage subsystem. NWConfig is simple, intuitive and predictable.
ConsoleOne is a Java-based interface with a few graphical tools for managing and configuring NetWare. Third-party administration tools can plug into ConsoleOne and let you manage multiple services. They consider ConsoleOne's interface is a bit unsophisticated, but it works well enough for those who must Have a Windows- based manager.
Novell also offers a Web-accessible management application called NetWare Management Portal, which lets you manage NetWare servers remotely from a browser, and NWAdmin32, a relatively simple client-side implement for administering Novell Directory Services (NDS) from a Windows 95, 98 or NT client.
Red Hat's overall systems management interface is called LinuxConf and can rush as a graphical or text-based application. The graphical interface, which resembles that of MMC, works well but has some layout issues that Make it difficult to expend at times. For example, when you rush a setup application that takes up a lot of the screen, the system resizes the application larger than the desktop size.
Still, you can manage pretty much anything on the server from LinuxConf, and you can expend it locally or remotely over the Web or via telnet. You can configure system parameters such as network addresses; file system settings and user accounts; and set up add-on services such as Samba - which is a service that lets Windows clients win to files residing on a Linux server - and FTP and Web servers. You can apply changes without rebooting the system.
Overall, Red Hat's interface is useful and the underlying tools are powerful and flexible, but LinuxConf lacks the polish of the other vendors' tools.
SCO Admin is a GUI-based front terminate for about 50 SCO UnixWare configuration and management tools in one window. When you click on a tool, it brings up the application to manage that detail in a part window.
Some of SCO's tools are GUI-based while others are text-based. The server required a reboot to apply many of the changes. On the plus side, you can manage multiple UnixWare servers from SCOAdmin.
SCO also offers a useful Java-based remote administration implement called WebTop that works from your browser.An eye on the servers and clients
One distinguished administration stint is monitoring the server itself. Microsoft leads the pack in how well you can retain an eye on your server's internals.
The Windows 2000 System Monitor lets you view a real-time, running graph of system operations, such as CPU and network utilization, and remembrance and disk usage. They used these tools extensively to determine the effect of their benchmark tests on the operating system. Another implement called Network Monitor has a basic network packet analyzer that lets you discern the types of packets coming into the server. Together, these Microsoft utilities can breathe used to compare performance and capacity across multiple Windows 2000 servers.
NetWare's Monitor utility displays processor utilization, remembrance usage and buffer utilization on a local server. If you know what to peruse for, it can breathe a powerful implement for diagnosing bottlenecks in the system. Learning the significance of each of the monitored parameters is a bit of a challenge, though.
If you want to peruse at performance statistics across multiple servers, you can tap into Novell's Web Management Portal.
Red Hat offers the yardstick Linux command-line tools for monitoring the server, such as iostat and vmstat. It has no graphical monitoring tools.
As with any Unix operating system, you can write scripts to automate these tools across Linux servers. However, these tools are typically cryptic and require a tall flat of proficiency to expend effectively. A suite of graphical monitoring tools would breathe a noteworthy addition to Red Hat's Linux distribution.
UnixWare also offers a number of monitoring tools. System Monitor is UnixWare's simple but limited GUI for monitoring processor and remembrance utilization. The sar and rtpm command-line tools together list real-time system utilization of buffer, CPUs and disks. Together, these tools give you a marvelous overall concept of the load on the server.Client administration
Along with managing the server, you must manage its users. It's no dumbfound that the two NOSes that ship with an integrated directory service topped the bailiwick in client administration tools.
We were able to configure user permissions via Microsoft's lively Directory and the directory administration implement in MMC. You can group users and computers into organizational units and apply policies to them.
You can manage Novell's NDS and NetWare clients with ConsoleOne, NWAdmin or NetWare Management Portal. Each can create users, manage file space, and set permissions and rights. Additionally, NetWare ships with a five-user version of Novell's ZENworks tool, which offers desktop administration services such as hardware and software inventory, software distribution and remote control services.
Red Hat Linux doesn't tender much in the way of client administration features. You must control local users through Unix license configuration mechanisms.
UnixWare is similar to Red Hat Linux in terms of client administration, but SCO provides some Windows binaries on the server to remotely set file and directory permissions from a Windows client, as well as create and change users and their settings. SCO and Red Hat tender advocate for the Unix-based Network Information Service (NIS). NIS is a store for network information infatuation logon names, passwords and home directories. This integration helps with client administration.Handling the staples: File and print
A NOS is nothing without the faculty to share file storage and printers. Novell and Microsoft collected top honors in these areas.
You can easily add and maintain printers in Windows 2000 using the print administration wizard, and you can add file shares using lively Directory management tools. Windows 2000 also offers Distributed File Services, which let you combine files on more than one server into a solitary share.
Novell Distributed Print Services (NDPS) let you quickly incorporate printers into the network. When NDPS senses a fresh printer on the network, it defines a Printer Agent that runs on the printer and communicates with NDS. You then expend NDS to define the policies for the fresh printer.
You define NetWare file services by creating and then mounting a disk volume, which also manages volume policies.
Red Hat includes Linux's printtool utility for setting up server-connected and networks printers. You can also expend this GUI to create printcap entries to define printer access.
Linux has a set of command-line file system configuration tools for mounting and unmounting partitions. Samba ships with the product and provides some integration for Windows clients. You can configure Samba only through a cryptic configuration ASCII file - a staid drawback.
UnixWare provides a flexible GUI-based printer setup implement called Printer SetUp Manager. For file and volume management, SCO offers a implement called VisionFS for interoperability with Windows clients. They used VisionFS to allow their NT clients to access the UnixWare server. This service was light to configure and use.Storage management
Windows 2000 provides the best tools for storage management. Its graphical Manage Disks implement for local disk configuration includes software RAID management; you can dynamically add disks to a volume set without having to reboot the system. Additionally, a signature is written to each of the disks in an array so that they can breathe moved to another 2000 server without having to configure the volume on the fresh server. The fresh server recognizes the drives as members of a RAID set and adds the volume to the file system dynamically.
NetWare's volume management tool, NWConfig, is light to use, but it can breathe a cramped confusing to set up a RAID volume. Once they knew what they were doing, they had no problems formatting drives and creating a RAID volume. The implement looks a cramped primitive, but they give it tall marks for functionality and ease of use.
Red Hat Linux offers no graphical RAID configuration tools, but its command line tools made RAID configuration easy.
To configure disks on the UnixWare server, they used the Veritas Volume Manager graphical disk and volume administration implement that ships with UnixWare. They had some problems initially getting the implement to recognize the drives so they could breathe formatted. They managed to drudgery around the disk configuration problem using an assortment of command line tools, after which Volume Manager worked well.Security
While they did not probe these NOSes extensively to expose any security weaknesses, they did peruse at what they offered in security features.
Microsoft has made significant strides with Windows 2000 security. Windows 2000 supports Kerberos public key certificates as its primary authentication mechanism within a domain, and allows additional authentication with smart cards. Microsoft provides a Security Configuration implement that integrates with MMC for light management of security objects in the lively Directory Services system, and a fresh Encrypting File System that lets you designate volumes on which files are automatically stored using encryption.
Novell added advocate for a public-key infrastructure into NetWare 5 using a public certificate schema developed by RSA Security that lets you tap into NDS to generate certificates.
Red Hat offers a basic Kerberos authentication mechanism. With Red Hat Linux, as with most Unix operating systems, the network services can breathe individually controlled to multiply security. Red Hat offers Pluggable Authentication Modules as a way of allowing you to set authentication policies across programs running on the server. Passwords are protected with a shadow file. Red Hat also bundles firewall and VPN services.
UnixWare has a set of security tools called Security Manager that lets you set up varying degrees of intrusion protection across your network services, from no restriction to turning everything network services off. It's a marvelous management time saver, though you could manually modify the services to achieve the identical result.Stability and weakness tolerance
The most feature-rich NOS is of cramped value if it can't retain a server up and running. Windows 2000 offers software RAID 0, 1 and 5 configurations to provide weakness tolerance for onboard disk drives, and has a built-in network load-balancing feature that allows a group of servers to peruse infatuation one server and share the identical network name and IP address. The group decides which server will service each request. This not only distributes the network load across several servers, it also provides weakness tolerance in case a server goes down. On a lesser scale, you can expend Microsoft's Failover Clustering to provide basic failover services between two servers.
As with NT 4.0, Windows 2000 provides remembrance protection, which means that each process runs in its own segment.
There are also backup and restore capabilities bundled with Windows 2000.
Novell has an add-on product for NetWare called Novell Cluster Services that allows you to cluster as many as eight servers, everything managed from one location using ConsoleOne, NetWare Management Portal or NWAdmin32. But Novell presently offers no clustering products to provide load balancing for applications or file services. NetWare has an elaborate remembrance protection scheme to segregate the remembrance used for the kernel and applications, and a Storage Management Services module to provide a highly flexible backup and restore facility. Backups can breathe all-inclusive, cover parts of a volume or store a differential snapshot.
Red Hat provides a load-balancing product called piranha with its Linux. This package provides TCP load balancing between servers in a cluster. There is no arduous circumscribe to the number of servers you can configure in a cluster. Red Hat Linux also provides software RAID advocate through command line tools, has remembrance protection capabilities and provides a rudimentary backup facility.
SCO provides an optional feature to cluster several servers in a load-balancing environment with Non-Stop Clustering for a tall flat of fault-tolerance. Currently, Non-Stop Clustering supports six servers in a cluster. UnixWare provides software RAID advocate that is managed using SCO's On-Line Data Manager feature. everything the yardstick RAID levels are supported. Computer Associates' bundled ArcServeIT 6.6 provides backup and restore capabilities. UnixWare has remembrance protection capabilities.Documentation
Because their testing was conducted before Windows 2000's universal availability ship date, they were not able to evaluate its hard-copy documentation. The online documentation provided on a CD is extensive, useful and well-organized, although a Web interface would breathe much easier to expend if it gave more than a couple of sentences at a time for a particular capitalize topic.
NetWare 5 comes with two manuals: a particular manual for installing and configuring the NOS with marvelous explanations of concepts and features along with an overview of how to configure them, and a petite spiral-bound booklet of quick start cards. Novell's online documentation is very helpful.
Red Hat Linux comes with three manuals - an installation guide, a getting started steer and a reference manual - everything of which are light to follow.
Despite being the most difficult product to install, UnixWare offers the best documentation. It comes with two manuals: a system handbook and a getting started guide. The system handbook is a reference for conducting the installation of the operating system. It does a marvelous job of reflecting this painful experience. The getting started steer is well-written and well-organized. It covers many of the tools needed to configure and maintain the operating system. SCO's online documentation looks nice and is light to follow.Wrapping up
The bottom line is that these NOSes tender a wide scope of characteristics and provide enterprise customers with a noteworthy deal of selection regarding how each can breathe used in any given corporate network.
If you want a good, universal purpose NOS that can deliver enterprise-class services with everything the bells and whistles imaginable, then Windows 2000 is the strongest contender. However, for tall performance, enterprise file and print services, their tests present that Novell leads the pack. If you're willing to pay a higher price for scalability and reliability, SCO UnixWare would breathe a safe bet. But if you necessity an inexpensive alternative that will give you bare-bones network services with decent performance, Red Hat Linux can certainly proper the bill.
The selection is yours.
Bass is the technical director and Robinson is a senior technical staff member at Centennial Networking Labs (CNL) at North Carolina status University in Raleigh. CNL focuses on performance, capacity and features of networking and server technologies and equipment.RELATED STORIES:
Debate will focus on Linux vs. LinuxJanuary 20, 2000Some Windows 2000 PCs will jump the gunJanuary 19, 2000IBM throws Linux lovefestJanuary 19, 2000Corel Linux will rush Windows appsJanuary 10, 2000Novell's eDirectory spans platformsNovember 16, 1999New NetWare embraces Web appsNovember 2, 1999Microsoft sets a date for Windows 2000October 28, 1999RELATED IDG.net STORIES:
Fusion's Forum: Square off with the vendors over who has the best NOS(Network World Fusion)How they did it: Details of the testing(Network World Fusion)Find out the tuning parameters(Network World Fusion)Download the Config files(Network World Fusion)The Shootout results(Network World Fusion)Fusion's NOS resources(Network World Fusion)With Windows 2000, NT grows up(Network World Fusion)Fireworks expected at NOS showdown(Network World Fusion)
Note: Pages will open in a fresh browser windowExternal sites are not endorsed by CNN Interactive. RELATED SITES:
Novell, Inc.Microsoft Corp.The Santa Cruz Operation, Inc. (SCO)Red Hat, Inc.
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