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Tariq Munshi,1,2 M Selim Asmer,1,2 Sarah Penfold,1,2 Jennifer Pikard,1,2 Dane Mauer-Vakil,1 Emma Banwell1
1School of medicine, Queen’s university, 2Department of Psychiatry, Queen’s institution, Kingston, ON, Canada
abstract: The actual health of people plagued by mental disease is conventional to subsist diminished in comparison to the intimate inhabitants, with worse fitness results and shortened lifestyles expectancy. This locations a fine affliction on fitness care programs everywhere. because of stigma and clinician attitudes, it can subsist problematic for physicians to interact with mentally unwell patients to screen for physical disease and do in favor physical health interventions. enticing with these patients during acute inpatient admission is an awesome time to identify any unavoidable issues that may well subsist the hub of attention of scientific attention. The Canadian govt mandates that each one patients admitted to medical institution acquire activities physical assessment as a Part of their care. Their view at aimed to implement a kindhearted to ebook physical screening for everything psychiatric sufferers admitted to an acute inpatient Psychiatric Unit in Kingston, ON, Canada; the sufferers underwent two cycles of scientific audit between 2014 and 2015 to measure completion of forms. besides the fact that children the completion expense decreased, the frequency of consultation with the hospitalist extended greatly between both cycles. There was no relationship create between patient age, psychiatric prognosis, and day of admission right through the week did not occupy an outcome on completion of actual fitness screening. extra education and advocacy is needed to subsist certain applicable screening of physical problems in patients admitted for psychiatric reasons. Future reports are mandatory to examine the effectiveness of these forms and whether or no longer they're positive in improving fitness outcomes in the long term.
keyword phrases: physical examination, audit, health kind
This toil is published and licensed with the aid of Dove medical Press restrained. the entire phrases of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/phrases.Hypertext Preprocessor and include the inventive Commons Attribution - Non commercial (unported, v3.0) License. through having access to the toil you hereby accept the phrases. Non-commercial uses of the toil are permitted with notany further permission from Dove scientific Press restricted, offered the toil is properly attributed. For permission for industrial exercise of this work, gratify see paragraphs four.2 and 5 of their terms.
Nothing strikes greater worry within the coronary heart of an internet publisher than these three letters: C-G-I. CGI (which stands for common gateway interface), is a mechanism for safely transporting information from a shopper (a browser) to a server. it is customarily used to switch statistics from an HTML form to the server.
regular kindhearted manage objects -- furthermore referred to as "widgets" -- encompass the following:
The criterion form feels relish this. notice I've supplied name= attributes for everything kindhearted controls, including the kindhearted itself:<kind identify="myform" action="" components="GET"> Enter whatever in the box: <BR> <enter classification="textual content" identify="inputbox" cost=""><P> <input class="button" name="button" cost="click on" onClick="testResults(this.form)"> </form>
The testResults function is criterion -- it purely copies the contents of the textual content box to a variable named TestVar. note how the text box contents become referenced. I defined the form object i wanted to invent exercise of (known as kind), the thing inside the kindhearted that i needed (referred to as inputbox), and the property of that object i needed (the value property).greater from JavaWorld
desire extra programming tutorials and news? rep the JavaWorld trade Java publication delivered to your inbox.surroundings a value in a kindhearted object
function writeText (kind) kind.inputbox.price = "Have a pleasant day!" </SCRIPT> </HEAD> <body> <form name="myform" motion="" formula="GET"> Enter anything in the box: <BR> <enter class="text" identify="inputbox" price=""><P> <enter category="button" name="button1" price="read" onClick="readText(this.form)"> <input category="button" identify="button2" price="Write" onClick="writeText(this.kind)"> </form> </physique> </HTML>
Radio buttons are used to allow the person to opt for one, and only one, merchandise from a gaggle of options. Radio buttons are always used in multiples; there is not any rational sustain in having just one radio button on a kind, as a result of once you click on it, you cannot unclick it. if you need an easy click/unclick option exercise a verify box instead (see beneath).
environment a radio button preference with HTML market is elementary. if you need the kindhearted to at the genesis seem with a given radio button chosen, add the CHECKED attribute to the HTML markup for that button:<enter classification="radio" identify="rad" value="rad_button1" CHECKED onClick=0>
As with the radio button object, add a CHECKED attribute to the HTML markup for that assess box you wish to subsist at first assess when the form is first loaded.<enter classification="checkbox" name="check1" price="0" CHECKED>Checkbox 1>
the exercise of text Areas
textual content areas are used for varied-line textual content entry. The default measurement of the textual content territory is 1 row by means of 20 characters. that you may alternate the dimension the usage of the COLS and ROWS attributes. here's a regular sample of a textual content enviornment with a text box forty characters extensive by means of 7 rows:<TEXTAREA name="myarea" COLS="forty" ROWS="7"> </TEXTAREA>
Remarks delivered at Silicon Valley IP forum 2019
Deputy Director of the U.S. Patent and Trademark workplace Laura Peter
April 10, 2019
Palo Alto, California
As organized for delivery
decent afternoon every person, and thank you, John Cabeca for your variety introduction. It’s a delight to subsist right here with everything of you these days to focus on highbrow property in a worldwide environment.
simply believe: a hundred and fifty years ago, earlier than the invention of the vehicle or the aircraft, it could occupy taken weeks to rep throughout the country, let alone worldwide. Now i will subsist able to hop on a plane and subsist in London for breakfast. just 50 years ago, earlier than the invention of the cell or the cyber web, i'd occupy had to mail a written note or exercise a landline to cognomen a person across the world. Now i will subsist able to send a tweet to hundreds of thousands of americans worldwide in precisely seconds. The evolution of technology has resulted in an increasingly global ambiance.
Chieko Asakawa’s innovations are helping to combine even more americans. In 1997, she invented the domestic page Reader, the primary functional voice browser to deliver advantageous internet entry for the blind and visually impaired desktop clients. lately named as a 2019 inductee into the countrywide Inventors corridor of reputation (NIHF), Dr. Asakawa holds over 20 patents, is an IBM exotic provider Professor within the Robotics Institute at Carnegie Mellon tuition, and is an IBM Fellow at IBM analysis.
youngsters visually impaired herself on the age of 14, she didn't let this avert her resourceful intellect. reasonably, she used this to her skills to capitalize her subsist aware the needs of a unique audience. in exactly five short years, her domestic web page Reader turned into widespread globally to aid americans “hear” the cyber web, what she calls “a modern second for the blind.” youngsters at the genesis developed in her endemic language of jap, its exercise turned into later elevated to consist of eleven additional languages.
at the moment, she is working on establishing a man-made intelligence-powered navigation equipment, called NavCog. This smartphone app will back the blind and different disabled populations in navigating the physical world. Dr. Asakawa believes the future of AI is that “cognitive counsel will increase…our 5 senses.” With the upward thrust of the web, and the assist of innovations similar to that of Dr. Asakawa, the world has develop into infinitely extra connected.
In nowadays’s world world, they should view intellectual property though a unique lens. As you comprehend, IP insurance manner differs everything over in line with every nation’s national laws. in keeping with a fresh report through the U.S. Chamber of Commerce’s world Innovation policy middle (GIPC), the U.S. is soundless the strongest highbrow property device in the world. primarily, the U.S. moved up this 12 months to tie for 2d state within the patent rights rankings, a movement up of 10 spots from the prior 12 months. The 2019 Chamber record mentioned their USPTO PTAB reforms as a first-rate basis for the superior rankings this yr.
however to ensure that us to sojourn international leaders in the economic system and innovation, they need to continue to help their IP system. They should proceed to stimulate and incentivize innovation. IP intensive industries employ over forty five million americans and hundreds of hundreds of thousands of individuals worldwide. highbrow property is primary to the U.S. economic climate, accounting for $6.6 trillion in the U.S., more than the nominal GDP of any other nation on this planet.
indeed, from the starting of their nation, intellectual property has been the engine behind the us’s economic and cultural development. Recognizing its significance, their Founders covered IP rights in the constitution itself. truly, in the carcass of the charter, notwithstanding the Amendments, the subsist aware “right” is mentioned simplest as soon as: it's in Article 1, section eight, Clause 8, granting the Congress energy “to advertise the progress of Science and efficacious Arts, through securing for restrained instances to Authors and Inventors the exclusive right to their respective Writings and Discoveries.”
Our Founders occupy been forward of their time to foresee how distinguished preserving highbrow property rights and stimulating innovation is to the growth and success of their nation. For this nation’s top of the line inventors, backed with the aid of their patent equipment, went on to trade the area. with a view to invent unavoidable that their nation remains on the forefront of technology, the USPTO need to at a minimal supply a legitimate and predictable prison framework to incentivize and present protection to innovation, inspire americans to innovate, and expand the opportunities for innovation.
To enlarge the reliability and predictability of U.S. patents, they occupy initiated a pair of changes on the USPTO in the past yr. particularly, they now occupy made adjustments with cherish to patent territory subsist counted eligibility below Part one zero one and court cases on the Patent visitation and Appeals Board (PTAB).
although the statutory language regarding patentable subject depend has remained just about unchanged due to the fact the 1790s, they everything comprehend that recent judicial choices occupy brought a level of uncertainty to the utility of the legislation. This has led to confusion for applicants, attorneys, and their examiners who wrestle with these issues each day.
The USPTO has been working tough to clarify patentable subject import under section a hundred and one—of direction, within their statutory authority and judicial precedent. As lots of you understand, over the terminal 12 months, we've issued information to examiners related to: the “conventionality” evaluation within the second step of the Mayo/Alice framework, “formula of medicine” claims, and most these days a revised framework for 101 subject import number eligibility analysis that synthesizes the legislation and streamlines the a hundred and one evaluation at the USPTO.
Our examiners occupy welcomed this new assistance on section a hundred and one. due to the fact the free up of the 2019 Revised Patent belt depend Eligibility counsel (“the 2019 PEG”) in January, they now occupy been diligently practising their employees. by using now, just about everything patent examiners and PTAB judges occupy received practicing. through initial accounts, it looks that this new suggestions has resulted in more clarity for examiners. as an example, from January thru December of 2018, on ordinary 14.3% of office movements in synthetic intelligence had been allowances. for the intuition that the training in January, the commonplace has expanded to 35.9%. Of path, they cannot directly attribute this improved allowance rate to the revised a hundred and one tips, in view that there are lots of components that Go into selecting allowability.
To capitalize maintain the public informed, the brand new information and linked materials are available on their site. They furthermore performed a Patent satisfactory Chat in January—that you would subsist able to determine the recording of this on-line as neatly. As they open to exercise this new suggestions in examination and at the PTAB, we're furthermore reviewing public feedback.
during the terminal yr, we've furthermore initiated a number of alterations at the PTAB. among other things, they up-to-date the visitation supervene e-book, they published two new criterion working strategies (SOP), they published a remaining rule changing the pretense construction unvarying in AIA trials on the PTAB to in shape the regular used with the aid of district courts and by means of the ITC, and only in the near past, they initiated a pretense amendment pilot application in AIA trials.
the primary SOP outlined the techniques the Board makes exercise of for assigning (or re-assigning) judges to circumstances and clarified that the PTAB will extend panels handiest in very limited instances. The 2nd SOP created a Precedential feeling Panel (POP), which governs precedential and informative decisions of the Board. This panel will assist to enlarge consistency on considerations of terrific significance to the company.
In March, they issued their first determination from a POP panel listening to regarding problem joinder and equal celebration joinder. They additionally lately exact five previous selections as precedential with admire to the themes of motions to amend, reside testimony, and submitting new facts; and unique three outdated decisions as informative with admire to the themes of applying the revised 101 assistance and the grounds for institution.
After reviewing the general public feedback, they recently posted a Federal Register word concerning a pilot program for action to amend commemorate before the PTAB. This pilot application applies to everything AIA visitation complaints instituted on or after March 15, 2019 and offers patent homeowners with two new alternate options. A patent proprietor may additionally elect to obtain introductory assistance from the Board on its motion to amend; and a patent proprietor might furthermore elect to file a revised motion to amend after receiving the PTAB’s introductory information (if requested). This pilot program is designed to invent unavoidable that do up supply lawsuits don't seem to subsist all-or-nothing.
For the general public, they additionally simply held a Patent pleasant Chat the day gone by and a Boardside Chat today on the new pilot software, the recordings of so that they can each subsist purchasable on-line soon. and finally on March 14, they appointed Scott Boalick as new chief resolve of PTAB and Jacqueline Bonilla as new deputy chief choose, positions through which they occupy got both been performing due to the fact that September 2018. Chief resolve Boalick and Deputy Chief resolve Bonilla occupy both been instrumental in helping to strengthen and do in favor these new PTAB reforms over the ultimate year.
As I actually occupy outlined, in this truly world environment, the USPTO can't operate in a bubble. somewhat, they ought to subsist utterly engaged with the foreign IP neighborhood. To that end, the USPTO participates in cooperative forums, reminiscent of IP5 for patents, TM5 for trademarks, and ID5 for industrial designs. These forums permit world IP leaders to meet automatically, argue IP policy considerations, and collaborate on international initiatives.
The IP5 includes the realm’s 5 greatest patent workplaces: the EPO (European Patent workplace), the JPO (Japan Patent office), KIPO (the Korean intellectual Property office), CNIPA (the national intellectual Property Administration of the individuals’s Republic of China), and the USPTO. collectively, these five places of toil account for greater than eighty% of patent functions filed international, in addition to 95% of everything PCT work. vital IP5 initiatives in order to assist promote international worksharing include classification harmonization, the multiplied Collaborative Search Pilot, and global file.
Classification harmonization is a partnership between the USPTO and the EPO to deliver an internationally compatible device to enhance patent looking. because of this initiative, the USPTO has now transformed from the U.S. Patent Classification tackle (USPC) to the Cooperative Patent Classification system (CPC).
additionally, USPTO’s world file, created in collaboration with the IP5, offers their examiners, and the general public, with free streamlined access to the prosecution histories of international counterpart functions in actual time, including English desktop-automated translations of chinese language, eastern, and Korean office actions. This enables examiners to more easily determine vital references and prior knack previous within the prosecution.
beneath the elevated Collaborative Search Pilot (CSP), the search effects of examiners on the USPTO are mixed with these from the Japan Patent workplace (JPO) and/or the Korean intellectual Property office (KIPO). Examiners in this pilot program will occupy the optimum prior knack in entrance of them from distinct overseas offices before issuing their first office action. everything of those cooperative efforts aid the USPTO in their mission to enlarge the search and examination of their purposes and supply a superior, reliable patent grant.
in a similar vogue on the trademark aspect, the USPTO is a member of the TM5, which contains the realm’s 5 greatest trademark places of work: the EUIPO (European Union highbrow Patent office), the JPO, KIPO, CNIPA, and the USPTO. Ongoing TM5 initiatives consist of efforts to reduce uncertain faith filings, promote attention of fraudulent solicitations (the state inner most events assume to subsist the USPTO and require suffuse of fees), and fight counterfeiting.
The USPTO has been diligently working to help the accuracy and integrity of the trademark register. in the U.S., the number of trademark registration purposes continues to climb drastically. Trademark functions elevated eight% in fiscal yr 2018, on exact of the remarkable 12% growth cost in fiscal year 2017. China filings accounted for 9.1% of total trademark filings ultimate yr and eight.3% of filings to date this year. although, concomitant tendencies execute disclose that chinese filing charges are starting to degree off.
To fight inaccurate or fraudulent claims of exercise and the upward thrust in fake specimens, they are piloting utility to aid investigate if a photograph has been digitally altered, and they are actively encouraging legal professionals to document suspicious specimens in pending purposes. with the intent to without hardship implement compliance with statutory and regulatory requirements for everything applicants, and capitalize their efforts to enrich the accuracy of the U.S. Trademark Register, they recently proposed a new U.S.-assistance rule.
On February 15, they posted a subsist aware of proposed rulemaking, which would require everything international domiciled trademark candidates and registrants to subsist represented via a U.S.-licensed legal professional in order to file trademark documents with the USPTO. the public remark period lately closed and we're presently reviewing the feedback amassed.
any other particular techniques during which the USPTO expands its global attain are through classes such because the China IP Roadshows and the USPTO IP attaché application. Their China IP Roadshows capitalize U.S. appropriate holders navigate the IP landscape in China. due to the fact that 2017, we've carried out over 20 of those free one-day classes around the country. issues include how to file patent and trademark functions and enforce resulting IP rights in China, and how to hold counterfeit goods from China out of the U.S. market. pick a view at their site for greater recommendation on the upcoming roadshow in L.A. in June.
Our IP attaché application locations individuals in U.S. embassies and consulates worldwide, together with China, India, and Ukraine. The role of an IP connecté is to promote U.S. executive IP coverage positions to the advantage of U.S. stakeholders. mainly, the attachés without detain are seeking for adjustments in guidelines, legal guidelines, and rules related to highbrow property; train host executive officers on IP matters to assist them tolerate in intellect the U.S. govt viewpoint; and habits public cognizance programs to build grass roots capitalize for U.S. coverage positions on IP.
one of their main priorities at the USPTO has been, and continues to be, to trade the dialogue surrounding intellectual property with a purpose to stimulate innovation. In nowadays’s enormously competitive global monetary system, it is more and more crucial to subsist certain that everything americans who are inclined to toil arduous and persevere occupy the option to innovate, delivery new groups, subsist triumphant in centered groups, and ultimately obtain the American Dream.
We must enlarge the scientists and engineers, the out-of-the-box thinkers and entrepreneurs, the inventors and visionaries. For they are the precise heroes in their society. They must hub of attention on the brilliance of their inventors, the delight of innovation, and the unbelievable merits anybody capitalize from these developments.
One truly inspiring illustration of this innovation is Kenton Lee and his nonprofit as a result of international, a 2018 winner of the USPTO Patents for Humanity awards. In 2007, Idaho endemic Kenton Lee, traveled halfway the world over to volunteer at an orphanage in Nairobi, Kenya. sooner or later as he changed into jogging down a dust route to church with the Little ones, he noticed the shoes of the 6-year-ancient Little girl in a white dress walking by his side. Her small feet barely well into her footwear; the exact of her footwear had been reduce open so her Little toes may stick out. In that second, Lee became impressed to create “The Shoe That Grows.”
Lee developed a distinct patented shoe design, which could develop five sizes and closing as much as five years. product of leather-based, compressed rubber, Velcro, and snaps, the footwear weigh below a pound and fold for transport, so you can meet 50 pair inside a daily-sized suitcase. Lee believes, “innovation is the key to fighting poverty.” Over two billion people undergo from soil-transmitted ailments and parasites, and over 300 million babies everything over the world don’t occupy any footwear. due to the fact 2009, as a result of foreign has disbursed over 180,000 footwear to youngsters in over ninety five countries.
Their mission is “to leverage innovation to invent issues better.” and i believe this should subsist their mission as smartly. Innovation has the capabilities to enhance their world in so many ways. So allow us to proceed to fulfill their constitutional mandate “to promote the progress of science and valuable arts.” let us toil collectively to uphold the U.S. highbrow property gadget because the strongest in the world.
thanks again for the chance to subsist with you nowadays. I welcome any questions you can furthermore have.
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Nominees Bring Decades of Management and Global Operating Experience, Including at Leading Healthcare Companies
CAMBRIDGE, Mass., April 29, 2019 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Biogen (BIIB) today announced the nomination of John R. Chiminski, William A. Hawkins and Jesus B. Mantas to stand for election to the company’s board of directors at its 2019 annual meeting of stockholders, scheduled for June 19, 2019.
Mr. Chiminski is Chair of the board and Chief Executive Officer of Catalent, Inc., a global provider of advanced delivery technologies and progress solutions for drugs, biologics and consumer health products. Mr. Hawkins is a Senior Advisor to EW Healthcare Partners, a life sciences private equity firm, and is the former Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of Medtronic, Inc., a global leader in medical technology. Mr. Mantas is the Managing partner and general Manager leading worldwide strategy, offerings, digital platforms, innovation and thought leadership for IBM Global trade Services, the $17 billion unit of IBM that helps global enterprises with their digital transformations.
“We occupy heard the calls from their shareholders and occupy acted by nominating John, Bill and Jesus to combine the Biogen Board at this distinguished time for their company,” said Stelios Papadopoulos, Ph.D., Biogen’s Chairman. “We are confident that each of them will provide valuable insights and expertise as they continue their toil discovering and developing innovative treatments for patients around the world everything the while dedicated to maximizing value on behalf of their shareholders over the long term.”
“I am excited by the nomination of John, Bill and Jesus and the additional fresh perspectives that they will bring to their Board. I view forward to working with them to optimize the allocation of Biogen’s cash flows for the capitalize of everything shareholders,” stated Alexander J. Denner, Ph.D., Chair of the Corporate Governance Committee. Dr. Denner continued, “Today’s announcement is a significant step in the board’s refreshment, and they will continue the process with a view toward further diversifying and enhancing the makeup of the board.”
“We are excited to broadcast the nomination of John, Bill and Jesus for election to Biogen’s Board. Their diverse backgrounds and sustain in scientific, medical, and digital innovation are highly complementary to their pioneering vision,” said Michel Vounatsos, Biogen’s Chief Executive Officer. “We believe they will add to the wealth of their existing expertise while furthermore bringing new perspectives to their Board as they continue to toil to maximize value for their shareholders and further their leadership in bringing breakthrough therapies to patients.”
Mr. Chiminski, Mr. Hawkins and Mr. Mantas are being nominated at the 2019 annual meeting of stockholders along with the existing 11 directors, who will stand for re-election. If everything nominees are elected, the board would expand to 14 directors, 13 of whom would subsist independent.
About John R. Chiminski
Mr. Chiminski has served as the Chief Executive Officer of Catalent, Inc., a global provider of advanced delivery technologies and progress solutions for drugs, biologics and consumer health products, since March 2009, as a director since February 2009 and as Chair of the board since October 2016. Prior to that, Mr. Chiminski spent more than 20 years at GE Healthcare in engineering, operations and various senior leadership roles. From 2007 to 2009 Mr. Chiminski was President and Chief Executive Officer of GE Medical Diagnostics, a global trade with sales of $1.9 billion. From 2005 to 2007 he served as Vice President and general Manager of GE Healthcare’s Global Magnetic Resonance trade and from 2001 to 2005 as Vice President and general Manager of Global Healthcare Services. Earlier at GE, he held a series of cross- functional leadership positions in both manufacturing and engineering, including a GE Medical Systems assignment in France.
Mr. Chiminski received a B.S. from Michigan state University and an M.S. from Purdue University, both in electrical engineering, as well as an M.S. in management from the Kellogg School of Management at Northwestern University.
About William A. Hawkins
Mr. Hawkins serves as a Senior Advisor to EW Healthcare Partners, a life sciences private equity firm. Mr. Hawkins is the former Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of Medtronic, Inc., a global leader in medical technology. He was at Medtronic from 2002 until 2011. After retiring from Medtronic, he served as President and Chief Executive Officer of Immucor, a private equity backed global leader in transfusion and transplant medicine from October 2011 to July 2015. From 1998 to 2001 Mr. Hawkins served as President and Chief Executive Officer of Novoste Corporation, an interventional cardiology company. Prior to that, Mr. Hawkins served in a variety of senior roles at American Home Products, a consumer, pharma and medical device company, Johnson & Johnson, a healthcare company, Guidant Corporation, a medical products company, and Eli Lilly and Company, a global pharmaceutical company.
Mr. Hawkins furthermore serves as a Director of Avanos Medical, Inc., a medical technology company, as Chairman of Bioventus, LLC and Chairman of 4 Tech and as a Director of Trice Medical, Inc., AsKBio; Virtue Labs, Cerius, Keratin Biosciences and Baebies, Inc., everything of which are medical products companies. Mr. Hawkins is Vice Chair of the Duke University Board of Trustees and is Chair of the Duke University Health System. Mr. Hawkins was elected as a member of the AIMBE College of Fellows and the National Academy of Engineering. He has a dual degree in electrical and biomedical engineering from Duke University and an M.B.A. from the University of Virginia’s Darden School of Business.
About Jesus B. Mantas
Mr. Mantas is the Managing partner and general Manager leading worldwide strategy, offerings, digital platforms, innovation and thought leadership for IBM Global trade Services, the $17 billion unit of IBM that helps global leading enterprises design, transform and operate their businesses with digital and cloud technologies. He furthermore serves on the board of IBM Services, the world largest technology services provider, and co-chairs the IBM Hispanic diversity council.
Prior to his current role, he led globally multiple units in IBM, including Cognitive Process Transformation, trade Consulting and Global Process Services. From 2010 to 2014 Mr. Mantas lived in Brazil and led IBM Global trade Services in Latin America. From 2006 through 2010 he was Vice President of IBM Enterprise Sector in North America. Prior to joining IBM, Mr. Mantas was a partner in the elevated Technology rehearse of PricewaterhouseCoopers Consulting and an officer in the Air favor of Spain.
Mr. Mantas serves in the World Economic Forum Global synthetic Intelligence Council and has been recognized as Top 25 Global Consulting Leader, Top 100 Hispanic IT Executive and magnificient Minds in STEM. He has degrees in telecommunications, software engineering and trade administration from the Polytechnic University of Madrid and has served as professor at the Paul Merage School of Business, University of California Irvine.
About BiogenAt Biogen, their mission is clear: they are pioneers in neuroscience. Biogen discovers, develops, and delivers worldwide innovative therapies for people alive with grave neurological and neurodegenerative diseases as well as related therapeutic adjacencies. One of the world’s first global biotechnology companies, Biogen was founded in 1978 by Charles Weissmann, Heinz Schaller, Kenneth Murray, and Nobel Prize winners Walter Gilbert and Phillip Sharp, and today has the leading portfolio of medicines to handle multiple sclerosis, has introduced the first and only approved treatment for spinal athletic atrophy, and is focused on advancing neuroscience research programs in MS and neuroimmunology, Alzheimer’s disease and dementia, movement disorders, neuromuscular disorders, acute neurology, neurocognitive disorders, pain, and ophthalmology. Biogen furthermore commercializes biosimilars of advanced biologics.
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Biogen’s 2019 annual meeting of stockholders. Stockholders will subsist able to obtain any proxy statement, any amendments or supplements to the proxy statement and other documents filed by Biogen with the SEC for no suffuse at the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov. Copies will furthermore subsist available at no suffuse at Biogen’s website at www.biogen.com.
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This syllabus responds to two current tendencies within the architectural profession: first, the increasing globalization of architectural rehearse and architectural education; second, the profession’s loss of ground to various specialized forms of expertise (largely within the domain of the technical).1 The proposed syllabus is therefore designed around two practical considerations:
1) When an architecture student travels as Part of studio coursework—whether to another country or simply another neighborhood—what academic training will capitalize her discriminate between, on the one hand, the modes of site interpretation required of her and, on the other hand, the prerogative to limn others with the outcome of denying those others’ their capacity to limn themselves?
2) What research tools and methodological approaches might capitalize architecture graduates avow a form of expertise that is distinct from aesthetic tinkering or, similarly, distinct from the expertise possessed by engineers and urban planners/developers?
These two questions lead us astray from a intimate itinerary of themes, debates, and texts whose canonization as “architectural theory” was largely the result of architects’ swirl to European philosophy and cultural criticism in the postwar years as a passage to legitimize their toil as a form of scholarship. Social-scientific interrogations of the urban occupy typically received scant treatment in architectural theory syllabi relative to the preponderance of texts coming from knack and cultural criticism, post-structuralist philosophy (or the latter’s translation into architectural discourse), and comparative literature, to instruct nothing of the self-promotional texts written by practicing architects and the smattering of humanities scholars whom architects occupy adopted in their own projects of self-promotion. The resulting curricular blind spots occupy impaired architects’ abilities to contribute intelligently to concomitant urban issues.
Rather than squarely confront this problem, many architecture schools occupy begun to reverberate with calls for the discipline’s re-enchantment, as if the discipline was not always-already a perpetual motion machine for re-enchantment (its bouts of malaise belonging as well to that cyclical mechanism). “Theory” has long played a crucial role in such re-enchantment (even the kindhearted of theory that purports the discontinuance of theory). Under the profession’s current paradigms of enchantment, architecture students are often asked to digest solipsistic paeans to technological sensuosity (for example) rather than being given a training that might capitalize them responsibly account the diverse spatial conditions implicated in their design studios. Such a training requires theory courses not only to cover a much broader geographical focus, but furthermore to expose students to how other disciplines occupy grappled with power imbalances as agents versus objects of research, and how they occupy approached issues of cross-cultural understanding.
This syllabus takes a step toward redressing the stark absence of attention in architecture curricula not only to companionable theory but furthermore to methodologies of companionable and spatial research. Although students are implicitly asked in their design studios to conduct research—e.g., to produce site studies as a matter of course—they generally set about this assignment without grave methodological or academic guidance. They are rarely given any textual introduction to the uses, methods, and pitfalls inhering to different forms of social-scientific, visual, historical, and spatial research. This syllabus therefore presents some basic concepts, methods, uses, and problematics of oral history, human interviews, cartography, and ethnographic observation. These issues are not of course strictly a matter of social-scientific literature; on the contrary, texts from the humanities capitalize students understand crucial issues related to representation and historical knowledge, which are relevant not only to design per se but to the crucial process of understanding the nuanced complexities of a given site.
Undoubtedly, this swirl to research methods and the companionable sciences lacks a unavoidable aesthetic allure relative to the seductions of many academic texts one finds at the intersection of cultural studies and architecture. Given the ways that aestheticized verbal discourse supports architecture’s complicity with capitalist development, the syllabus steers students away from regarding “theory” as a verbal aesthetic supplement to design practice. To inspirit students not to “use” texts so much as to parse their intentions and devices, students are asked to read and argue together and formulate answers to questions about the texts. Students with different solace levels in reading should subsist paired together to assist each other. Taking advantage of the purview of disciplinary, linguistic, and cultural backgrounds represented in the classroom, this exercise furthermore resists how “theory” has often functioned within the aggressively competitive culture of the architectural profession—essentially, as a appliance of intellectual one-upmanship. To challenge students without making them feel befuddled or intimidated by the authority of texts or teachers, the syllabus pedagogy stresses the value of struggling and helping each other with difficult readings more than the value of gleaning from texts and lectures what is now commonly referred to as “take-aways.” The surprising fact that so many students seem to not only await but even exact such “take-aways” is in itself sturdy evidence for their need to attend to the uses and abuses of theory for (architectural) life.Representation and Rhetoric, Session 1: Discourse
This interrogates the politics of lore and representation, asking how particular rhetorical devices capitalize inscribe human geopolitical relationships. Sandoval, drawing on Roland Barthes on Mythology, points to several rhetorical devices through which white maleness is constituted and conversely asks how language can subsist refashioned toward other ends. They can extrapolate from Said’s text several particular rhetorical devices that appear in Orientalist discourse including tautology, generalization, hyperbole, ventriloquism, and exact whether the visual and spatial can subsist similarly thought of in terms of possessing rhetorical devices. Relatedly, they will examine the exercise of the technological and territorial sublime in contexts of territorial conquest. They will exact where visual rhetoric appears in architectural discourse.
Readings∙ Edward Said, “The Scope of Orientalism,” in Orientalism (New York: Vintage, 1979).∙ Chela Sandoval, “The Rhetoric of Supremacism as Revealed by the Ethical Technology: Democratics,” in Methodology of the Oppressed (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2000).∙ Aijaz Ahmad, “Jameson’s Rhetoric of Otherness and the ‘National Allegory’,” companionable Text 17 (Autumn, 1987): 3–25.∙ Jacques Derrida, “Scribble (Writing-Power), Yale French Studies 58 (1979): 117–147.Representation and Rhetoric, Session 2: Ideology
Students are asked to account Althusser’s definition of ideology when reading several texts authored by members of early twentieth-century European avant-garde groups. The session provides students with a schematic historic background to Marxian concepts of ideology, including Gramsci’s contributions, and furthermore to the historic contexts surrounding the architectural manifestoes they are reading, including manifestoes for Italian Futurism and the Arbeitsrat für Kunst. They then fulfill close-readings of a number of manifestos and declamatory statements by the architectural avant-gardes of today, asking how ideology functions in these texts. They conclude by noting the wide scope of practices and institutions Althusser associates with ideology and asking what the limits of ideology might be.
Readings∙ Louis Althusser, "Ideology and Ideological state Apparatuses,” trans. Ben Brewster, Lenin and Philosophy and other Essays (New York: Monthly Review Press, 2001), 121–176.∙ Selected manifestoes from Ulrich Conrad, ed. Programs and Manifestoes on 20th-Century Architecture (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1975): “Futurist Architecture,” “Programme of the Staatliches Bauhaus in Weimar,” “Work Council for the Art,” and “The New Era.”∙ Antoni Gramsci, Selections from the Prison Notebooks, eds. Quintin Hoare and Geoffrey Nowell-Smith (New York: International Publishers, 1971).Representation and Rhetoric, Session 3: Medium
Building on their discussion of rhetoric and ideology from the preceding sessions, they will account how twentieth and twenty-first century electronic media capitalize produce forms of subjectivity, governmentality, and habit. They will argue how Marshall McLuhan’s dictum “the medium is the message” corresponds (or not) to the affective and libidinal powers of audio-visual media. Whereas Morris detects a disquieting power of “spirit” in televisual spectatorship, Stiegler calls for a renewed fostering of the spirit through technics. Connecting these issues to the media and aesthetics architectural production, they will view at images from architectural competition entries from the mid-twentieth century up through concomitant digital renderings, and they will exact what architects and architectural critics are referring to when they resound the convene for re-enchantment.
Readings∙ Rosalind C. Morris, “A leeway with a Voice: Mediation and Mediumship in Thailand’s Information Age,” in Media Worlds: Anthropology on New Terrain, ed. Faye D. Ginsburg, Lila Abu-Lughod, and Brian Larkin (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002).∙ Bernard Stiegler, “Against the Reign of Innocence: Investing in an enlarge in the Value of ‘Spirit’,” In The Re-Enchantment of the World: The Value of Spirit against Industrial Populism, trans. Trevor Arthur (London: Bloomsbury, 2014 ).∙ Mhoze Chikowero, “Is Propaganda Modernity? Press and Radio for ‘Africans’ in Zambia, Zimbabwe, and Malawi during World War II and its Aftermath,” in Modernization as Spectacle in Africa, eds. Peter Jason Bloom, Stephen Miescher, Takyiwaa Manuh (Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 2014).
Studio MAS, Walter Sisulu Square, Soweto, South Africa, 2002-2011. Source: Gauteng Tourism Authority.Tropes of Architectural Discourse, Session 4: Modernity
This session interrogates the essential ambiguity between modernity as an imperative and modernity as an aspiration in the mid-twentieth century. This begs the question of how the “Third World” was produced/represented vis-à-vis “modernity,” by what actors, and with what agendas. Then, looking at architectural proposals including the design of new postcolonial capitals, educational institutions, infrastructural projects, and political monuments in India, Nigeria, Kenya, and Tanzania, they will interrogate the role of international architectural expertise in postcolonial nation-building endeavors. Recalling Said’s emphasis on representation, they will exact what it means for a nation-state to self-represent within the framework of a presumed developmental lag. They will conclude with a view at the consequences of the Third-World debt crises in the 1980s and the effects of Structural Adjustment Programs on modes of urban development.
Readings∙ Jean Comaroff and John L. Comaroff, “Figuring Democracy: An Anthropological pick on African Political Modernities,” in Theory from the South (Boulder and London: Paradigm Publishers, 2012).∙ Gabrielle Hecht, “Radioactive Excess: Modernization as Spectacle and Betrayal in Postcolonial Gabon,” Modernization as Spectacle in Africa, eds. Peter Jason Bloom, Stephen Miescher and Takyiwaa Manuh (Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 2014).∙ Adil Hasan Khan, “Ghostly Visitations: ‘Questioning Heirs’ and the Tragic Tasks of Narrating Bandung Futures in Bandung, Global History, and International Law: faultfinding Pasts and Pending Futures, eds. Luis Eslava, Michael Fakhri, and Vasuki Nesiah (Cambridge, Melbourne, and Delhi: Cambridge University Press, 2017).∙ Ayala Levin, “Haile Selassie’s Imperial Modernity: Expatriate Architects and the Shaping of Addis Ababa,” Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians 75, no. 4 (December 2016): 447–468.Tropes of Architectural Discourse, Session 5: Nature
This session asks students to account the link between “nature” and the naturalization of various political, technical, and ecological conditions. For example, how execute racial logics and related modes of dispossession become naturalized? In reference to Smith’s text, they will argue Kant’s conception of the sublime and exact how the aesthetics of the sublime functioned vis-à-vis histories of geopolitical conquest. Turning to architecture, they will argue what falls under the domain of the “natural” within various architectural discourses, ranging from the biopolitics of urban planning to the “nature” of technological progress and the digital-organic. How has “nature” served as a stand-in for “the inevitable” related, inter alia, to the presumed imperative of globalization and its effects on urbanization and consumer culture?
Readings∙ Dipesh Chakrabarty, “The Climate of History: Four Theses,” faultfinding investigation 35, no. 2 (Winter 2009): 197–222.∙ Paula Chakravartty and Denise Ferreira da Silva, “Accumulation, Dispossession, and Debt: The Racial Logic of Global Capitalism,” American Quarterly 64, no. 3: Race, Empire, and the juncture of the Subprime (September 2012): 361–385.∙ Yates McKee, “Climate Refugees: Biopolitics, Aesethetics, and faultfinding Climate Change” Qui Parle 19, no. 2 (Summer 2011): 309–325.∙ Neil Smith, “The Production of Nature,” In Uneven Development: Nature, Capital, and the Production of Space (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1984).Tropes of Architectural Discourse, Session 6: The Human
The “human” has long been invoked in architectural discourses as a rationale for a host of different positions and undertakings: from the minimal standards of low-cost human sanctuary to phenomenological assumptions of congenital aesthetic proclivities. While the former presumes the universality of a biological human entity, the latter presupposes a transcendental form of subjectivity, allied to notions of human exceptionality vis-à-vis non-humans. This session traces a trajectory from the still-humanist strains of twentieth-century phenomenology to posthumanist perspectives on cyborgs, techno-futurity, and “re-enchantment,” with special attention to the mystical and ahistorical (or “transhistorical”) leanings of both humanist and posthumanist discourse. Interrogating the utopian and dystopian potentials ofenchantment, they will reflect on Charles Johnson’s notion of an inter-subjectivity based on non-language-based forms of empathy, and they will weigh this conception of an anti-hegemonic form of intersubjectivity against the forms of intersubjectivity orchestrated by nationalism and fascism.2 Accordingly, they will exact how architecture lends itself to the production (or illusion?) of different forms of inter-subjectivity, looking at various monumental architectures, including architectures imagined by Albert Speer and Giuseppe Terragni as well as memorials to slavery and genocide, including Daniel Libeskind’s Jewish Museum, Peter Eisenman’s Holocaust Memorial, and different iterations of the International African American Museum.
Readings∙ Donna Haraway, “A Cyborg Manifesto: Science, Technology, and Socialist-Feminism in the Late Twentieth Century,” in The Feminism and Visual Culture Reader, ed. Amelia Jones (London: Routledge, 2010): 475–496.∙ Jean-François Lyotard, “Discourse, figure” in Lyotard: Writing the Event, ed. and trans. Geoffrey Bennington (New York: Columbia University Press, 1988), 56-102.∙ Ashraf H. A. Rushdy. “The Phenomenology of the Allmuseri: Charles Johnson and the subject of the Narrative of Slavery,” African American Review 26, no. 3 (1992): 373–394.∙ Antoine Picon, “Anxious Landscapes: From the ruin to Rust,” trans. Karen Bates, Grey leeway 1 (Fall 2000): 79–81.Tropes of Architectural Discourse, Session 7: Politics
This session turns its attention to how informal architectures and economies might give climb to political processes that are distinct from an inherited bounteous European conception of democratic politics. They will argue how such political practices intimate a critique of received conceptions of biopolitics. As a point of comparison to Chatterjee’s and Diouf’s observations on politics and “informal” urban practices, they will examine institutions and ideologies of self-help in their multiple iterations including the recent expansion of slum upgrading, self-enumeration, micro-credit, and community land titling. They will exact how "the politics of the governed” that Chatterjee detects in auto-constructed settlements disagree from the forms of governmentality instated through self-help housing initiatives related to either the demolition or financialization of informal settlements and their economies. They will pay special attention to the gendering effects and presuppositions of self-help. The session should furthermore provide some background on the history of South African township planning and the Group Areas Act as a passage to understand Bremner’s perspective on the design proposals for license Square.
Readings∙ Lindsay Bremner, “Reframing Township Space: The Kliptown Project,” Public Culture 16, no. 3 (2004): 521–531.∙ Teresa Caldeira, Peripheral Urbanization: Autoconstruction, Transversal Logics, and Politics in Cities of the Global South,” Environment and Planning D: Society and Space 35, no. 1 (2017): 3–20.∙ Partha Chatterjee, “The Politics of the Governed,” in Politics of the Governed (New York: Columbia University Press, 2004).∙ Mamadou Diouf, “Urban Youth and Senegalese Politics: Dakar 1988-1994,” in Cities and Citizenship, ed. James Holston (Durham: Duke University Press, 1999).
Spatial Information Design Lab (Laura Kurgan, Eric Cadora, Davide Rienfurt, Sarah Williams), Million-Dollar Block, 2006, visualization.Producing Discourse, Session 8: Research
Students are asked to select two chapters from the following, bring in a short paragraph summarizing each text they read. Then, in smaller groups, they should participate their understandings of different methods, quandaries, and uses of research, and argue how these methods relate to the contexts they encounter in design projects. The instructor should provide a broad schematic history to the progress of various strains of social-scientific manner including early twentieth-century anthropology, the toil of Max Weber, the Chicago School, and quantitative methods of data analysis and data mining. They will view at examples of how these methods occupy been used by architects and planners.
Readings∙ Lynn Abrams, Oral History Theory (London: Routledge and Taylor & Francis Group, 2016).∙ Robyn Creagh and Sarah McGann, eds., Visual Spatial Enquiry: Diagrams and Metaphors for Architects and Spatial Thinkers (Abingdon: Routledge, 2019).∙ Fadwa El Guindi, Visual Anthropology: Essential manner and Theory (Walnut Creek: Alta Mira Press, 2004).∙ Mitchell Duneier and Philip Kasinitz, eds., The Urban Ethnography Reader (New York: Oxford University Press, 2014).∙ Henrietta L. Moore and Todd Sanders eds., Anthropology in Theory: issues in Epistemology (Hoboken: Wiley; 2014).∙ Elizabeth Campbell and Luke E. Lassiter, Doing Ethnography (Chichester and Malden: Wiley Blackwell, 2015).Producing Discourse, Session 9: Science
This session focuses firstly on how science has figured as a legitimizing discourse and rehearse within architecture and developmental politics and, secondly, on what practices and relationships undergird scientific lore as such. Students will subsist introduced to the model of Actor-Network Theory and its progress as a device of ethnographic and historical analysis, along with Latour’s emphasis on technologies of transcription. They then examine various examples of architecture’s swirl to the natural and companionable sciences in the mid- and late-twentieth-century, such as the Hochschüle für Gestaltung at Ulm, MIT’s and Harvard’s Joint hub for Urban Studies, and the disciplinary emergence of environmental design and environmental psychology in the United States. They conclude by asking what forms of scientificity are operative in the recent climb of “design thinking” (perhaps related to the logic of “open-ended planning”), and what it means for this new paradigm of “design” to chop across the domains of marketing, economics, high-tech industries, and engineering.
Readings∙ M. Ijlal Muzaffar, “Fuzzy Images: The Problem of Third World progress and the New Ethics of Open-Ended Planning at the MIT-Harvard Joint hub for Urban Studies,” in A Second Modernism: MIT, Architecture, and the ‘Techno-Social’ Moment, ed. Arindam Dutta (Cambridge: MIT Press, 2013).∙ Bruno Latour and Steve Woolgar, Laboratory Life: The Construction of Scientific Facts (Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1986 ).∙ Lorraine Daston and Peter Galison, “Representation to Presentation,” in Objectivity (Brooklyn: Zone Books, 2007).∙ Fabiola Lopez-Duran, “Picturing Evolution: Le Corbusier and the Remaking of Man,” In Eugenics in the Garden: Transatlantic Architecture and the Crafting of Modernity (Austin: University of Texas Press, 2018).Producing Discourse, Session 10: Travel
We will view portions from the film Lagos: Wide and near (Koolhaas, et al. 2005). The session should exercise supplementary historical material genesis with early- and mid-twentieth-century architectural excursions from Europe to Asia and Africa. They will exact how travel functions differently in the accounts given by Bartsch, Clifford, and Koolhaas. They then swirl to the progress of international expertise and current relationships between “local” and “international” architects. They will argue the role of travel in students’ own design studios—its purposes (explicit or otherwise), immediate effects, and long-term effects.
Readings∙ Katherine Bartsch, “Roots or Routes: Exploring a New Paradigm for Architectural Historiography through the toil of Geoffrey Bawa,” in Travel, Space, Architecture, ed. Miodrag Mitrasinovic (London: Routledge, 2016).∙ James Clifford, “On Ethnographic Surrealism,” Comparative Studies in Society and History 23, no. 4 (October 1981): 539–564.∙ Rem Koolhaas, Lagos: How it Works (Zürich: Lars Müller, 2007).∙ Miwon Kwon, “The Wrong Place,” knack Journal 59, no. 1 (2000): 32–43.Producing Discourse, Session 11: History (as Text and non-Text)
Beginning with Mbemebe’s observations about architecture’s complicity with the power of historical archives, this session asks what purpose lore of the past serves, through what devices and institutions such lore is secured, and what the potentials and limitations of historical research and writing are? The session begins with socialist labor movements in post-War Italy, showing how the conditions of the production of historiographic lore prompted scholars such as Portelli to swirl to oral-history interviews. They will argue Portelli’s views on the political significance of what is remembered even when memory does not accurately limn past events. Turning then to the limits of archival knowledge, they will discuss, in reference to Forensic Architecture, the consequence of empirical evidence of the past. Finally, they will view at how interviewing urban residents was used as a appliance by feminist architects attempting to resist relationships of patronage/patriarchy in architectural production.
Readings∙ Alessandro Portelli, “Memory and the Event,” in The Death of Luigi Trastulli and Other Stories (Albany: SUNY Press, 1991).∙ Achille Mbembe, “The Power of the Archive and Its Limits,” in Refiguring the Archive, eds. Carolyn Hamilton, et al. (Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Press, 2002).∙ Eyal Weizman, “What is Forensic Architecture?,” in Forensic Architecture: Violence at the Threshold of Detectability (New York: Zone Books, 2017).Producing Discourse, Session 12: Mapping
This session explores how the editing of the represented object—a process inherent to cartography—serves to bring things into legibility while, at the selfsame time, obscuring the obscurity that remains in the relationship between the object and the representation. They will argue issues of scale—at what point the map becomes a plan, and what is the difference—and the political and economic uses of maps as a source of evidence of the past and projections for the future. They will view at the exercise of cartography as a device of colonial conquest and urban planning and the comparative progress (and transformation) of architectural drawing conventions.
Readings∙ Karen Culcasi, “Multiscalar Nations: Cartography and Countercartography of the Egyptian Nation-State” in Decolonizing the Map: Cartography from Colony to Nation, ed. James R. Akerman (Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 2017).∙ Laura Kurgan, “Mapping Considered as a Matter of Theory and Practice,” in near Up from a Distance: Mapping, Technology, and Politics (New York: Zone Books, 2014).∙ Sarah Soliman and Erin Newell, “Exploring Mapping: Discussions with Swati Chattopadhyay and Derek Gregory,” disClosure: A Journal of companionable Theory 23 (2014): 120–130.
Theory's Curriculum, a project by e-flux Architecture and Joseph Bedford, is produced with the back of the Global Architectural History Teaching Collaborative; Virginia Tech hub for Excellence in Teaching and Learning, College of Architecture and Urban Studies, and School of Architecture + Design; School of Architecture, Syracuse University; John H. Daniels Faculty of Architecture, Landscape, and Design, University of Toronto; Department of Architecture, Wentworth Institute of Technology; and Department of Architecture, Iowa state University College of Design.
Ginger Nolan is an aide professor of architectural theory at the University of Southern California. She holds a PhD in architectural history from Columbia University, in affiliation with the Institute of Comparative Literature and Society. Her toil focuses on techno-aesthetics, media, and issues of race.
Alistair Cockburn considers the outcome of the physical environment, communication modalities used for jumping the inevitable communication gaps, the role of amicability and conflict, and subcultures on your Agile Software progress team.
This chapter is excerpted from Alistair Cockburn's book, Agile Software Development.This chapter is from the bespeak
This chapter considers the outcome of the physical environment, communication modalities used for jumping the inevitable communication gaps, the role of amicability and conflict, and subcultures on the team. These issues highlight the fact that projects need people to notice distinguished events and to subsist both willing and able to communicate to others what they notice.
"Convection Currents of Information" compares the movement of information to the dispersion of heat and gas. The comparison yields several useful associations: the energy cost of information transfer, osmotic communication, information radiators, and information drafts.
"Jumping Communication Gaps" examines people's efficiency in conveying ideas using warmer and cooler communication channels. It introduces the conception of adding "stickiness" to information and looks at how those two topics relate to transferring information across time.
"Teams as Communities" discusses amicability and conflict, the role of small team victories in team building, and the sorts of subcultures that evolve on a project. They will see that the differing cultural values are both useful to the organization and difficult for the team to deal with.
"Teams as Ecosystems" considers a software progress team as an ecosystem in which physical structures, roles, and individuals with unique personalities everything exert forces on each other. That each project produces its own, unique ecosystem makes the job of methodology design even more difficult.
Saying that software progress is a cooperative game of communication implies that a project's rate of progress is linked to how long it takes information to rep from one person's intellect to another's. If Kim knows something that Pat needs, the project's progress depends on
Let's see how much this costs a project.Delays and Lost-Opportunity Costs
A programmer these days costs a company about $2.10 per minute, and so adding one minute to getting a question answered adds $2.10 to the cost of the project. Standing up and walking to another table can add that minute.
Suppose that people who program in pairs exact and rep answers to 100 questions per week. Adding that minute's detain costs the project $210 per programmer per week. On a 12-person team, this is about $2,500 per week for the team, which adds up to $50,000 for a 20-week project.
The project gets delayed almost a complete week and costs an extra $50,000 for each minute of detain in getting questions answered, not assuming any other damage to the project for the questions taking longer to answer!
The detain is more on the order of five minutes if a person has to walk down the hall. If Kim is not there, it is likely that when Pat returns to his office, he has lost the train of thought he was working on and has to disburse more time and energy recovering it.
Even worse, the next time Pat has a question, he may resolve against walking upstairs, because Kim might not subsist there. For not asking the question, he makes an assumption. Some percentage of his assumptions will subsist wrong, and each wrong assumption results in Pat introducing an oversight into the program. Finding and fixing that oversight costs the project anything from multiple minutes to multiple days.
Thus, Pat's not asking his question and getting it answered represents a big lost- chance cost. Over the course of the project, the lost-opportunity cost is far greater than the cost of walking upstairs.
I hope you palpably feel the project's progress costs rising in the following six situations:
Kim and Pat pair-program on the selfsame workstation (Figure 3-1). Pat wonders a question out loud, and Kim answers. Or, Kim mentions the respond in passing as Part of their ongoing conversation, and Pat recognizes it as useful information. This takes Little toil by each person and takes the least time to accomplish.
Figure 3-1 Two people pair programming. (Photo courtesy of Evant Solutions Corporation)
Kim and Pat sit at divide workstations, but right next to each other (side-by-side programming). Using peripheral vision or the habitual chitchat that develops when sitting near together, Kim notices that Pat is looking for something on the Web and asks what the question is. Or, Pat simply asks. Kim answers, possibly without looking away from the screen. Not much work; not much time involved.
Kim and Pat toil on contrary sides of a room, facing away from each other (Figure 3-2). Kim is not likely to notice that Pat is looking for something, but Pat can easily see whether Kim is available to respond a question. At that point, Pat asks and Kim answers.
Kim and Pat sit in adjacent offices, separated by a wall. Kim can't see when Pat is looking for something, and Pat can't see if Kim is available. Pat must rep up, peek around the door frame to see if Kim is in, and then exact Kim the question.
Figure 3-2 Two people sitting at opposites sides of the room. (Photo courtesy of Thoughtworks, Inc.)
Kim and Pat sit on different floors or in adjacent buildings. Pat walks upstairs only to find that Kim is out! Now Pat has lost time, energy, the train of thought he was holding while he was working downstairs, and the motivation to walk upstairs the next time he has a question. The lost-opportunity cost starts to mount.
Kim and Pat sit in different cities, possibly with several time zones between them. In this setting, not only will they not exact each other questions as often, they furthermore will occupy to exercise less efficient, less loaded communication channels to argue the question and its answer. They expend more energy, over a longer period of time, to achieve the selfsame communication result.
The main question is, if you were funding this project, which working configuration would you relish Kim and Pat to use?
What they see is that even minor differences occupy an impact on the rate of information flow.
Figure 3-3 Pair programming and working across a partition. Between which pair of people will information discovery happen fastest? (Photo courtesy of Thoughtworks, Inc.)
Notice, in design 3-3, the two different situations occurring at the selfsame time. The two people on the left are pair programming. It may subsist nice for them to occupy a small separation from the person on the right. However, if it happened to subsist the two people across the partition who needed to toil together, the partition would soon become a problem. Indeed, I visited two people who were working across a partition, and it wasnÕt long before they removed the partition. As one of them explained, "I couldnÕt see his eyes."Erg-seconds
Comparing the tide of information with that of heat and gas is not as far-fetched as it may at first seem. With every speech act, Kim radiates both information and energy into the environment around her. That information or energy gets picked up by people within sight or hearing. Pat furthermore radiates, with every speech act.
In his case he radiates his need for information. Sooner or later, either Kim detects Pat's information need, or Pat detects that Kim has the information. Whichever passage the discovery goes, they then engage in conversation (or Pat reads Kim's document, if Kim's information is in written form).
In gas-dispersion problems, one analyzes the distance that molecules travel in a unavoidable amount of time. The unit of measure for molecules is moles and that for distance is meters; therefore, gas dispersion is measured in mole-meters/second (how many moles of the gas travel how far, in how much time).
We can dissect the movement of ideas—memes, to borrow an appropriate term from The Selfish Gene (Dawkins 1990)—using similar terms. They are interested in how many useful memes tide through the project team each minute.
A meter is not the rectify unit, though, because ideas travel through phone lines, e-mail notes, and documents, rather than through space.
What they care about is the amount of energy it takes to glide a meme from one intellect to another. The appropriate units are erg-seconds. An erg is a unit of toil (such as walking up the stairs), and a second is a unit of time (such as time spent on the telephone); therefore, the term erg-seconds captures the cost in both labor and time to rep a question answered.
(Bo Leuf comments that its inverse is furthermore useful: argh-minutes, a measure of the smart of expending energy and not managing to convey the idea.)
Figure 3-4 Energy and information affecting through a barrier complex.
Using this metaphor, let's view at office layouts to see the energy cost associated with detecting that someone else has some needed information.
Suppose that Kim and Pat sit in offices some distance from each other (Figure 3-4). The walls between them sustain Pat from seeing or hearing Kim. Kim radiates information as she walks around on her daily travels. The people in her leeway detect the greatest amount of information, and the people in earshot of her movement detect the next greatest amount. Information reaches Pat either as Kim walks into his office, or indirectly, through other people.
If their offices are next to each other, Kim is more likely to pop into Pat's office, or vice versa (Figure 3-5, top). Just as gas molecules or convected heat glide more easily between neighboring rooms, so furthermore does project information.
If Kim and Pat participate an office (Figure 3-5, middle), then just as Pat will aroma Kim's perfume sooner than anyone outside the office will, so will he notice if Kim radiates information that is useful to him.
Figure 3-5 Gas canisters (or people) in three different configurations.
The greatest rate of information movement occurs if they are sitting side by side. In the case of information, the information transmission is greater if they are working on the selfsame task, pair programming, than if they are merely sitting side by side, working on different tasks (this has more to execute with their focus of attention than the radiation).
Describing information transmission costs in erg-seconds captures the outcome of distance and communication modality on project costs.
Assume face-to-face communications, sitting in your own office, versus walking 50 meters to a colleague's office. Walking down the hall takes toil (ergs) and time (seconds). Energy and cost increase, and the information transfer rate decreases. glide people closer, to the office next door. As the distance decreases, toil required to visit the colleague decreases and so execute energy and project cost while the information transfer rate increases.
Similarly, describing an conception on the phone takes more time than describing it in person. In this case, the time factor increases, and so does cost to the project.
The erg-seconds formula accounts for these changes well.
Of course, the formula does not account for wasted energy, such as jumping up and down while talking on the phone or walking around the building the long passage in getting to a colleague's office. It furthermore does not guarantee that two people who toil in the selfsame leeway will ever actually understand each other. (See "The Impossibility of Communication" on page 8.) What it does instruct is that project costs enlarge in proportion to the time it takes for people to understand each other.Osmotic Communication
While writing, reading, typing, or talking, they pick up traces of the ongoing sounds around us, using some background listening mode even though they are not consciously paying attention.
If someone says something interesting, they may perk up and combine the conversation. Otherwise, the sound goes through some background processing, either just above or just below their conscious level.
In some cases, they register enough about the conversation to subsist able to develop what they need directly from memory. Otherwise, they may recall a phrase that was used or perhaps only that a particular person was discussing a particular topic. In any case, they register enough to exact about it.
This taking in of information without directly paying attention to it is relish the process of osmosis, in which one pith seeps from one system, through a separator, into another.
Osmotic communication further lowers the cost of conception transfer.
If Pat and Kim toil in the selfsame room, with Pat programming and Kim having a discussion, Pat may rep just enough information to know that Kim has talked about the idea. If multiple people are working in the selfsame room, then Pat knows that someone in the leeway has the answer.
We occupy seen three divide effects that office layout has on communication costs within a project:
The lost-opportunity cost of not asking questions
The overall cost of detecting and transferring information (erg-seconds)
The reduction in cost when people determine information in background sounds (osmotic communication)
The three magnify the effects of distance in office seating. People who sit near by each other capitalize in everything three effects; people who sit in divide locations suffer in everything three.
According to this theory, sponsors should believe twice before sponsoring a geographically distributed project.
One might believe that they now occupy an easy respond to the riddle of how to seat people: "Obviously, do them into open and shared workspaces." Unfortunately, people are not so uniform or simple that this will toil in everything cases.
Three more issues affect the respond in any one particular setting:
The team members exchange both trade and technical information.
Suppose that Chris is the trade expert in the group. If Chris, Pat, and Kim sit together, Chris can respond trade questions as soon as Pat or Kim encounters them. Chris might even see what Pat and Kim are doing and usher them in a different direction. The three of them can do their heads together at any instant to jointly invent something better than any one of them could do.
This sort of radical colocation (as it has recently been called) only works for very small teams. Among 12 programmers and four trade experts, who should sit near to whom? How does one organize seating with two-person rooms?
The most common seating arrangement I encounter consists of programmers sitting on one side of the building and trade experts on the other.
This seating arrangement produces two problems. The obvious one is the cost of trade communication, including the lost chance cost of missed early interventions.
The second is that each group forms its own community and usually complains about the other group. The chitchat in the osmotic communication is filled with these complaints, interfering with the faculty of people in each group to toil with each other in an amicable way.
As is natural with osmotic communication, this emotionally loaded background uproar soaks into each group's subconscious. In this case, it does not educate them but rather attacks their attitude. Going into a meeting with "those idiotic other people," they don't give complete consideration to what the other people instruct and don't present complete information when speaking. The group's amicability suffers, with everything the attendant costs just discussed.
My current preference is to find seating arrangements where one or more trade experts sit near to two or more programmers. Where this is not possible, I view for other trade and companionable mechanisms that will rep the trade expert in regular, meaningful collaboration with the programmers on a frequent (preferably daily) basis.
Cross-specialty teams that toil together occupy been recommended by many authors. These teams occupy been given names such as Holistic Diversity (Cockburn 1998), CASE teams (Hammer 1994), and Feature teams (McCarthy 1995). When this can subsist done, the project as a all moves faster, based on the enlarge in both information tide and amicability across specialties.
Another issue is the matter of people's personal preferences.
As I started asking people about working in shared rooms versus in private offices, several issues emerged.
Some people really value their quiet, private offices. They value them enough that they would feel offended if they had to give them up, some even to the point that they would quit the company. If that is the case, then any gain in communication is partially lost if the person stays, but feels offended, and is completely lost if the person leaves the company.
Thus, the pellucid academic argument for seating people near to the people they need to interact with is affected by personal preferences. Several people occupy told me, "I prefer having my own office, but considering everything the projects I've been on, I would occupy to instruct that I was never so productive as when I shared an office with my project mate." I occupy moved out of private offices so often that I eventually noticed it as a pattern. As I noticed other experts doing it, it became a project-management strategy, which I convene "Expert in Earshot" (Cockburn 2001a).
The third issue affecting the question of where to seat people concerns drafts.Drafts
One day, while I was describing this peculiar notion of convection currents of information flow, one of the listeners suddenly exclaimed, "But you occupy to watch out for drafts!"
He went on to accountfor that he had been working in a state where he and the other programmers had low-walled cubicles next to each other and so benefited from overhearing each other.
On the other side of their bank of cubicles sat the call-center people, who answered questions on the phone everything day. They furthermore benefited from overhearing each other. But, and here was the harmful part, the conversation of the call-center people would (in his words) "wash over the walls to the programmers' area." There was a "draft" of unwanted information coming from that area.
Drafts are the unwanted information in their newly extended metaphor.
Later, two programmers were talking about how their walls were too thin. They enjoyed their shared leeway but were bothered by their neighbors, who argued loudly with each other. Their leeway was drafty, in an information sense.
We now occupy a nice pair of forces to balance: They want to set up seating clusters that enlarge information tide among people sitting within hearing distance and poise that against draftiness—their overhearing information that is not helpful to them. You can develop a sense of this for yourself, as you walk around.Osmosis across Distances
Is there anything that teams can execute to help communication if they execute not sit together, for whatever reason?
Charles Herring, in Australia, describes applying technology to simulate "presence and awareness," a term used by a researcher in computer-supported collaborative toil (Herring 2001). Following is a paraphrased summary of their experience:
E-Presence and E-Awareness
The people sat in different parts of the selfsame building. They had microphones and Web cameras on their workstations and arranged small windows on their monitors, showing the picture from the other people's cameras.
They wanted to give each person a sensation that they were sitting in a group (ÒpresenceÓ) and an awareness of what the other people were everything doing.
Pat could just glance at Kim's image to resolve if Kim was in a state to subsist disturbed with a question. In that glance, he could detect if Kim was typing with magnificient concentration, working in a relaxed mode, talking to someone else, or gone.
Pat could then exact Kim a question, using the microphone or chat boxes they kept on their screens. They could even drop code fragments from their programming workspaces into the chat boxes.
They reported a low distraction rate. Charles added that while programming, he could easily respond to queries and even respond programming problems without losing his main train of thought on his own work.
Pavel Curtis and others at Xerox PARC were able to simulate "whispering" (when a user would relish to talk to just one person in a room) through video and audio. They furthermore had their online chat rooms produce background sounds as people entered or left (Curtis 1995).
Because memes (ideas) don't occupy to travel through air but travel through the senses, primarily audio and visual, they should subsist able to mimic the effects of convection currents of information using high-bandwidth technology. soundless missing from that technology, of course, are the tactile and kinesthetic cues that can subsist so distinguished to interpersonal communication.Information Radiators
An information radiator displays information in a state where passersby can see it. With information radiators, the passersby don't need to exact questions; the information simply hits them as they pass.
Two characteristics are key to a agreeable information radiator. The first is that the information changes over time. This makes it worth a person's while to view at the display. This characteristic explains why a status array makes for a useful information radiator and a array of the company's progress process does not.
The other characteristic is that it takes very Little energy to view the display. Size matters when it comes to information radiators—the bigger the better.
Hallways qualify very nicely as agreeable places for information radiators. Web pages don't. Accessing the Web page costs most people more pains than they are willing to expend, and so the information stays hidden. The following record contributed by Martin Fowler, at Thoughtworks, reports an exception: This team create that a particular report worked best on a Web page.
Automated Build Report
A program auto-builds the team's system every 15 minutes. After each build, it sends e-mail messages to each person whose test cases failed and posts the build statistics to a Web page.
The information about the system is updated every 15 minutes on the Web page. Martin reports that a growing number of programmers sustain that Web page up on their screen at everything times and periodically just hit the Refresh button to check the recent system build history.
Figure 3-6 Hall with information radiators. (Courtesy of Thoughtworks, Inc.)
Figure 3-7 Status array showing completion level and property of user stories being implemented. (Courtesy of Thoughtworks, Inc.)
The first information radiators I noticed were at Thoughtworks, while talking with Martin Fowler about Thoughtworks' application of XP to an unusually big (40-person) project (Figure 3-6 and design 3-7).
Martin was describing that the testing group had been worried about the state of the system.
To assuage the testers' concerns, the programmers placed this poster in the hallway (Figure 3-6) to demonstrate their progress.
The chart shows the state of the user stories being worked on in the iteration, with one Post-It note per story. The programmers moved the notes on the graph to demonstrate both the completeness and the implementation property of the user stories they were working on. They moved a note to the right as a record grew to completion and raised it higher on the poster as its property improved. A note might stop affecting to the right for a time while it moved up.
The testers could see the state of the system without pestering the programmers. In this case, they saw that the toil was further along than they thought and soon became less worried about the state of the project.
The best thing was that they could see the progress of the toil daily, without asking the programmers a question.
Just as a heating duct blows air into a hall-way or a heater radiates heat into a room, these posters radiate information into the hallway, onto people walking by. They are marvelous for passing along information quietly, with Little effort, and without disturbing the people whose status is being reported.
A second exercise of information radiators, suited for any project using increments of a month or less, is to demonstrate the toil breakdown and assignments for the next increment (Figure 3-8). The following sample furthermore comes from Thoughtworks.
Figure 3-8 big information radiator wall showing the iteration plan, one flipchart per user story. (Courtesy of Thoughtworks, Inc.)
Displaying toil Breakdown
The team created a flipchart for each user story. They do Post-It notes on the flipchart for the tasks they would need to execute for that story.
They would glide notes below a flipchart to demonstrate tasks being taken out of scope of the current iteration in order to meet the delivery schedule.
Figure 3-9 Detail of an XP assignment signup and status for one iteration (nicknamed "Mary Ann"). (Courtesy of Evant Solutions Corporation)
Evant's XP team furthermore used whiteboards and flipcharts as information radiators. design 3-9 shows the tasks for iteration "Mary Ann" (each iteration was nick-named for someone on the Gilligan's Island TV series).
A third exercise of flipcharts as information radiators is to demonstrate the results of the project's sporadic reflection workshop (Figure 3-10). During these one- to two-hour workshops, the team discusses what is going well for them and what they should execute differently for the next period. They write those on a flipchart and post it in a prominent state so that people are reminded about these thoughts as they work.
The wording in the posters matters. One XP team had posted "Things they did wrong terminal increment." Another had posted, "Things to toil on this increment." Imagine the inequity in the projects: The first one radiated guilt into the project leeway and was, not surprisingly, not referred to very much by the project team. The second one radiates promise. The people on the second team referred to their poster quite frequently when talking about their project.
Figure 3-10 Reflection workshop output. (Courtesy of Joshua Kerievsky, Industrial Logic, Inc.)
Periodic reflection workshops such as these are used in Crystal pellucid and XP projects.
A fourth exercise of information radiators is to demonstrate everyone the user stories delivered or in progress, the number of acceptance tests written and met, and so on. (Figure 3-11).
The systems operations team at eBucks.com constructed a fifth exercise of information radiators, this time to sustain the programmers from pestering them.
Displaying System Status
The programmers kept asking, "Is system A up? Is system B up? Is the link to the back discontinuance up?"
The maintenance team wrote the status of each system and link on the whiteboard outside their area. Each day, they updated the status. It looked rather relish a ski belt posting the status of lifts and runs (so skiers don't sustain asking the ski resort staff).
Figure 3-11 Graph showing growing completion. (Courtesy of Ron Jeffries)
Displaying toil Progress
The programmers were being asked about the status of their toil every hour or two, which caused them no discontinuance of frustration.
They wrote on the whiteboard outside their office their intentions for the current week. As they completed their tasks, carefully sized to subsist of the half-day to two-day variety, they marked the tasks complete.
After these boards had been tried by the programmers, several other groups started using them to broadcast their own priorities and progress.Applying the Theory of stinging Air
Gerald Weinberg discussed the damaging outcome of removing a soda machine from a computer help-desk belt (Weinberg 1998). Thomas Allen, of MIT's Sloan School of Management, discussed the outcome of building design on R&D organizations (Allen 1984). IBM and Hewlett-Packard occupy incorporated such research in their R&D buildings since the late 1970s.
As a result of these and others' work, it seems natural that research and progress groups occupy whiteboards in the hallways or near coffee machines. What they occupy forgotten, though, is the significance of actually being within sight and earshot of each other.
Here are several examples. The first is from a Crystal Orange project. The second is from a project unsuccessfully trying to apply Crystal Clear. Next comes a discussion of the "caves and common" leeway design recommended by XP. The final sample is a success record from Lockheed's Skunk Works group.
Repairing Design Discussions
On project "Winifred" (Cockburn 1998), the lead programmer announced at regular intervals that design was unnecessary and that code simply grew under his fingertips.
As a predictable result, the juvenile programmers working in the leeway with him furthermore felt it unnecessary to design. The code looked that way, too.
He eventually left and I took his place. To invert the situation, I arranged for us to design by having conversations at the whiteboard. After some period of doing this, I started getting questions like, "Could you view at the responsibilities (or communication patterns) of these objects?"
By setting an audible tone in the leeway and making these design discussions legitimate and valued, the programmers started to converse about design together.
Colocation is considered a faultfinding constituent in Crystal Clear, a light methodology for small teams. (See "Crystal Clear" on page 202.) A rule of Crystal pellucid is that the entire team must sit in the selfsame or adjacent rooms, in order to pick advantage of convection currents of information and osmotic communications.
"Pat" asked me to visit his Crystal pellucid project. When I arrived, he wasn't at his desk. The secretary said he was with his teammate.
I offered to Go to that office, but she said, "You can't. There is a combination lock in the hallway over to that section."
"!! . . . ?"
Each time a team member wanted to exact a question, he had to stand, walk across the hall, punch in the lock combination, and walk to the teammate's office. Clearly, this team was not getting the capitalize of osmotic communication or the low cost of information transfer. Fortunately, changing the team seating was a simple matter to arrange.Caves and Common
The "caves and common" leeway arrangement recommended in XP makes exercise of everything three information-exchange mechanisms. It is shown in action in design 3-12 and diagrammed in design 3-13.
"Caves and common" is very effective, but as Tom DeMarco correctly warns, it can easily subsist abused to become just a programming sweatshop. Therefore, not only the leeway layout is described in this section but furthermore the companionable presuppositions that escort its use: a sole project team, agreeable team dynamics, and provision for both private and project space.
The phrase caves and common refers to the creation of two zones in the room. The "common" belt is organized to maximize osmotic communication and information transfer. For this to invent sense, the people in the leeway must subsist working on the selfsame project. It is faultless for XP's sole team of up to 12 people programming in pairs (Figure 3-12).
Figure 3-12 The RoleModel Software team at work. (Photo courtesy RoleModel Software)
Figure 3-13 The "caves and common" leeway layout used at RoleModel Software. (Picture courtesy of RoleModel Software)
The ÒcavesÓ portion of the leeway is organized to give people a private state to execute e-mail, invent phone calls, and pick care of their need for separation. In RoleModel SoftwareÕs office, private workstations are set up along one wall (Figure 3-12). At Evant, a table came out from the walls on two sides of the room.
People who occupy worked in "caves and common" facilities instruct that there needs to subsist ample wall space for whiteboards and posted flipcharts, and two more types of rooms for the team to use: a food-preparation leeway and areas for small discussions to pick place.
You can see from the picture that while the "caves and common" leeway is very efficient for transmitting information, it is furthermore very efficient for transmitting coughs and colds. People who toil in this sort of leeway inspirit their colleagues to sojourn home if they don't feel well and to recur after they occupy recovered.
You can furthermore see that it is drafty (in an information sense): The people sitting in this configuration should really need to overhear each other.
Finally, you can see that it is very efficacious as long as the morale of the group is good. If the companionable chitchat degenerates into negative chatter, the highly osmotic communication again magnifies its effect.Skunk Works
It is useful to compare the above discussions against a group performing classical "engineering," one of the most efficacious aero-engineering groups: Lockheed's "skunk works" team. This team achieved fame for its rapid progress of a series of radical new airplane designs in the second half of the 20th century, under the guidance of Jim Kelly and his successor, Ben Rich. Ben loaded wrote about their experiences in the bespeak Skunk Works (1994).
Rich highlights that, among the rules of the group, Kelly insisted on people taking accountability for decisions from design through testing, and on their sitting near together. The following quotation is from that book:
Skunk Works Rooms
"Kelly kept those of us working on his airplane jammed together in one corner of their [building] . . . My three-man thermodynamics and propulsion group now shared space with the performance and stability-control people. Through a connecting door was the eight-man structures group. . . . Henry and I could occupy reached through the doorway and shaken hands.
". . . I was separated by a connecting doorway from the office of four structures guys, who configured the strength, loads, and weight of the airplane from introductory design sketches. . . . [T]he aerodynamics group in my office began talking through the open door to the structures bunch about calculations on the hub of pressures on the fuselage, when suddenly I got the conception of unhinging the door between us, laying the door between a pair of desks, tacking onto it a long sheet of paper, and having everything of us combine in designing the optimum final design. . . . It took us a day and a half. . . ."
"All that mattered to him was their proximity to the production floor: A stone's sling was too far away; he wanted us only steps away from the shop workers, to invent quick structural or parts changes or respond any of their questions."
Every project team should subsist on a quest to reduce the total energy cost of detecting and transferring needed ideas. That means noticing and improving the convection currents of information flow, getting the benefits of osmotic communication, watching for sources of drafts, and using information radiators. The discontinuance goal is to lower the erg-seconds required for team members to exchange information, whatever constraints their organization places on their seating, and with or without technology.
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