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Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of cadaver of workers, Gen. Martin E. Dempsey, in his Mission Command White Paper, dated April 3, 2012, says, "Mission command must be institutionalized and operationalized into complete elements of the joint force--our doctrine, their education, their practising and their manpower and personnel method." during this observation, Gen. Dempsey describes a tradition shift for mission command, and Forces Command (FORSCOM) is utterly embracing the shift throughout complete of its warfighting functions.
The sustainment mission command capability (SMCC) conception is FORSCOM's response to Gen. Dempsey's order. It creates a cohesive synergy amongst modular forces and objectives global combatant commander wants. SMCC allows sustainment operations from domestic station now not best to fulfill validated requirements but furthermore to augment readiness and enhance mission command.
A 2011 RAND watch at describes how, in 2003, the military tailored its formations according to current battle and rising challenges, leading to a significant shift in structure and how the military wages warfare. in complete probability essentially the most influential alternate concerned transitioning from a division-centric force right into a brigade-centric force--an plan that has become known as modularity. beneath this thought, key components and capabilities that as soon as resided inside divisions were made organic to brigade fight teams.
Modularity decreased the forms of combat brigades from 17 to a few (infantry, Stryker, and armor). The stream provided the army with a better number of smaller, very in a position drive programs, making it easier to maintain the protracted operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. combat assist and combat carrier lead devices and drive structure had been furthermore redesigned to build the entire force extra modular. (See determine 1.)
Opinions on modularity range; however, few would utter that it does not promote agility and responsiveness. unfortunately, each change is met with a supply and buy approach, and the identical qualities of modularity that promote agility and responsiveness can additionally occasions sustainment gaps.
Modularity, mixed with a combatant commander demand for smaller modular enablers, created the unintended final result of shifting routine relationships. It additionally created management, mentorship, and working towards oversight gaps throughout the sustainment group. The conclusion of operations in Iraq and the upcoming Afghanistan finale are atmosphere the stage for yet one other era of evolutionary sustainment alternate.
emerging OPERATIONAL environment
transferring from an operational environment of unconstrained substances to a more deliberate demand-primarily based ambiance necessitates an organizational shift to engaging in what concerns with much less and accentuates a necessity for own faith and solidarity of effort.
one more tricky dynamic of modularity involves supported-to-supporting command relation-ships. transferring from deliver aspect to distribution-based mostly operations prolonged the commander's operational achieve and features of communications. through modularity, brigade fight teams received a stout sustainment posture over property prior to now at echelons above brigade. Distribution and water belongings in the past residing normally aid battalion or corps assist battalion were placed ahead in the brigade lead battalion and forward serve companies.
because the army refines, adjusts, and adapts its formations to optimize readiness, they must determine their integrated sustainment strategy to maximise complete elements of logistics capability and skill. A cohesion of pains in a time of diminishing supplies is essential to resolving gaps.
FORSCOM's 2013 Expenditure discount counsel for Fiscal Uncertainty, coupled with the manager of cadaver of workers of the army's (CSA's) intent to carry strategic land vigour in an unclear world, compels commanders to spend accurately and augment practicing plans that align supplies with frequent readiness necessities. however, FORSCOM's favored conclusion condition continues to be the equal: deliver expert and equipped forces in serve of combatant commanders and the protection method.
The 2012 Vice Chief of personnel of the army crusade on Property Accountability (COPA) illustrated that the demands of warfare, modernization, and modularization introduced $200 billion charge of device to the military stock via speedy machine fielding, speedy fielding initiative, theater-offered device, and left-in the back of machine.
COPA addresses one of the vital "symptoms" of a couple of overwhelming readiness challenges. beneath are just a few ideas that COPA gives to remedy those symptoms:
• Invigorate a culture of stewardship.• rectify property statistics.• deliver troopers with the right edge and tools.• Standardize and streamline coverage.• Standardize processes for acquiring property and organising property facts.
MISSION COMMAND INTEGRATION
the key to sustainment solidarity of pains and reliance in this emerging operational ambiance is successful mission command integration. The purpose of every a success group or distinguished organization is to strike the rectify stability between centralized control and decentralized execution. under a solitary logistics mission command, aid administration is optimized throughout the effective and effective utility of leadership and authority.
Leaders in both Iraq and Afghanistan struggled with this at first, however they carried out constructive resource management once expeditionary sustainment commands (ESCs) arrived to combine distribution, sustainment formations, and world deliver chains. here's effortless to achieve in case you own regional responsibility. despite the fact, FORSCOM continental u.s. (CONUS) command relationships achieve not lend themselves to the mission command framework present in a deployed geographic combatant commander's vicinity.
LSOC AND SOC
In 2010, FORSCOM launched an up to date execute order (EXORD) about leveraging sustainment groups in CONUS (LSOC). This EXORD initiated an plan that stemmed from the two CONUS-based mostly ESCs. The LSOC thought turned into permitted on Sep. 8, 2010.
LSOC can provide the ESCs coordinating authority on and off their respective installations. through LSOC, the senior logistician provides point of view from instructions scholarly both on the battlefield and at domestic station. It become later determined that sustainment tips can be greater employed on an installation. That resolution resulted in the creation of the sustainment operations center (SOC) in April 2012.
whereas LSOC addresses the "paintings aspect" (sustainment coaching, educating, and mentoring) of sustainment, the SOC addresses the "science facet" (materiel administration and asset or personnel go-leveling). The SOC is an LSOC subcomponent and explanations no augment to the military and minimal infrastructure adjustments. FORSCOM's SOC targets, in partnership with different instructions (the army Materiel Command, setting up management Command, working towards and doctrine Command, and defense Logistics agency) are to:
• allow and raise senior commanders' working towards and readiness authorities.• supply centralized materiel management.• Leverage multiechelon sustainment capabilities.• Replicate operational sustainment during garrison employment.
because numerous boards, bureaus, facilities, cells, and working groups collaborate or synchronize champion to give a holistic sustainment response, it is gauge for the senior commander to own a unified sustainment view. FORSCOM more desirable the senior commanders' potential to mitigate sustainment gaps by leveraging latest installation logistics aid plans and constructing continuity of sustainment operations.
the longer term transition to army 2020, locally-aligned force necessities, the fielding of global fight assist gadget-army, the Afghanistan retrograde mission, and enabling military readiness complete require the consistent and consolidated visibility of senior commander sustainment services. greater importantly, they require a fusion of box- and sustainment-level partners to maximise effectiveness.
In December 2012, FORSCOM released an EXORD that extended the present SOC conception to the SMCC in an pains to align with army doctrine publication (ADP) 6-0, Mission Command, during which the commander is the primary determine.
in keeping with ADP 6-0, SMCC is guided by means of right here ideas:
• build cohesive groups via mutual own faith.• Create shared understanding.• give a transparent commander's intent.• pastime disciplined initiative.• utilize mission orders.• accept prudent possibility.
As outlined within the priorities of the CSA and FORSCOM commanding common, the SMCC concept capitalizes on box observations, insights, and training scholarly relating sustainment enabler integration, enhanced leader building, collective training, and readiness monitoring via synergy and collaboration. SMCC additionally capitalizes on relationships in addition to design and manner efficiencies so as to ensure team spirit of effort, own faith, and future logistics success.
one of the crucial FORSCOM commanding usual's priorities changed into to "increase communique--inside and external," and the SMCC achieves this goal through a consolidated sustainment community of capability. verbal exchange in the installing sustainment neighborhood should noiseless be through the senior commander's exact sustainment focal factor to synchronize sustainment operations. FORSCOM's focal point for execution is the sustainment brigade with oversight from the deputy commanding universal (help) and the LSOC-aligned ESC.
As stated in ADP 6-0, collaboration is required to establish human connections, build own faith, and create and preserve shared knowing and intention. Shared understanding and intent form the basis for cohesion of pains and trust.
The military practicing vision states that commanders should stability existing operational missions while simultaneously preparing forces to fullfil future requirements. FORSCOM captures this vision through the following goals:
• deliver centralized materiel management.• enable and raise senior commander working towards and readiness authorities.• Leverage multiechelon sustainment capabilities.• Replicate operational sustainment during garrison employment.
FORSCOM's SMCC embodies the concepts and ideas of Joint book three-0, Joint Operations, and ADP 6-0. in keeping with ADP 3-0, Unified Land Operations, SMCC is the commander's recreation of authority and route using mission orders to allow disciplined initiative in the commander's intent to empower agile and adaptive leaders. Key SMCC ideas encompass commander's intent, mission-classification orders, and decentralized execution.
FORSCOM's SMCC is the senior commander's mechanism to execute his aid mission. not always tied to a solid or structure, it holistically describes the skill to synchronize, coordinate, resource, and execute sustainment operations and practicing within the sustainment commander's span of impact. SMCC's enabling equipment, belongings, corporations, and personnel comprehend the following:
• The deputy commanding accepted (guide).• Mission lead element and mission aid command logistics officers.• The ESC.• The sustainment brigade.• Logisticians in brigades and lead battalions.• serve contraptions (together with scientific, finance, human substances, and signal).• Garrison help.
Strategic and operational enablers (the defense Logistics company, U.S. Transportation Command, army Materiel Command, working towards and doctrine Command, network commercial enterprise know-how Command, Intelligence and safety Command, and installing management Command).
below SMCC, FORSCOM ESCs will provide area support. The ESCs will supply sustainment achieve back capabilities to FORSCOM senior commanders and provide senior sustainment mentorship, practicing, and materiel management. The ESCs will additionally play a pivotal role in supporting senior commander domestically aligned forces necessities, and FORSCOM is reestablishing ESC CONUS relationships and roles.
one other SMCC key output is solidarity of pains via sustainment fusion. It ensures sustainment requirements are nested with operations, and it's gauge to command and staff integration. Sustainment fusion ensures continuous requirement assessment at every degree of command.
Aligned with ADP 6-0, the concepts of SMCC serve commanders and team of workers in balancing the paintings of command with the science of handle. SMCC is enabled by means of a device of personnel, networks, tips programs, procedures and strategies, facilities, and device. The desired conclusion condition contains settling on probably the most constructive skill for getting the supported commander what he wants, when he needs it, and where he needs it.
FORSCOM logisticians are aggressively working via SMCCs, producing more advantageous efficiencies and constructive outcomes in the army's supply chain. through constructing a network of networks that's collectively supporting, FORSCOM installing SMCCs are meeting the army's 2017 auditability point and condense discount through changing contracts with troop labor.
FORSCOM's SMCC assists commanders at complete tiers in organising and overseeing resource manage measures such as the administration evaluation file, commanders' exception document, and monthly materiel evaluate sessions (logistics readiness studies).
Working with close true-time records presents logisticians a sizable talents. The CSA's marching orders direct us to "instruct as they fight--make it useful and challenging," and FORSCOM's SMCC permits the sustainment formations to build utilize of each day synchronization as a training chance.
As stated in FORSCOM's 2013 Optimizing Readiness EXORD, they should adjust via improving efficiency and effectiveness. As budgets constrict, leaders will be introduced with intricate decisions. but they furthermore can own an unparalleled probability to procure rid of inefficiencies, enhance tactics, and focal point formations extra sharply on their missions. The problem is not chopping spending but optimizing readiness to ensure a tremendously competent drive.
FORSCOM's mission is to deliver informed, capable forces to meet combatant commander requirements. FORSCOM's SMCC leverages multiechelon box sustainment services, enabling FORSCOM senior commanders to deliver fitted and sustained forces so as to continue to be globally responsive and locally engaged. without question, SMCCs present a logistics evolution, provide the sustainment spine for the military's regionally aligned forces, and facilitate uncompromised readiness for the decisive motion drive.
________________________________________________________________________________________________Maj. Gen. Jack O'Connor is commander of the 21st Theater Sustainment Command. He has bachelor's degree in company administration, a grasp's degree in logistics management, and a master's diploma is strategic stories. he's a graduate of the Transportation Officer primary and superior courses, the Logistics government pile direction, the military Command and established personnel college, the militia group of workers faculty, and the military struggle college
Maj. Sean D. Smith works for the Forces Command G-4. He holds a bachelor's degree in psychology and a master's diploma in business.________________________________________________________________________________________________This article became posted within the July-September 2013 subject of military Sustainment journal.
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By Michele LernerMarch 15, 2018
Home buyers across the country are scrambling for properties, and real estate professionals are begging for more houses to be built to respond the lofty demand.
Under these conditions, you might suspect that developers would be more inclined to build a house even before a buyer has purchased it.
Indeed, some builders own increased their production of “speculative” or “spec” houses, which are fully or partially built without a purchase condense in place. Still, that’s not the case with others — the strategy around spec houses varies according to market conditions and builder preferences.
“A few years ago, it was too risky for builders to build spec houses, but right now, builders are extremely bullish on the housing market,” says Tim Costello, founder and chief executive of Builder Homesite Inc., the parent company of Builders Digital flavor and NewHomeSource.com, a builder-marketing commerce based in Austin. “They’re selling everything they can build and making lots of money, so their risk profile has changed.”
In different market cycles, spec homes — which are sometimes labeled “immediate delivery,” “move-in ready” or “immediate occupancy” houses — can be a tribulation on builders if they languish on the market, because they’ve paid to construct the house and continue to pay financing costs and utilities. When builders are enthusiastic to sell a spec house, buyers occasionally procure a bargain.
But in today’s smarting housing market, this is rarely the case, with most houses selling fast.
“Right now, we’re seeing most of the builders in their area pile houses as rapid as the lots are developed,” said Lind Goodman, a sales manager for BSI Builder Services, a division of the Allen Tate Co. in Charlotte. “Resale inventory is so low, and builders can’t build houses as rapid as they are selling, particularly at the lower-end prices.”
Why buyers purchase specs
Home buyers in a accelerate to coast are the most likely candidates for a spec house, but sometimes spec buyers are simply tired of competing for limited resale houses in their area.
“Buyers who choose spec houses today are usually doing this because of timing,” Goodman said. “Sometimes they are relocating and want to coast to their permanent home right away. Sometimes people withhold their house on the market, and it sells faster than they expected. They only want to coast once rather than depart into temporary housing while they wait for a house to be built.”
Although choosing personalized features is a delectation for many buyers of new construction, Goodman said: “Lots of people like not having to pick everything, and they’re satisfied to depart with the choices the builder has made for their house. They’re noiseless getting a new house, and typically it has the most accepted upgrades for that charge and neighborhood.”
Regina and Ted Solomon and their three children, ages 10, 13 and 15, recently moved into a spec house at Meadowbrook Farm in Leesburg that was built by Van Metre Homes. They opted for a spec house because of its lot and location within the community. The Solomons, who’d already lived in the area, looked at resale houses two years ago and hadn’t found anything they liked. This time, Regina Solomon found a house when they weren’t seriously looking.
“I popped into Meadowbrook Farm on a whim and was immediately attracted to the house, and especially the lot, which is next to a common area where the kids can play,” Regina Solomon said. “If the house hadn’t been ready, I might not own been as willing to build a quick decision.”
She said she saw the house on a Tuesday, brought her family and bought it the following Saturday.
“The house just matched everything they wanted,” she said. “They did a worthy job putting in the finishes I would own chosen anyway. I actually reflect they chose a higher property of items than I might own picked if I had to sit and choose everything with a charge list in front of me.”LEESBURG, VA - MARCH 13: The Solomon's clockwise from lower left, Regina, Ted, Brady, 13, Ella, 15, Luke, 10 and their dog, Cooper, fell in appreciate with the spec home immediately and would not own changed a thing as they pose on their front steps March 13, 2017 in Leesburg, VA. Van Metre has built several spec homes at the Meadowbrook development. (Katherine Frey/The Washington Post)
Why builders are for or against specs
Van Metre Homes, a Northern Virginia builder, has increased the number of spec houses it builds in response to the faultfinding need for houses in Loudoun and Fairfax counties, said Brian Davidson, group president for the firm’s new homes division in Broadlands, Va.
“Building more spec homes allows us to achieve people who would be looking at resales because they want to coast quickly rather than wait six months or longer for a home to be built,” Davidson said. “We particularly want to own houses ready for the sedulous spring housing market and the Fall housing market.”
About 37 percent of Van Metre’s sales last year were move-in ready houses, compared with 31 percent in 2016.
Data from the U.S. Census Bureau argue that about 35 percent of newly built homes sold in December were completed when they were purchased, an augment over the 33 percent sold in December 2016. However, the definition of a “spec house” varies.
“Some builders start homes by pouring the foundation and then build very slowly while waiting for a buyer,” Costello said. “A legal spec home is one that is built and can be moved into tomorrow.”
The National Association of Home Builders (NAHB) in Washington tracks “spec houses” as complete houses that are sold with the land and house, which includes homes under construction while under contract, as well as completed homes.
“The challenge for builders, even if they would like to build more spec homes, is that they puss what they convoke the ‘five L’s’: labor, lots, lending, lumber and local regulations,” said Robert Dietz, the NAHB’s chief economist. “Labor costs are higher, and it can be harder to find enough skilled laborers. In addition, buildable lots are expensive, lending is tight, and lumber prices were up 30 percent in 2017 compared to 2016. Local regulatory costs for things like permits rose 29 percent between 2011 and 2016.”
Not complete builders construct spec houses, Costello said, although some choose to achieve so for efficiency and to retain their crews working consistently.
“Some builders try to retain two or three spec houses available at complete times to compete against the resale market,” Costello said. “Builders that proffer customization build spec houses that can be personalized with the final finishes and then delivered in 60 days, as opposed to the six months that pile a new home usually requires.”
Costello said a few builders, such as D.R. Horton Express, LGI Homes and Goodall Homes, consistently build spec houses as a commerce model.
“We try to start the identical number of houses every week so they can communicate accurately to their customers when each house will be finished,” said Chris O’Neal, chief sales officer of Goodall Homes, which builds homes in the high-demand markets of Nashville and Knoxville, Tenn. “This even-flow process lets their trade partners and employees know that they will always own consistent toil with us. That’s one judgement they own been successful even in a tough labor market. They pay them weekly throughout the year.”
Finding enough lots to build on, particularly in Nashville, is the biggest challenge Goodall Homes faces, O’Neal said.
“We built spec houses right away in Knoxville when they expanded there, so they could argue people the property of their toil in a market where they were unknown,” O’Neal said.
Goodall Homes builds spec houses for first-time buyers and move-up buyers, ranging from 1,500 to 4,000 square feet and priced from $250,000 to $500,000, O’Neal said.
Pulte Group, a national builder of brands including Pulte, Centex and Del Webb, typically builds about one spec house in each community, said Macey Kessler, spokeswoman for Pulte Group. Kessler said that in the fourth quarter of 2017, Pulte sold 637 finished spec homes in their 790 communities.
During Pulte Group’s most recent earnings call, Ryan Marshall, Pulte Group’s president and chief executive, said: “We’re not fearful to utilize spec. We’re using it in a route that I reflect smooths out their production pipeline. Beyond that, their view is their profitability on build-to-order units is quite a bit higher, and they eradicate the risk of potentially having a unit that we’ve got to hold on to and discount to sell or pay the carrying costs associated with carrying a finished house. So, it’s complete worked into their model of driving the highest returns possible.”
Van Metre plans to continue to build spec houses at most of its communities, although Davidson said they will build fewer in communities where prices are in the $1 million and higher range. Not only are the costs to build those houses higher, but buyers in that charge purview attend to want to be able to customize their house.
“About 25 percent of their customers want immediate-delivery homes so they can coast within 30 days,” Davidson said. “If they don’t own a house ready, they’ll buy a resale property.”
Although some spec houses are 100 percent complete, others proffer a few options for personalization.
“We try to hold off on some finishes, such as the cabinets, flooring and appliances, as long as possible on their spec homes, but it can buy four to six weeks for materials to arrive, so sometimes they need to finish a house before it’s purchased,” Davidson said. “But if buyers want something specific, like a porch or a deck, they can bring in their design-build division and remodel the house before they coast in.”
Today, spec houses comprehend more of the most desirable features rather than just the basics they did in the past, Goodman said, such as hardwood flooring on the first floor, stainless-steel appliances and tile flooring in the bathrooms.
“Builders elope a report to espy what the pre-construction buyers are choosing in each neighborhood,” Goodman said. “In one neighborhood, they withhold in a few too many upgrades, and those houses sat a slight longer than they wanted, so for the next spec houses, they backed off a slight on the options to build sure they met the charge expectations of buyers.”
Builders need to foretell what buyers want and how much they will spend on a spec house, rather than setting the basis charge and letting buyers choose how much they want to augment their budget with various levels of options.
“We toil with their design team and design center to choose finishes and fixtures that are the most common choices of buyers,” O’Neal said. “Not only does that intend the house is more likely to be accepted now, but that furthermore means the odds are better that the buyers will be able to sell that house more easily in the future.”
For buyers frustrated by a want of inventory or in a accelerate to coast before the school year starts, a new job begins or because they own sold their current home, a spec house can meet their needs. Buyers won’t find a bargain, but they could find a region that matches their flavor and is move-in ready.
Until recently, demand-driven replenishment was only available to SAP S/4HANA customers using at least on-premise release 1709 or cloud release 1708. Now, thanks to supply chain management (SCM) consulting solutions from SAP, this functionality has been extended to companies that are noiseless using SAP ERP or older versions of SAP S/4HANA. But this is not the only capitalize they deliver.
Many planners are used to working with multilevel (indented) bills of materials that list how raw materials are used to manufacture semi-finished products and the various finishing steps required to complete a customer’s order. Some bills of materials even depart further and comprehend levels of distribution. The journey from raw materials to desist product is strewn with pitfalls.
On the plus side, traditional material requirements planning (MRP) has become more sophisticated, and more tools own been developed to meet the growing complexity of large-scale requests coming from a diverse customer base, including forecast functions, lot size planning, safety stock, and range-of-coverage profiles.Configuring MRP Processes is Too Complex
The growing number of tools on proffer is increasing complexity. Implementing a consistent, multi-level planning concept that can be repeatedly adjusted to reflect current circumstances is becoming more difficult. And then there’s the bullwhip effect, where even the smallest fluctuation in product demand can amplify across complete levels of traditional supply chain planning, such as lot-size planning. This puts planners in a difficult position when purchasing materials, because they own to buy these large fluctuations into account, even if they are buying materials for products such as toothpaste – for which demand is relatively constant.
“It often makes sense to retain unavoidable products in stock to ensure you are agile enough to react to a given situation. But you own to map your inventory systematically,” explains Ferenc Gulyássy, a consultant for SCM consulting solutions. The respond to this challenge is a hybrid of traditional plan-driven and demand-oriented material planning, demand-driven replenishment (DDR).
This approach allows planners “to maintain a realistic inventory buffer to protect against uncertainty,” says Gulyássy.Even users of SAP ERP can implement demand-driven replenishment. “Decoupling” the Supply Chain Brings Flexibility
Demand-driven replenishment is not based on complex, speculative statistical calculations that involve planners trying their best to predict, say, how likely it is that the 100 products ordered can actually be delivered. The approach is much more pragmatic and, according to Gulyássy, “intuitive and consistent.” The supply chain is “decoupled”, significance that the planner must “only” monitor parts of the production process instead of the entire thing.
So-called “decoupling points” in the supply chain, Gulyássy explains, are strategic positions at which inventory buffers are maintained. This reduces the focus on forecasting product demand and means that typically error-prone forecasts no longer pose a problem.
Demand-driven replenishment enables planners to align complete levels of the supply chain process, no matter how complex.SAP ERP: Five Principal Functions Explained
Gulyássy is convinced that “planning according to demand puts you at an advantage.” At present, only those companies that are already using release 1709 of the on-premise version of SAP S/4HANA or release 1708 of the cloud version can utilize demand-driven replenishment approach. They just need to buy a license and they can then access a purview of innovative SAP Fiori-based functions.
With the latest (2018) release of SCM consulting solutions, customers that utilize SAP ERP version ECC 6.0 and higher can furthermore capitalize from demand-driven replenishment planning. Various SAP add-ons enable them to achieve this — the MRP monitor, the replenishment lead time monitor, and the safety stock simulation, customized MRP type, and advanced MD04 tools:
This selection of basic demand-driven replenishment functions shows, first and foremost, that the DDR approach makes supply chain planning more resilient and intuitive for the planner. But there is another inequity between the add-ons and the DDR functionality in SAP S/4HANA that may interest planners who own been working with the traditional SAP GUI for years.
If you opt for the SCM consulting solutions, you achieve not own to switch to the new role-oriented SAP Fiori interface straight away, but can continue using “your” SAP GUI until you own gotten used to SAP Fiori. And, equally as important: If a company decides in three years’ time to upgrade from SAP ERP to SAP S/4HANA (on-premise), for example, a migration service is available. “This service allows companies to build a seamless transition to the SAP S/4HANA functions later on,” explains Gulyássy.
In this case, the demand-driven replenishment functions offered by SAP SCM Consulting Solutions can noiseless be used, as can, for example, SAP GUI transactions. Gulyássy: “SAP GUI and SAP Fiori values are saved in the identical database tables – they’re just displayed differently in the interfaces.”
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